We need your help! If you've ever found our data helpful, please take our impact survey (15 min). Your replies will help keep the data flowing to the scientific community. Please Click here for Survey
Omics score: 0
Mechanisms for Complex Chromosomal Insertions.
ABSTRACT: Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs.
Project description:Genomic disorders are the clinical conditions manifested by submicroscopic genomic rearrangements including copy number variants (CNVs). The CNVs can be identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), the most commonly used technology for molecular diagnostics of genomic disorders. However, clinical aCGH only informs CNVs in the probe-interrogated regions. Neither orientational information nor the resulting genomic rearrangement structure is provided, which is a key to uncovering mutational and pathogenic mechanisms underlying genomic disorders. Long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a traditional approach to obtain CNV breakpoint junction, but this method is inefficient when challenged by structural complexity such as often found at the PLP1 locus in association with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). Here we introduced 'capture and single-molecule real-time sequencing' (cap-SMRT-seq) and newly developed 'asymmetry linker-mediated nested PCR walking' (ALN-walking) for CNV breakpoint sequencing in 49 subjects with PMD-associated CNVs. Remarkably, 29 (94%) of the 31 CNV breakpoint junctions unobtainable by conventional long-range PCR were resolved by cap-SMRT-seq and ALN-walking. Notably, unexpected CNV complexities, including inter-chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be resolved by aCGH, were revealed by efficient breakpoint sequencing. These sequence-based structures of PMD-associated CNVs further support the role of DNA replicative mechanisms in CNV mutagenesis, and facilitate genotype-phenotype correlation studies. Intriguingly, the lengths of gained segments by CNVs are strongly correlated with clinical severity in PMD, potentially reflecting the functional contribution of other dosage-sensitive genes besides PLP1. Our study provides new efficient experimental approaches (especially ALN-walking) for CNV breakpoint sequencing and highlights their importance in uncovering CNV mutagenesis and pathogenesis in genomic disorders.
Project description:We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics Laboratories using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. Overall design: Seven individuals with complex chromosomal insertions were subjected to custom high-density arrays in the targeted regions.
Project description:Objective:To determine how single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to molecular diagnosis in familial Parkinson disease (PD), we integrated exome sequencing (ES) and genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and further probed CNV structure to reveal mutational mechanisms. Methods:We performed ES on 110 subjects with PD and a positive family history; 99 subjects were also evaluated using genome-wide aCGH. We interrogated ES and aCGH data for pathogenic SNVs and CNVs at Mendelian PD gene loci. We confirmed SNVs via Sanger sequencing and further characterized CNVs with custom-designed high-density aCGH, droplet digital PCR, and breakpoint sequencing. Results:Using ES, we discovered individuals with known pathogenic SNVs in GBA (p.Glu365Lys, p.Thr408Met, p.Asn409Ser, and p.Leu483Pro) and LRRK2 (p.Arg1441Gly and p.Gly2019Ser). Two subjects were each double heterozygotes for variants in GBA and LRRK2. Based on aCGH, we additionally discovered cases with an SNCA duplication and heterozygous intragenic GBA deletion. Five additional subjects harbored both SNVs (p.Asn52Metfs*29, p.Thr240Met, p.Pro437Leu, and p.Trp453*) and likely disrupting CNVs at the PRKN locus, consistent with compound heterozygosity. In nearly all cases, breakpoint sequencing revealed microhomology, a mutational signature consistent with CNV formation due to DNA replication errors. Conclusions:Integrated ES and aCGH yielded a genetic diagnosis in 19.3% of our familial PD cohort. Our analyses highlight potential mechanisms for SNCA and PRKN CNV formation, uncover multilocus pathogenic variation, and identify novel SNVs and CNVs for further investigation as potential PD risk alleles.
Project description:Alu repetitive elements are known to be major contributors to genome instability by generating Alu-mediated copy-number variants (CNVs). Most of the reported Alu-mediated CNVs are simple deletions and duplications, and the mechanism underlying Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangement has been attributed to non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Chromosome 17 at the p13.3 genomic region lacks extensive low-copy repeat architecture; however, it is highly enriched for Alu repetitive elements, with a fraction of 30% of total sequence annotated in the human reference genome, compared with the 10% genome-wide and 18% on chromosome 17. We conducted mechanistic studies of the 17p13.3 CNVs by performing high-density oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization, specifically interrogating the 17p13.3 region with ?150 bp per probe density; CNV breakpoint junctions were mapped to nucleotide resolution by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Studied rearrangements include 5 interstitial deletions, 14 tandem duplications, 7 terminal deletions and 13 complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs). Within the 17p13.3 region, Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangements were identified in 80% of the interstitial deletions, 46% of the tandem duplications and 50% of the CGRs, indicating that this mechanism was a major contributor for formation of breakpoint junctions. Our studies suggest that Alu repetitive elements facilitate formation of non-recurrent CNVs, CGRs and other structural aberrations of chromosome 17 at p13.3. The common observation of Alu-mediated rearrangement in CGRs and breakpoint junction sequences analysis further demonstrates that this type of mechanism is unlikely attributed to NAHR, but rather may be due to a recombination-coupled DNA replicative repair process.
