Hepatitis C virus core protein activates autophagy through EIF2AK3 and ATF6 UPR pathway-mediated MAP1LC3B and ATG12 expression.
ABSTRACT: HCV infection induces autophagy, but how this occurs is unclear. Here, we report the induction of autophagy by the structural HCV core protein and subsequent endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in Huh7 hepatoma cells. During ER stress, both the EIF2AK3 and ATF6 pathways of the unfolded protein response (UPR) were activated by HCV core protein. Then, these pathways upregulated transcription factors ATF4 and DDIT3. The ERN1-XBP1 pathway was not activated. Through ATF4 in the EIF2AK3 pathway, the autophagy gene ATG12 was upregulated. DDIT3 upregulated the transcription of autophagy gene MAP1LC3B (LC3B) by directly binding to the -253 to -99 base region of the LC3B promoter, contributing to the development of autophagy. Collectively, these data suggest not only a novel role for the HCV core protein in autophagy but also offer new insight into detailed molecular mechanisms with respect to HCV-induced autophagy, specifically how downstream UPR molecules regulate key autophagic gene expression.
Project description:Autophagy dysfunction is a potential toxic effect of nanoparticles. Previous studies have indicated that silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) induce macroautophagy/autophagy dysfunction, while the precise mechanisms remain uncertain. Hence, the present study investigated the molecular mechanisms by which SiNPs enhanced autophagosome synthesis, which then contributed to autophagy dysfunction. First, the effects of SiNPs on autophagy and autophagic flux were verified using transmission electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and western blot assays. Then, the activation of endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress was validated to be through the EIF2AK3 and ATF6 UPR pathways but not the ERN1-XBP1 pathway, along with the upregulation of downstream ATF4 and DDIT3. Thereafter, the ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) was used to verify that SiNP-induced autophagy could be influenced by ER stress. Furthermore, specialized lentiviral shRNA were employed to determine that autophagy was induced via specific activation of the EIF2AK3 and ATF6 UPR pathways. Finally, the 2 autophagic genes LC3B and ATG12 were found to be transcriptionally upregulated by downstream ATF4 and DDIT3 in ER stress, which contributed to the SiNP-enhanced autophagosome synthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that SiNPs induced autophagosome accumulation via the activation of the EIF2AK3 and ATF6 UPR pathways in hepatocytes, which offers a new insight into detailed molecular mechanisms underlying SiNP-induced autophagy dysfunction, and specifically how UPR pathways regulate key autophagic genes. This work provides novel evidence for the study of toxic effects and risk assessment of SiNPs.
Project description:Tumor hypoxia is a common microenvironmental factor that adversely influences tumor phenotype and treatment response. Cellular adaptation to hypoxia occurs through multiple mechanisms, including activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Recent reports have indicated that hypoxia activates a lysosomal degradation pathway known as autophagy, and here we show that the UPR enhances the capacity of hypoxic tumor cells to carry out autophagy, and that this promotes their survival. In several human cancer cell lines, hypoxia increased transcription of the essential autophagy genes microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3beta (MAP1LC3B) and autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) through the transcription factors ATF4 and CHOP, respectively, which are regulated by PKR-like ER kinase (PERK, also known as EIF2AK3). MAP1LC3B and ATG5 are not required for initiation of autophagy but mediate phagophore expansion and autophagosome formation. We observed that transcriptional induction of MAP1LC3B replenished MAP1LC3B protein that was turned over during extensive hypoxia-induced autophagy. Correspondingly, cells deficient in PERK signaling failed to transcriptionally induce MAP1LC3B and became rapidly depleted of MAP1LC3B protein during hypoxia. Consistent with these data, autophagy and MAP1LC3B induction occurred preferentially in hypoxic regions of human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy sensitized human tumor cells to hypoxia, reduced the fraction of viable hypoxic tumor cells, and sensitized xenografted human tumors to irradiation. Our data therefore demonstrate that the UPR is an important mediator of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and that it contributes to resistance to treatment through its ability to facilitate autophagy.
