Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Pharmacokinetics of Benznidazole in the Treatment of Chagas Disease.
ABSTRACT: Chagas disease is a neglected parasitic illness affecting approximately 8 million people, predominantly in Latin America. Benznidazole is the drug of choice for treatment, although its availability has been limited. A paucity of knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of this drug has contributed to its limited availability in several jurisdictions. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review and a Bayesian meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies to improve estimates of the basic pharmacokinetic properties of benznidazole. A systematic search of the Embase, Medline, LILACS, and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) databases was conducted. Eligible studies reported patient-level data from single-100-mg-dose pharmacokinetic evaluations of benznidazole in adults or otherwise provided data relevant to the estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters which could be derived from such studies. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used for analysis. Secondary data (i.e., data from studies that did not include patient-level, single-100-mg-dose data) were used for the generation of empirical priors for the Bayesian analysis. The systematic search identified nine studies for inclusion. Nine pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated, including the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), the maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax), the time to Cmax, the elimination rate constant (kel), the absorption rate constant (Ka), the absorption and elimination half-lives, the apparent oral clearance, and the apparent oral volume of distribution. The results showed consistency across studies. AUC and Cmax were 51.31 mg · h/liter (95% credible interval [CrI], 45.01, 60.28 mg · h/liter) and 2.19 mg/liter (95% CrI, 2.06, 2.33 mg/liter), respectively. Ka and kel were 1.16 h-1 (95% CrI, 0.59, 1.76 h-1) and 0.052 h-1 (95% CrI, 0.045, 0.059 h-1), respectively, with the corresponding absorption and elimination half-lives being 0.60 h (95% CrI, 0.38, 1.11 h) and 13.27 h (95% CrI, 11.79, 15.42 h), respectively. The oral clearance and volume of distribution were 2.04 liters/h (95% CrI, 1.77, 2.32 liters/h) and 39.19 liters (95% CrI, 36.58, 42.17 liters), respectively. A Bayesian meta-analysis was used to improve the estimates of the standard pharmacokinetic parameters of benznidazole. These data can inform clinicians and policy makers as access to this drug increases.
Project description:Echinocandins, such as anidulafungin, are the first-line treatment for candidemia or invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. There are conflicting data on the pharmacokinetic properties of anidulafungin in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Adult ICU patients (from 3 hospitals) receiving anidulafungin for suspected or proven fungal infections were included in the present study. Patients were considered evaluable if a pharmacokinetic curve for day 3 could be completed. Twenty-three of 36 patients (7 female and 16 male) were evaluable. The median (range) age and body weight were 66 (28 to 88) years and 76 (50 to 115) kg, respectively. Pharmacokinetic sampling on day 3 (n = 23) resulted in a median anidulafungin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) of 72.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 61.3 to 94.0) mg · h · liter-1, a median daily trough concentration (C24) of 2.2 (IQR, 1.9 to 2.9) mg/liter, a median maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 5.3 (IQR, 4.1 to 6.0) mg/liter, a median volume of distribution (V) of 46.0 (IQR, 32.2 to 60.2) liters, and a median clearance (CL) of 1.4 (IQR, 1.1 to 1.6) liters · h-1 Pharmacokinetic sampling on day 7 (n = 13) resulted in a median AUC0-24 of 82.7 (IQR, 73.0 to 129.5) mg · h · liter-1, a median minimum concentration of drug in serum (Cmin) of 2.8 (IQR, 2.2 to 4.2) mg/liter, a median Cmax of 5.9 (IQR, 4.6 to 8.0) mg/liter, a median V of 39.7 (IQR, 32.2 to 54.4) liters, and a median CL of 1.2 (IQR, 0.8 to 1.4) liters · h-1 The geometric mean ratio for the AUCday7/AUCday3 term was 1.13 (90% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.25). The exposure in the ICU patient population was in accordance with previous reports on anidulafungin pharmacokinetics in ICU patients but was lower than that for healthy volunteers or other patient populations. Larger cohorts of patients or pooled data analyses are necessary to retrieve relevant covariates. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01438216.).
