CD4+ T Cells Are as Protective as CD8+ T Cells against Rickettsia typhi Infection by Activating Macrophage Bactericidal Activity.
ABSTRACT: Rickettsia typhi is an intracellular bacterium that causes endemic typhus, a febrile disease that can be fatal due to complications including pneumonia, hepatitis and meningoencephalitis, the latter being a regular outcome in T and B cell-deficient C57BL/6 RAG1-/- mice upon Rickettsia typhi infection. Here, we show that CD4+ TH1 cells that are generated in C57BL/6 mice upon R. typhi infection are as protective as cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. CD4+- as well as CD8+-deficient C57BL/6 survived the infection without showing symptoms of disease at any point in time. Moreover, adoptively transferred CD8+ and CD4+ immune T cells entered the CNS of C57BL/6 RAG1-/- mice with advanced infection and both eradicated the bacteria. However, immune CD4+ T cells protected only approximately 60% of the animals from death. They induced the expression of iNOS in infiltrating macrophages as well as in resident microglia in the CNS which can contribute to bacterial killing but also accelerate pathology. In vitro immune CD4+ T cells inhibited bacterial growth in infected macrophages which was in part mediated by the release of IFN?. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are as protective as CD8+ T cells against R. typhi, provided that CD4+ TH1 effector cells are present in time to support bactericidal activity of phagocytes via the release of IFN? and other factors. With regard to vaccination against TG Rickettsiae, our findings suggest that the induction of CD4+ TH1 effector cells is sufficient for protection.
Project description:Rickettsioses are emerging febrile diseases caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae. Rickettsia typhi belongs to the typhus group (TG) of this family and is the causative agent of endemic typhus, a disease that can be fatal. In the present study, we analyzed the course of R. typhi infection in C57BL/6 RAG1(-/-) mice. Although these mice lack adaptive immunity, they developed only mild and temporary symptoms of disease and survived R. typhi infection for a long period of time. To our surprise, 3 to 4 months after infection, C57BL/6 RAG1(-/-) mice suddenly developed lethal neurological disorders. Analysis of these mice at the time of death revealed high bacterial loads, predominantly in the brain. This was accompanied by a massive expansion of microglia and by neuronal cell death. Furthermore, high numbers of infiltrating CD11b(+) macrophages were detectable in the brain. In contrast to the microglia, these cells harbored R. typhi and showed an inflammatory phenotype, as indicated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, which was not observed in the periphery. Having shown that R. typhi persists in immunocompromised mice, we finally asked whether the bacteria are also able to persist in resistant C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild-type mice. Indeed, R. typhi could be recultivated from lung, spleen, and brain tissues from both strains even up to 1 year after infection. This is the first report demonstrating persistence and reappearance of R. typhi, mainly restricted to the central nervous system in immunocompromised mice.
Project description:Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic infection caused by Candida albicans. Despite its prevalence, little is known about C. albicans-specific immunity in the oral mucosa. Vaccines against Candida generate both T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses, and considerable evidence implicates interleukin (IL)-17 in immunity to OPC. However, IL-17 is also produced by innate immune cells that are remarkably similar to Th17 cells, expressing the same markers and localizing to similar mucosal sites. To date, the relative contribution(s) of Th1, Th17, and innate IL-17-producing cells in OPC have not been clearly defined. Here, we sought to determine the nature and function of adaptive T-cell responses to OPC, using a new recall infection model. Mice subjected to infection and re-challenge with Candida mounted a robust and stable antigen-specific IL-17 response in CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells. There was little evidence for Th1 or Th1/Th17 responses. The Th17 response promoted accelerated fungal clearance, and Th17 cells could confer protection in Rag1-/- mice upon adoptive transfer. Surprisingly, CD4 deficiency did not cause OPC but was instead associated with compensatory IL-17 production by Tc17 and CD3+CD4-CD8- cells. Therefore, classic CD4+Th17 cells protect from OPC but can be compensated by other IL-17-producing cells in CD4-deficient hosts.