Project description:Major intrinsic protein (MIP) is a functional water-channel (AQP0) that also plays a key role in establishing lens fiber cell architecture. Genetic variants of MIP have been associated with inherited and age-related forms of cataract; however, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. Here we have used lens transcriptome profiling by microarray-hybridization and qPCR to identify pathogenic changes during cataract development in Mip-mutant (Lop/+) mice. In postnatal Lop/+ lenses (P7) 99 genes were up-regulated and 75 were down-regulated (>2-fold, p=<0.05) when compared with wild-type. A pathway analysis of up-regulated genes in the Lop/+ lens (P7) was consistent with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The most up-regulated UPR genes (>4-fold) in the Lop/+ lens included Chac1>Ddit3>Atf3>Trib3>Xbp1 and the most down-regulated genes (>5-fold) included two anti-oxidant genes, Hspb1 and Hmox1. Lop/+ lenses were further characterized by abundant TUNEL-positive nuclei within central degenerating fiber cells, glutathione depletion, free-radical overproduction, and calpain hyper-activation. These data suggest that Lop/+ lenses undergo proteotoxic ER-stress induced cell-death resulting from prolonged activation of the Eif2ak3/Perk-Atf4-Ddit3-Chac1 branch of the UPR coupled with severe oxidative-stress.
Project description:A switch from autophagy to apoptosis is implicated in chondrocytes during the osteoarthritis (OA) progression with currently unknown mechanism(s). In this study we utilized a flow fluid shear stress (FFSS) model in cultured chondrocytes and a unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) animal model. We found that both FFSS and UAC actively induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) chondrocytes, as demonstrated by dramatic increases in expression of HSPA5, p-EIF2AK3, p-ERN1 and ATF6. Interestingly, both FFSS and UAC activated not only pro-death p-EIF2AK3-mediated ERS-apoptosis programs but also pro-survival p-ERN1-mediated autophagic flux in chondrocytes. Data from FFSS demonstrated that MTORC1, a downstream of p-ERN1, suppressed autophagy but promoted p-EIF2AK3 mediated ERS-apoptosis. Data from UAC model demonstrated that at early stage both the p-ERN1 and p-EIF2AK3 were activated and MTORC1 was inhibited in TMJ chondrocytes. At late stage, MTORC1-p-EIF2AK3-mediated ERS apoptosis were predominant, while p-ERN1 and autophagic flux were inhibited. Inhibition of MTORC1 by TMJ local injection of rapamycin in rats or inducible ablation of MTORC1 expression selectively in chondrocytes in mice promoted chondrocyte autophagy and suppressed apoptosis, and reduced TMJ cartilage loss induced by UAC. In contrast, MTORC1 activation by TMJ local administration of MHY1485 or genetic deletion of Tsc1, an upstream MTORC1 suppressor, resulted in opposite effects. Collectively, our results establish that aberrant mechanical loading causes cartilage degeneration by activating, at least in part, the MTORC1 signaling which modulates the autophagy and apoptosis programs in TMJ chondrocytes. Thus, inhibition of MTORC1 provides a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of OA.Abbreviations : ACTB: actin beta; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; BECN1: beclin 1; BFL: bafilomycin A1; CASP12: caspase 12; CASP3: caspase 3; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DDIT3: DNA-damage inducible transcript 3; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERS: endoplasmic reticulum stress; ERN1/IRE1: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; FFSS: flow fluid shear stress; HSPA5/GRP78/BiP: heat shock protein 5; LAMP2: lysosome-associated membrane protein 2; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; OA: osteoarthritis; PRKAA1/2/AMPK1/2: protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1/2 catalytic subunit; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; Rapa: rapamycin; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TG: thapsigargin; TMJ: temporomandibular joints; TSC1/2: tuberous sclerosis complex 1/2; UAC: unilateral anterior crossbite; UPR: unfolded protein response; XBP1: x-box binding protein 1.
Project description:Flavokawain B (FKB), a natural kava chalcone, displays potent antitumor activity in various types of cancer. The mechanism of action, however, remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of FKB in the treatment of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as well as the molecular basis for its inhibitory effects in cancer. Approximately 60% of GBM cells became senescent after treatment with FKB as assessed in the senescence-associated (SA)-GLB1/SA-?-galactosidase assay. The cellular process of autophagy potentially contributed to the establishment of senescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of autophagic vesicles under FKB treatment, and MAP1LC3B (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta)-II was increased. Transfection of ATG5 or ATG7 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) inhibited FKB-induced autophagy in U251 cells. Western blot revealed that molecular components of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway were activated, including ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and DDIT3 (DNA damage inducible transcript 3), while levels of TRIB3 (tribbles pseudokinase 3) increased. In addition, based on the phosphorylation status, the AKT-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway was inhibited, which induced autophagy in GBM cells. Inhibition of autophagy by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine or knockdown of ATG5 or ATG7 caused FKB-treated U251 cells to switch from senescence to apoptosis. Finally, knockdown of ATG5 or treatment with chloroquine in combination with FKB, significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Our results demonstrated that FKB induced protective autophagy through the ATF4-DDIT3-TRIB3-AKT-MTOR-RPS6KB1 signaling pathway in GBM cells, indicating that the combination treatment of FKB with autophagy inhibitors may potentially be an effective therapeutic strategy for GBM. ABBREVIATIONS:3-MA: 3-methyladenine; 4-PBA: 4-phenylbutyrate; AKT: AKT serine/threonine kinase; ATF4: activating transcription factor 4; ATG: autophagy related; CASP3: caspase 3; CCK-8: cell counting kit-8; CDKN1A: cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; CQ: chloroquine; DDIT3: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; EIF2A: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A; EIF2AK3: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; FKB: flavokawain B; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GBM: glioblastoma multiforme; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HSPA5: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PARP1: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; 1RPS6KB1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; SA-GLB1: senescence-associated galactosidase beta 1; siRNA: short interfering RNA; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TRIB3: tribbles pseudokinase 3; TUNEL: deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling.