Project description:Despite its toxicity and low efficacy in the chronic phase, benznidazole is the drug of choice in Chagas disease. Scarce information about pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of benznidazole has been published. We performed a phase I, open-label, nonrandomized pharmacokinetic study of benznidazole (Abarax) conducted with 8 healthy adult volunteers at the Infectious Diseases Department of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). The separation and detection of benznidazole were performed on a Waters Acquity ultraperformance liquid chromatography system (UPLC) coupled with a Waters Xevo TQ MS triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on a noncompartmental body model using Phoenix WinNonlin version 6.3 software. Furthermore, computational simulations were calculated for the multiple-dose administration at two dose regimens: 100 mg of benznidazole administered every 8 h and 150 mg of benznidazole administered every 12 h. After benznidazole administration, the median area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to time t (AUC0-t ) and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) were about 46.4 μg · h/ml and 48.4 μg · h/ml, respectively. Plasma benznidazole concentrations peaked at 3.5 h, with maximal concentrations of 2.2 μg/ml, and benznidazole exhibited a terminal half-life of 12.1 h. The median maximum concentration (Cmax) of benznidazole was lower in men than in women (1.6 versus 2.9 μg/ml), and median volume of distribution (V) as a function of bioavailability (F) was higher in men than in women (125.9 versus 88.6 liters). In conclusion, dose regimens (150 mg/12 h or 100 mg/8 h) reached a steady-state range concentration above of the minimum experimental therapeutic dose. Sex differences in the benznidazole pharmacokinetics were observed; mainly, men had lower Cmax and higher V/F than women.
Project description:Trough gentamicin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is time-consuming, disruptive to neonatal clinical care, and a patient safety issue. Bayesian models could allow TDM to be performed opportunistically at the time of routine blood tests. This study aimed to develop and prospectively evaluate a new gentamicin model and a novel Bayesian computer tool (neoGent) for TDM use in neonatal intensive care. We also evaluated model performance for predicting peak concentrations and the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 h to time t h (AUC0- t). A pharmacokinetic meta-analysis was performed on pooled data from three studies (1,325 concentrations from 205 patients). A 3-compartment model was used with the following covariates: allometric weight scaling, postmenstrual and postnatal age, and serum creatinine concentration. Final parameter estimates (standard errors) were as follows: clearance, 6.2 (0.3) liters/h/70 kg of body weight; central volume (V), 26.5 (0.6) liters/70 kg; intercompartmental disposition (Q), 2.2 (0.3) liters/h/70 kg; peripheral volume V2, 21.2 (1.5) liters/70 kg; intercompartmental disposition (Q2), 0.3 (0.05) liters/h/70 kg; peripheral volume V3, 148 (52.0) liters/70 kg. The model's ability to predict trough concentrations from an opportunistic sample was evaluated in a prospective observational cohort study that included data from 163 patients and 483 concentrations collected in five hospitals. Unbiased trough predictions were obtained; the median (95% confidence interval [CI]) prediction error was 0.0004 (-1.07, 0.84) mg/liter. Results also showed that peaks and AUC0- t values could be predicted (from one randomly selected sample) with little bias but relative imprecision, with median (95% CI) prediction errors being 0.16 (-4.76, 5.01) mg/liter and 10.8 (-24.9, 62.2) mg · h/liter, respectively. neoGent was implemented in R/NONMEM and in the freely available TDMx software.
Project description:Ganciclovir is an antiviral agent that is frequently used in critically ill patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) is a common extracorporeal renal replacement therapy in intensive care unit patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir in anuric patients undergoing CVVHDF. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed for nine critically ill patients with proven or suspected CMV infection who were undergoing CVVHDF. All patients received a single dose of ganciclovir at 5 mg/kg of body weight intravenously. Serum and ultradiafiltrate concentrations were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and these data were used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Mean peak and trough prefilter ganciclovir concentrations were 11.8 ± 3.5 mg/liter and 2.4 ± 0.7 mg/liter, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters elimination half-life (24.2 ± 7.6 h), volume of distribution (81.2 ± 38.3 liters), sieving coefficient (0.76 ± 0.1), total clearance (2.7 ± 1.2 liters/h), and clearance of CVVHDF (1.5 ± 0.2 liters/h) were determined. Based on population pharmacokinetic simulations with respect to a target area under the curve (AUC) of 50 mg · h/liter and a trough level of 2 mg/liter, a ganciclovir dose of 2.5 mg/kg once daily seems to be adequate for anuric critically ill patients during CVVHDF.