Project description:Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi), and leptospirosis are common causes of febrile illness in Asia; meningitis and meningoencephalitis are severe complications. However, scarce data exist for the burden of these pathogens in patients with CNS disease in endemic countries. Laos is representative of vast economically poor rural areas in Asia with little medical information to guide public health policy. We assessed whether these pathogens are important causes of CNS infections in Laos.Between Jan 10, 2003, and Nov 25, 2011, we enrolled 1112 consecutive patients of all ages admitted with CNS symptoms or signs requiring a lumbar puncture at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos. Microbiological examinations (culture, PCR, and serology) targeted so-called conventional bacterial infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, S suis) and O tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi/Rickettsia spp, and Leptospira spp infections in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We analysed and compared causes and clinical and CSF characteristics between patient groups.1051 (95%) of 1112 patients who presented had CSF available for analysis, of whom 254 (24%) had a CNS infection attributable to a bacterial or fungal pathogen. 90 (35%) of these 254 infections were caused by O tsutsugamushi, R typhi/Rickettsia spp, or Leptospira spp. These pathogens were significantly more frequent than conventional bacterial infections (90/1051 [9%] vs 42/1051 [4%]; p<0·0001) by use of conservative diagnostic definitions. CNS infections had a high mortality (236/876 [27%]), with 18% (13/71) for R typhi/Rickettsia spp, O tsutsugamushi, and Leptospira spp combined, and 33% (13/39) for conventional bacterial infections (p=0·076).Our data suggest that R typhi/Rickettsia spp, O tsutsugamushi, and Leptospira spp infections are important causes of CNS infections in Laos. Antibiotics, such as tetracyclines, needed for the treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus, are not routinely advised for empirical treatment of CNS infections. These severely neglected infections represent a potentially large proportion of treatable CNS disease burden across vast endemic areas and need more attention.Wellcome Trust UK.
Project description:Persistent papillomas developed in ~10% of out-bred immune-competent SKH-1 mice following MusPV1 challenge of their tail, and in a similar fraction the papillomas were transient, suggesting potential as a model. However, papillomas only occurred in BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice depleted of T cells with anti-CD3 antibody, and they completely regressed within 8 weeks after depletion was stopped. Neither CD4+ nor CD8+ T cell depletion alone in BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice was sufficient to permit visible papilloma formation. However, low levels of MusPV1 were sporadically detected by either genomic DNA-specific PCR analysis of local skin swabs or in situ hybridization of the challenge site with an E6/E7 probe. After switching to CD3+ T cell depletion, papillomas appeared upon 14/15 of mice that had been CD4+ T cell depleted throughout the challenge phase, 1/15 of CD8+ T cell depleted mice, and none in mice without any prior T cell depletion. Both control animals and those depleted with CD8-specific antibody generated MusPV1 L1 capsid-specific antibodies, but not those depleted with CD4-specific antibody prior to T cell depletion with CD3 antibody. Thus, normal BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice eliminate the challenge dose, whereas infection is suppressed but not completely cleared if their CD4 or CD8 T cells are depleted, and recrudescence of MusPV1 is much greater in the former following treatment with CD3 antibody, possibly reflecting their failure to generate capsid antibody. Systemic vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with DNA vectors expressing MusPV1 E6 or E7 fused to calreticulin elicits potent CD8 T cell responses and these immunodominant CD8 T cell epitopes were mapped. Adoptive transfer of a MusPV1 E6-specific CD8+ T cell line controlled established MusPV1 infection and papilloma in RAG1-knockout mice. These findings suggest the potential of immunotherapy for HPV-related disease and the importance of host immunogenetics in the outcome of infection.