Project description:BAG2 (BCL2 associated athanogene 2) is associated with cell fate determination in response to various pathological conditions. However, the effects of BAG2 on M. tuberculosis-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remain elusive. Herein, we report that M. tuberculosis infection of macrophages triggered ER stress and downregulated BAG2 expression. Overexpression of BAG2 enhanced autophagic flux and activated macroautophagy/autophagy targeted to the ER (reticulophagy). In addition, through increasingly localizing SQSTM1 to the ER in BAG2-overexpressing macrophages, we found that the autophagy receptor protein SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) is associated with the BAG2-induced reticulophagy. Our data also confirmed that BAG2 could render cells resistant to M. tuberculosis-induced cellular damage, and the anti-apoptotic effects of BAG2 in M. tuberculosis-treated macrophages were partially abolished by the autophagic flux inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Furthermore, the dissociation of BECN1 and BCL2 mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was responsible for BAG2-activated autophagy. In addition, XBP1 downstream of the ERN1/IRE1 signaling pathway was bound to the Bag2 promoter region and transcriptionally inhibited BAG2 expression. Collectively, these results indicated that BAG2 has anti-apoptotic effects on M. tuberculosis-induced ER stress, which is dependent on the promotion of autophagic flux and the induction of selective autophagy. We revealed a potential host defense mechanism that links BAG2 to ER stress and autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection. ABBREVIATIONS:ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; BECN1: beclin 1; Baf A1: bafilomycin A1; CASP3: caspase 3; DDIT3/CHOP/GADD153: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERN1/IRE1: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; HSPA5/GRP78/BiP: heat shock protein 5; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MAPK/ERK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; UPR: unfolded protein response; XBP1: x-box binding protein 1.
Project description:The autophagy-endolysosomal pathway is an evolutionally conserved degradation system that is tightly linked to a wide variety of physiological processes. Dysfunction of this system is associated with many pathological conditions such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, monitoring the cellular autophagy-endolysosomal activity is crucial for studies on the pathogenesis as well as therapeutics of such disorders. To this end, we here sought to create a novel means exploiting Keima, an acid-stable fluorescent protein possessing pH-dependent fluorescence excitation spectra, for precisely monitoring the autophagy-endolysosomal system. First, we generated three lines of transgenic (tg) mouse expressing monomeric Keima-fused MAP1LC3B (mKeima-LC3B). Then, these tg mice were subjected to starvation by food-restriction, and also challenged to neurodegeneration by genetically crossing with a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; i.e., SOD1H46R transgenic mouse. Unexpectedly, despite that a lipidated-form of endogenous LC3 (LC3-II) was significantly increased, those of mKeima-LC3B (mKeima-LC3B-II) were not changed under both stressed conditions. It was also noted that mKeima-LC3B-positive aggregates were progressively accumulated in the spinal cord of SOD1H46R;mKeima-LC3B double-tg mice, suggestive of acid-resistance and aggregate-prone natures of long-term overexpressed mKeima-LC3B in vivo. Next, we characterized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mKeima-LC3B-tg mice. In contrast with in vivo, levels of mKeima-LC3B-I were decreased under starved conditions. Furthermore, when starved MEFs were treated with chloroquine (CQ), the abundance of mKeima-LC3B-II was significantly increased. Remarkably, when cultured medium was repeatedly changed between DMEM (nutrient-rich) and EBSS (starvation), acidic/neutral signal ratios of mKeima-LC3B-positive compartments were rapidly and reversibly shifted, which were suppressed by the CQ treatment, indicating that intraluminal pH of mKeima-LC3B-positive vesicles was changeable upon nutritional conditions of culture media. Taken together, although mKeima-LC3B-tg mice may not be an appropriate tool to monitor the autophagy-endolysosomal system in vivo, mKeima-LC3B must be one of the most sensitive reporter molecules for monitoring this system under in vitro cultured conditions.