Project description:Micafungin is considered an important agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in the intensive care unit (ICU). Little is known on the pharmacokinetics of micafungin. We investigated micafungin pharmacokinetics (PK) in ICU patients and set out to explore the parameters that influence micafungin plasma concentrations. ICU patients receiving 100 mg of intravenous micafungin once daily for suspected or proven fungal infection or as prophylaxis were eligible. Daily trough concentrations and PK curves (days 3 and 7) were collected. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a standard two-stage approach. Twenty patients from the ICUs of four hospitals were evaluated. On day 3 (n = 20), the median (interquartile range [IQR]) area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) was 78.6 (65.3 to 94.1) mg · h/liter, the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) was 7.2 (5.4 to 9.2) mg/liter, the concentration 24 h after dosing (C24) was 1.55 (1.4 to 3.1) mg/liter, the volume of distribution (V) was 25.6 (21.3 to 29.1) liters, the clearance (CL) was 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5) liters/h, and the elimination half-life (t1/2) was 13.7 (12.2 to 15.5) h. The pharmacokinetic parameters on day 7 (n = 12) were not significantly different from those on day 3. Daily trough concentrations (day 3 to the end of therapy) showed moderate interindividual (57.9%) and limited intraindividual variability (12.9%). No covariates of the influence on micafungin exposure were identified. Micafungin was considered safe and well tolerated. We performed the first PK study with very intensive sampling on multiple occasions in ICU patients, which aided in resolving micafungin PK. Strikingly, micafungin exposure in our cohort of ICU patients was lower than that in healthy volunteers but not significantly different from that of other reference populations. The clinical consequence of these findings must be investigated in a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) study incorporating outcome in a larger cohort. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01783379.).
Project description:The objective of this study was to describe amikacin pharmacokinetics (PK) in critically ill patients receiving equal doses (30 ml/kg of body weight/h) of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). Patients receiving amikacin and undergoing CVVH or CVVHDF were eligible. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulation were undertaken using the Pmetrics software package for R. Sixteen patients (9 undergoing CVVH, 11 undergoing CVVHDF) and 20 sampling intervals were analyzed. A two-compartment linear model best described the data. Patient weight was the only covariate that was associated with drug clearance. The mean ± standard deviation parameter estimates were 25.2 ± 17.3 liters for the central volume, 0.89 ± 1.17 h(-1) for the rate constant for the drug distribution from the central to the peripheral compartment, 2.38 ± 6.60 h(-1) for the rate constant for the drug distribution from the peripheral to the central compartment, 4.45 ± 2.35 liters/h for hemodiafiltration clearance, and 4.69 ± 2.42 liters/h for hemofiltration clearance. Dosing simulations for amikacin supported the use of high dosing regimens (?25 mg/kg) and extended intervals (36 to 48 h) for most patients when considering PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) targets of a maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax)/MIC ratio of ?8 and a minimal concentration of ?2.5 mg/liter at the end of the dosing interval. The mean clearance of amikacin was 1.8 ± 1.3 liters/h by CVVHDF and 1.3 ± 1 liters/h by CVVH. On the basis of simulations, a strategy of an extended-interval high loading dose of amikacin (25 mg/kg every 48 h) associated with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) should be the preferred approach for aminoglycoside treatment in critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). (This study is a substudy of a trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under number NCT01403220.).
Project description:In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) phenotype on isoniazid (INH) metabolism in vivo and identify other sources of pharmacokinetic variability following single-dose administration in healthy Asian adults. The concentrations of INH and its metabolites acetylisoniazid (AcINH) and isonicotinic acid (INA) in plasma were evaluated in 33 healthy Asians who were also given efavirenz and rifampin. The pharmacokinetics of INH, AcINH, and INA were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters and evaluate the relationships between the parameters and the elimination status (fast, intermediate, and slow acetylators), demographic status, and measures of renal and hepatic function. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption best described the INH pharmacokinetics. AcINH and INA data were best described by a two- and a one-compartment model, respectively, linked to the INH model. In the final model for INH, the derived metabolic phenotypes for NAT2 were identified as a significant covariate in the INH clearance, reducing its interindividual variability from 86% to 14%. The INH clearance in fast eliminators was 1.9- and 7.7-fold higher than in intermediate and slow eliminators, respectively (65 versus 35 and 8 liters/h). Creatinine clearance was confirmed as a significant covariate for AcINH clearance. Simulations suggested that the current dosing guidelines (200 mg for 30 to 45 kg and 300 mg for >45 kg) may be suboptimal (3 mg/liter ? Cmax ? 6 mg/liter) irrespective of the acetylator class. The analysis established a model that adequately characterizes INH, AcINH, and INA pharmacokinetics in healthy Asians. Our results refine the NAT2 phenotype-based predictions of the pharmacokinetics for INH.