Project description:Abstract Objective There are no vaccines for most of the major invasive Salmonella strains causing severe infection in humans. We evaluated the specificity of adaptive T memory cell responses generated after Salmonella Typhi exposure in humans against other major invasive Salmonella strains sharing capacity for dissemination. Methods T memory cells from eleven volunteers who underwent controlled oral challenge with wtS. Typhi were characterised by flow cytometry for cross?reactive cellular cytokine/chemokine effector responses or evidence of degranulation upon stimulation with autologous B?lymphoblastoid cells infected with either S. Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A (PA), S. Paratyphi B (PB) or an invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella strain of the S. Typhimurium serovar (iNTSTy). Results Blood T?cell effector memory (TEM) responses after exposure to S. Typhi in humans evolve late, peaking weeks after infection in most volunteers. Induced multifunctional CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ TEM cells elicited after S. Typhi challenge were cross?reactive with PA, PB and iNTSTy. The magnitude of multifunctional CD4+ TEM cell responses to S. Typhi correlated with induction of cross?reactive multifunctional CD8+ TEM cells against PA, PB and iNTSTy. Highly multifunctional subsets and T central memory and T effector memory cells that re?express CD45 (TEMRA) demonstrated less heterologous T?cell cross?reactivity, and multifunctional Th17 elicited after S. Typhi challenge was not cross?reactive against other invasive Salmonella. Conclusion Gaps in cross?reactive immune effector functions in human T?cell memory compartments were highly dependent on invasive Salmonella strain, underscoring the importance of strain?dependent vaccination in the design of T?cell?based vaccines for invasive Salmonella. Vaccines are lacking against several of the major causes of invasive Salmonella disease, such as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella and S. Paratyphi A. These studies demonstrate that T memory cell effector responses generated after human wtSalmonella Typhi mucosal infection are multifunctional and cross?reactive against S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B and an invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella Typhimurium strain, yet the specific functional characteristics of the memory T?cell responses are significantly impacted by serovar. These data provide a rationale for strain?specific vaccination against invasive Salmonella for next?generation T?cell?based vaccines.
Project description:The RAS signaling pathway is constitutively activated in psoriatic keratinocytes. We expressed activated H-RAS(V12G) in suprabasal keratinocytes of adult mice and observed rapid development of a psoriasis-like skin phenotype characterized by basal keratinocyte hyperproliferation, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, intraepidermal neutrophil microabscesses, and increased T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 and T cell type 1 (Tc1)/Tc17 skin infiltration. The majority of skin-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells coexpressed IFN-? and IL-17A. When RAS was expressed on a Rag1-/- background, microabscess formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation were suppressed. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells reduced cutaneous and systemic inflammation, the RAS-induced increase in cutaneous Th17 and IL-17(+) ?? T cells, and epidermal hyperproliferation to levels similar to a Rag1-/- background. Reconstitution of Rag1-/- inducible RAS mice with purified CD8(+) T cells restored microabscess formation and epidermal hyperproliferation. Neutralization of IFN-?, but not of IL-17A, in CD8(+) T-cell-reconstituted Rag1-/- mice expressing RAS blocked CD8-mediated skin inflammation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. These results show that CD8(+) T cells can orchestrate skin inflammation with psoriasis-like pathology in response to constitutive RAS activation in keratinocytes, and this is primarily mediated through IFN-?.