Project description:Translocations are a common class of chromosomal aberrations and can cause disease by physically disrupting genes or altering their regulatory environment. Some translocations, apparently balanced at the microscopic level, include deletions, duplications, insertions, or inversions at the molecular level. Traditionally, chromosomal rearrangements have been investigated with a conventional banded karyotype followed by arduous positional cloning projects. More recently, molecular cytogenetic approaches using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), or whole-genome SNP genotyping together with molecular methods such as inverse PCR and quantitative PCR have allowed more precise evaluation of the breakpoints. These methods suffer, however, from being experimentally intensive and time-consuming and of less than single base pair resolution. Here we describe targeted breakpoint capture followed by next-generation sequencing (TBCS) as a new approach to the general problem of determining the precise structural characterization of translocation breakpoints and related chromosomal aberrations. We tested this approach in three patients with complex chromosomal translocations: The first had craniofacial abnormalities and an apparently balanced t(2;3)(p15;q12) translocation; the second has cleidocranial dysplasia (OMIM 119600) associated with a t(2;6)(q22;p12.3) translocation and a breakpoint in RUNX2 on chromosome 6p; and the third has acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (OMIM 114290) associated with a t(5;17)(q23.2;q24) translocation, with a breakpoint upstream of SOX9 on chromosome 17q. Preliminary studies indicated complex rearrangements in patients 1 and 3 with a total of 10 predicted breakpoints in the three patients. By using TBCS, we quickly and precisely defined eight of the 10 breakpoints.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little information is available regarding the penetrance of 1q21.1 copy number variants (CNVs). In the present study, we explored the clinical significance of 1q21.1 microdeletion or microduplication. METHODS:In four families, chromosome karyotype was analyzed using G-banding karyotype analysis technology. CNVs were detected using array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and then a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to validate candidate CNVs. Sequence signature in the breakpoint region was analyzed using University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) databases. RESULTS:Except for karyotype 45, XX, der (13, 14) (q10, q10) in the mother (I2) of family 2, the karyotype was normal in all other members of the four families. In the mother (I2) and fetus (II2) of family 1, in newborn (II1) of family 2 and in fetus (II1) of family 3, there was 1.22-Mb heterozygous microdeletion in the chromosome 1q21.1q21.2 region. The child (II1) of family 4 had a 1.46-Mb heterozygous microduplication in the chromosome 1q21.1q21.2 region. The results of the qPCR were consistent with that of aCGH. There was large number of low copy repeats (LCRs) in the breakpoint region found by analysis of the UCSC database, and multiple LCRs were matched with sequences in the chromosome 1 short-arm region. CONCLUSIONS:1q21.1 microdeletion and microduplication exhibit a variety of clinical manifestations and the specificity of their clinical features is not high. The penetrance of the distal 1q21.1 microdeletion may be affected by other factors in the present study. In summary, we report the discovery of a new distal 1q21.1 microduplication, which enriches the CNV spectrum in the 1q21.1 region and is conducive to prenatal genetic counseling.
Project description:Genomic disorders are often caused by recurrent copy number variations (CNVs), with nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) as the underlying mechanism. Recently, several microhomology-mediated repair mechanisms--such as microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), fork stalling and template switching (FoSTeS), microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR), serial replication slippage (SRS), and break-induced SRS (BISRS)--were described in the etiology of non-recurrent CNVs in human disease. In addition, their formation may be stimulated by genomic architectural features. It is, however, largely unexplored to what extent these mechanisms contribute to rare, locus-specific pathogenic CNVs. Here, fine-mapping of 42 microdeletions of the FOXL2 locus, encompassing FOXL2 (32) or its regulatory domain (10), serves as a model for rare, locus-specific CNVs implicated in genetic disease. These deletions lead to blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES), a developmental condition affecting the eyelids and the ovary. For breakpoint mapping we used targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), long-range PCR, and Sanger sequencing of the junction products. Microhomology, ranging from 1 bp to 66 bp, was found in 91.7% of 24 characterized breakpoint junctions, being significantly enriched in comparison with a random control sample. Our results show that microhomology-mediated repair mechanisms underlie at least 50% of these microdeletions. Moreover, genomic architectural features, like sequence motifs, non-B DNA conformations, and repetitive elements, were found in all breakpoint regions. In conclusion, the majority of these microdeletions result from microhomology-mediated mechanisms like MMEJ, FoSTeS, MMBIR, SRS, or BISRS. Moreover, we hypothesize that the genomic architecture might drive their formation by increasing the susceptibility for DNA breakage or promote replication fork stalling. Finally, our locus-centered study, elucidating the etiology of a large set of rare microdeletions involved in a monogenic disorder, can serve as a model for other clustered, non-recurrent microdeletions in genetic disease.