Project description:Vaborbactam (formerly RPX7009) is a member of a new class of ?-lactamase inhibitor with pharmacokinetic properties similar to those of many ?-lactams, including carbapenems. The pharmacokinetics and safety of vaborbactam were evaluated in 80 healthy adult subjects in a first-in-human randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, sequential single- and multiple-ascending-dose study. A total of 10 dose cohorts were enrolled in the study, with 6 subjects randomized to receive 250 to 2,000 mg of vaborbactam and 2 subjects randomized to receive placebo in each cohort. Maximum concentrations for vaborbactam were achieved at the end of the 3-h infusion. Vaborbactam exposure (Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) increased in a dose-proportional manner following multiple doses. There was no evidence of accumulation with multiple doses, consistent with the terminal half-life of ?2 h. Both the volume of distribution (Vss) and plasma clearance were independent of dose. For the 2,000-mg dose, the plasma clearance was 0.17 ± 0.03 liters/h, the AUC from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-?) was 144.00 ± 13.90 mg · h/liter, and the Vss was 21.80 ± 2.26 mg · h/liter. Urinary recovery was 80% or greater over 48 h across all dose groups. No subjects discontinued the study due to adverse events (AEs), and no serious AEs (SAEs) were observed. All AEs were mild to moderate and similar among the vaborbactam- and placebo-treated subjects, with mild lethargy as the only unique AE reported with the high dose of vaborbactam. Overall, this study revealed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of vaborbactam and formed the basis for advancement into patient studies in combination with meropenem, including treatment of patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01751269.).
Project description:We aimed in this study to describe efavirenz concentration-time courses in treatment-naïve children after once-daily administration to study the effects of age and body weight on efavirenz pharmacokinetics and to test relationships between doses, plasma concentrations, and efficacy. For this purpose, efavirenz concentrations in 48 children were measured after 2 weeks of didanosine-lamivudine-efavirenz treatment, and samples were available for 9/48 children between months 2 and 5 of treatment. Efavirenz concentrations in 200 plasma specimens were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM. The influence of individual characteristics was tested using a likelihood ratio test. The estimated minimal and maximal concentrations of efavirenz in plasma (Cmin and Cmax, respectively) and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were correlated to the decrease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels after 3 months of treatment. The threshold Cmin (and AUC) that improved efficacy was determined. The target minimal concentration of 4 mg/liter was considered for toxicity. An optimized dosing schedule that would place the highest percentage of children in the interval of effective and nontoxic concentrations was simulated. The pharmacokinetics of efavirenz was best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The mean apparent clearance and volume of distribution for efavirenz were 0.211 liter/h/kg and 4.48 liters/kg, respectively. Clearance decreased significantly with age. When the recommended doses were given to 46 of the 48 children, 19% (44% of children weighing less than 15 kg) had C(min)s below 1 mg/liter. A significantly higher percentage of children with C(min)s of >1.1 mg/liter or AUCs of >51 mg/liter x h than of children with lower values had viral load decreases greater than 2 log10 copies/ml after 3 months of treatment. Therefore, to optimize the percentage of children with C(min)s between 1.1 and 4 mg/liter, children should receive the following once-daily efavirenz doses: 25 mg/kg of body weight from 2 to 6 years, 15 mg/kg from 6 to 10 years, and 10 mg/kg from 10 to 15 years. These assumptions should be prospectively confirmed.
Project description:A population pharmacokinetics analysis was performed after intravenous ganciclovir and oral valganciclovir in solid organ transplant patients with cytomegalovirus. Patients received ganciclovir at 5 mg/kg of body weight (5 days) and then 900 mg of valganciclovir (16 days), both twice daily with dose adjustment for renal function. A total of 382 serum concentrations from days 5 and 15 were analyzed with NONMEM VI. Renal function given by creatinine clearance (CL(CR)) was the most influential covariate in CL. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: ganciclovir clearance (CL) was 7.49.(CL(CR)/57) liter/h (57 was the mean population value of CL(CR)); the central and peripheral distribution volumes were 31.9 liters and 32.0 liters, respectively; intercompartmental clearance was 10.2 liter/h; the first-order absorption rate constant was 0.895 h(-1); bioavailability was 0.825; and lag time was 0.382 h. The CL(CR) was the best predictor of CL, making dose adjustment by this covariate important to achieve the most efficacious ganciclovir exposure.