Project description:Viral persistence specifically inhibits CD4 Th1 responses and promotes Tfh immunity, but the mechanisms that suppress Th1 cells and the disease consequences of their loss are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of CD4 Th1 cells specifically leads to progressive CD8 T cell decline and dysfunction during viral persistence. Therapeutically reconstituting CD4 Th1 cells restored CD4 T cell polyfunctionality, enhanced antiviral CD8 T cell numbers and function, and enabled viral control. Mechanistically, combined interaction of PD-L1 and IL-10 by suppressive dendritic cell subsets inhibited new CD4 Th1 cells in both acute and persistent virus infection, demonstrating an unrecognized suppressive function for PD-L1 in virus infection. Thus, the loss of CD4 Th1 cells is a key event leading to progressive CD8 T cell demise during viral persistence with important implications for restoring antiviral CD8 T cell immunity to control persistent viral infection.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS mediated by self-reactive, myelin-specific T cells. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of MS. MS is studied using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model mediated by myelin-specific T cells. T cell Ig mucin-3 (Tim-3) is a cell surface receptor expressed on CD4(+) IFN-?-secreting Th1 cells, and triggering Tim-3 signaling ameliorated EAE by inducing death in pathogenic Th1 cells in vivo. This suggested that enhancing Tim-3 signaling might be beneficial in patients with MS. However, Tim-3 is also expressed on activated CD8(+) T cells, microglia, and dendritic cells, and the combined effect of manipulating Tim-3 signaling on these cell types during CNS autoimmunity is unknown. Furthermore, CD4(+) IL-17-secreting Th17 cells also play a role in MS, but do not express high levels of Tim-3. We investigated Tim-3 signaling in EAE models that include myelin-specific Th17, Th1, and CD8(+) T cells. We found that preventing Tim-3 signaling in CD4(+) T cells altered the inflammatory pattern in the CNS due to differential effects on Th1 versus Th17 cells. In contrast, preventing Tim-3 signaling during CD8(+) T cell-mediated EAE exacerbated disease. We also analyzed the importance of Tim-3 signaling in EAE in innate immune cells. Tim-3 signaling in dendritic cells and microglia did not affect the manifestation of EAE in these models. These results indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of targeting Tim-3 in EAE is dependent on the nature of the effector T cells contributing to the disease.
Project description:Rickettsia typhi is the causative agent of endemic typhus, a disease with increasing incidence worldwide that can be fatal. Because of its obligate intracellular life style, genetic manipulation of the pathogen is difficult. Nonetheless, in recent years, genetic manipulation tools have been successfully applied to rickettsiae. We describe here for the first time the transformation of R. typhi with the pRAM18dRGA plasmid that originally derives from Rickettsia amblyommatis and encodes the expression of GFPuv (green fluorescent protein with maximal fluorescence when excited by UV light). Transformed R. typhi (R. typhiGFPuv) bacteria are viable, replicate with kinetics similar to those of wild-type R. typhi in cell culture, and stably maintain the plasmid and GFPuv expression under antibiotic treatment in vitro and in vivo during infection of mice. CB17 SCID mice infected with R. typhiGFPuv succumb to the infection with kinetics similar to those for animals infected with wild-type R. typhi and develop comparable pathology and bacterial loads in the organs, demonstrating that the plasmid does not influence pathogenicity. In the spleen and liver of infected CB17 SCID mice, the bacteria are detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy in neutrophils and macrophages by histological staining. Finally, we show for the first time that transformed rickettsiae can be used for the detection of CD8+ T cell responses. GFP-specific restimulation of spleen cells from R. typhiGFPuv-infected BALB/c mice elicits gamma interferon (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion by CD8+ T cells. Thus, R. typhiGFPuv bacteria are a novel, potent tool to study infection with the pathogen in vitro and in vivo and the immune response to these bacteria.
Project description:We evaluated formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 7 patients who died with encephalitic typhus in Hamburg, Germany, during World War II. The archived specimens included only central nervous system tissues >70 years old that had been stored at room temperature. We demonstrated successful detection of Rickettsia typhi DNA by a nested qPCR specific to prsA in 2 patients. These results indicate that R. typhi infections contributed to typhus outbreaks during World War II. Immunohistochemical analyses of brain tissue specimens of R. typhi DNA-positive and -negative specimens showed perivascular B-cell accumulation. Around blood vessels, nodular cell accumulations consisted of CD4-positive and CD8-positive T cells and CD68-positive microglia and macrophages; neutrophils were found rarely. These findings are similar to those of previously reported R. prowazekii tissue specimen testing. Because R. typhi and R. prowazekii infections can be clinically and histopathologically similar, molecular analyses should be performed to distinguish the 2 pathogens.