Project description:Complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) consisting of two or more breakpoint junctions have been observed in genomic disorders. Recently, a chromosome catastrophe phenomenon termed chromothripsis, in which numerous genomic rearrangements are apparently acquired in one single catastrophic event, was described in multiple cancers. Here, we show that constitutionally acquired CGRs share similarities with cancer chromothripsis. In the 17 CGR cases investigated, we observed localization and multiple copy number changes including deletions, duplications, and/or triplications, as well as extensive translocations and inversions. Genomic rearrangements involved varied in size and complexities; in one case, array comparative genomic hybridization revealed 18 copy number changes. Breakpoint sequencing identified characteristic features, including small templated insertions at breakpoints and microhomology at breakpoint junctions, which have been attributed to replicative processes. The resemblance between CGR and chromothripsis suggests similar mechanistic underpinnings. Such chromosome catastrophic events appear to reflect basic DNA metabolism operative throughout an organism's life cycle.
Project description:Unbalanced translocations are a relatively common type of copy number variation and a major contributor to neurodevelopmental disorders. We analyzed the breakpoints of 57 unique unbalanced translocations to investigate the mechanisms of how they form. Fifty-one are simple unbalanced translocations between two different chromosome ends, and six rearrangements have more than three breakpoints involving two to five chromosomes. Sequencing 37 breakpoint junctions revealed that simple translocations have between 0 and 4 base pairs (bp) of microhomology (n = 26), short inserted sequences (n = 8), or paralogous repeats (n = 3) at the junctions, indicating that translocations do not arise primarily from nonallelic homologous recombination but instead form most often via nonhomologous end joining or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication. Three simple translocations fuse genes that are predicted to produce in-frame transcripts of SIRPG-WWOX, SMOC2-PROX1, and PIEZO2-MTA1, which may lead to gain of function. Three complex translocations have inversions, insertions, and multiple breakpoint junctions between only two chromosomes. Whole-genome sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of two de novo translocations revealed at least 18 and 33 breakpoints involving five different chromosomes. Breakpoint sequencing of one maternally inherited translocation involving four chromosomes uncovered multiple breakpoints with inversions and insertions. All of these breakpoint junctions had 0-4 bp of microhomology consistent with chromothripsis, and both de novo events occurred on paternal alleles. Together with other studies, these data suggest that germline chromothripsis arises in the paternal genome and may be transmitted maternally. Breakpoint sequencing of our large collection of chromosome rearrangements provides a comprehensive analysis of the molecular mechanisms behind translocation formation.
Project description:The recently described DNA replication-based mechanisms of fork stalling and template switching (FoSTeS) and microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) were previously shown to catalyze complex exonic, genic and genomic rearrangements. By analyzing a large number of isochromosomes of the long arm of chromosome X (i(Xq)), using whole-genome tiling path array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), ultra-high resolution targeted aCGH and sequencing, we provide evidence that the FoSTeS and MMBIR mechanisms can generate large-scale gross chromosomal rearrangements leading to the deletion and duplication of entire chromosome arms, thus suggesting an important role for DNA replication-based mechanisms in both the development of genomic disorders and cancer. Furthermore, we elucidate the mechanisms of dicentric i(Xq) (idic(Xq)) formation and show that most idic(Xq) chromosomes result from non-allelic homologous recombination between palindromic low copy repeats and highly homologous palindromic LINE elements. We also show that non-recurrent-breakpoint idic(Xq) chromosomes have microhomology-associated breakpoint junctions and are likely catalyzed by microhomology-mediated replication-dependent recombination mechanisms such as FoSTeS and MMBIR. Finally, we stress the role of the proximal Xp region as a chromosomal rearrangement hotspot.