Project description:Cellular effects of ionizing radiation include oxidative damage to macromolecules, unfolded protein response (UPR) and metabolic imbalances. Oxidative stress and UPR have been shown to induce macroautophagy/autophagy in a context-dependent manner and are crucial factors in determining the fate of irradiated cells. However, an in-depth analysis of the relationship between radiation-induced damage and autophagy has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between radiation-induced oxidative stress, UPR and autophagy in murine macrophage cells. A close association was observed between radiation-induced oxidative burst, UPR and induction of autophagy, with the possible involvement of EIF2AK3/PERK (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3) and ERN1/IRE1 (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] to nucleus signaling 1). Inhibitors of either UPR or autophagy reduced the cell survival indicating the importance of these processes after radiation exposure. Moreover, modulation of autophagy affected lethality in the whole body irradiated C57BL/6 mouse. These findings indicate that radiation-induced autophagy is a pro-survival response initiated by oxidative stress and mediated by EIF2AK3 and ERN1. Abbreviations: ACTB: actin, beta; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; ATG: autophagy-related; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CQ: chloroquine; DBSA: 3,5-dibromosalicylaldehyde; EIF2AK3: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; ERN1: endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to nucleus signaling 1; IR: ionizing radiation; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NAC: N-acetyl-L-cysteine; PARP1: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1; 4-PBA: 4-phenylbutyrate; Rap: rapamycin; ROS: reactive oxygen species; UPR: unfolded protein response; XBP1: x-box binding protein 1.
Project description:The human ribosomal P complex, which consists of the acidic ribosomal P proteins RPLP0, RPLP1, and RPLP2 (RPLP proteins), recruits translational factors, facilitating protein synthesis. Recently, we showed that overexpression of RPLP1 immortalizes primary cells and contributes to transformation. Moreover, RPLP proteins are overexpressed in human cancer, with the highest incidence in breast carcinomas. It is thought that disruption of the P complex would directly affect protein synthesis, causing cell growth arrest and eventually apoptosis. Here, we report a distinct mechanism by which cancer cells undergo cell cycle arrest and induced autophagy when RPLP proteins are downregulated. We found that absence of RPLP0, RPLP1, or RPLP2 resulted in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and MAPK1/ERK2 signaling pathway activation. Moreover, ROS generation led to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that involved the EIF2AK3/PERK-EIF2S1/eIF2?-EIF2S2-EIF2S3-ATF4/ATF-4- and ATF6/ATF-6-dependent arms of the unfolded protein response (UPR). RPLP protein-deficient cells treated with autophagy inhibitors experienced apoptotic cell death as an alternative to autophagy. Strikingly, antioxidant treatment prevented UPR activation and autophagy while restoring the proliferative capacity of these cells. Our results indicate that ROS are a critical signal generated by disruption of the P complex that causes a cellular response that follows a sequential order: first ROS, then ER stress/UPR activation, and finally autophagy. Importantly, inhibition of the first step alone is able to restore the proliferative capacity of the cells, preventing UPR activation and autophagy. Overall, our results support a role for autophagy as a survival mechanism in response to stress due to RPLP protein deficiency.
Project description:Chronic/abnormal activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is linked to the exacerbation of the inflammatory process and has been recently linked to Crohn's disease (CD) pathophysiology. We investigated the intestinal mucosa and the mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) collected from CD patients with active disease (CD group) and from non-IBD patients (CTR group) to study ER stress activation and to address tissue-specific modulation in CD. The intestinal mucosa of CD patients showed an upregulation in the expression of ER stress related genes, including ATF3, DNAJC3, STC2, DDIT3, CALR, HSPA5 and HSP90B1. Results showed that EIF2AK3 gene was upregulated, along with increased protein expression of p-eIF2? and p-eIF2?/eIF2? ratio. Additionally, ERN1 gene expression was upregulated, along with an increased spliced/activated form sXBP1 protein. Despite the upregulation of ATF6 gene expression in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients, no differences were found in ATF6 protein expression. Lastly, the analysis of MAT revealed unchanged levels of ER stress markers along with no differences in the activation of UPR. However, chaperone gene expression was modulated in the MAT of CD patients. To conclude, our results address tissue-specific differences in UPR activation in CD and point the ER stress as an important pro-inflammatory mechanism in CD, specifically in the intestinal mucosa.