Molecular Analysis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations in Bangladeshi Individuals.
ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked human enzyme defect of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with this gene defect appear normal until exposed to oxidative stress which induces hemolysis. Consumption of certain foods such as fava beans, legumes; infection with bacteria or virus; and use of certain drugs such as primaquine, sulfa drugs etc. may result in lysis of RBCs in G6PD deficient individuals. The genetic defect that causes G6PD deficiency has been identified mostly as single base missense mutations. One hundred and sixty G6PD gene mutations, which lead to amino acid substitutions, have been described worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect G6PD gene mutations in hospital-based settings in the local population of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Qualitative fluorescent spot test and quantitative enzyme activity measurement using RANDOX G6PDH kit were performed for analysis of blood specimens and detection of G6PD-deficient participants. For G6PD-deficient samples, PCR was done with six sets of primers specific for G6PD gene. Automated Sanger sequencing of the PCR products was performed to identify the mutations in the gene. Based on fluorescence spot test and quantitative enzyme assay followed by G6PD gene sequencing, 12 specimens (11 males and one female) among 121 clinically suspected patient-specimens were found to be deficient, suggesting a frequency of 9.9% G6PD deficiency. Sequencing of the G6PD-deficient samples revealed c.C131G substitution (exon-3: Ala44Gly) in six samples, c.G487A substitution (exon-6:Gly163Ser) in five samples and c.G949A substitution (exon-9: Glu317Lys) of coding sequence in one sample. These mutations either affect NADP binding or disrupt protein structure. From the study it appears that Ala44Gly and Gly163Ser are the most common G6PD mutations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This is the first study of G6PD mutations in Bangladesh.
Project description:BACKGROUNDGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency decreases the ability of red blood cells (RBCs) to withstand oxidative stress. Refrigerated storage of RBCs induces oxidative stress. We hypothesized that G6PD-deficient donor RBCs would have inferior storage quality for transfusion as compared with G6PD-normal RBCs.METHODSMale volunteers were screened for G6PD deficiency; 27 control and 10 G6PD-deficient volunteers each donated 1 RBC unit. After 42 days of refrigerated storage, autologous 51-chromium 24-hour posttransfusion RBC recovery (PTR) studies were performed. Metabolomics analyses of these RBC units were also performed.RESULTSThe mean 24-hour PTR for G6PD-deficient subjects was 78.5% ± 8.4% (mean ± SD), which was significantly lower than that for G6PD-normal RBCs (85.3% ± 3.2%; P = 0.0009). None of the G6PD-normal volunteers (0/27) and 3 G6PD-deficient volunteers (3/10) had PTR results below 75%, a key FDA acceptability criterion for stored donor RBCs. As expected, fresh G6PD-deficient RBCs demonstrated defects in the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway. During refrigerated storage, G6PD-deficient RBCs demonstrated increased glycolysis, impaired glutathione homeostasis, and increased purine oxidation, as compared with G6PD-normal RBCs. In addition, there were significant correlations between PTR and specific metabolites in these pathways.CONCLUSIONBased on current FDA criteria, RBCs from G6PD-deficient donors would not meet the requirements for storage quality. Metabolomics assessment identified markers of PTR and G6PD deficiency (e.g., pyruvate/lactate ratios), along with potential compensatory pathways that could be leveraged to ameliorate the metabolic needs of G6PD-deficient RBCs.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT04081272.FUNDINGThe Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation grant 71590, the National Blood Foundation, NIH grant UL1 TR000040, the Webb-Waring Early Career Award 2017 by the Boettcher Foundation, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grants R01HL14644 and R01HL148151.
Project description:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is essential for redox equilibrium of red blood cells (RBCs) and, when compromised, the RBCs are more susceptible to haemolysis. 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine and tafenoquine) are used for the radical curative treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria and can cause haemolysis in G6PD deficient subjects. Haemolytic risk is dependent on treatment dose and patient G6PD status but ultimately it correlates with the number of G6PD deficient RBCs. The G6PD spectrophotometric assay reliably identifies deficient subjects but is less reliable in heterozygous females, especially when other blood conditions are present. In this work we analysed samples with a range of G6PD phenotypes and haematologic conditions from 243 healthy volunteers of Asian or African-American heritage using both the spectrophotomeric assay and the G6PD flow-cytometric assay. Overall 18.5% of subjects (29.3% of Asian females) presented with anaemia, associated with decreased RBCs volume (MCV) and reticulocytosis; the flow-cytometric assay showed good correlation with the spectrophotometric assay (Pearson's r 0.918-0.957) and was less influenced by haemoglobin concentration, number of RBCs and number of reticulocytes. This resulted in more precise quantification of the number of G6PD deficient RBCs and presumably higher predictive power of drug induced haemolytic risk.
Project description:Fyn is a tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family (Src-Family-Kinase, SFK), ubiquitously expressed. Previously, we report that Fyn is important in stress erythropoiesis. Here, we show that in red cells Fyn specifically stimulates G6PD activity, resulting in a 3-fold increase enzyme catalytic activity (kcat) by phosphorylating tyrosine (Tyr)-401. We found Tyr-401 on G6PD as functional target of Fyn in normal human red blood cells (RBC), being undetectable in G6PD deficient RBCs (G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Genova). Indeed, Tyr-401 is located to a region of the G6PD molecule critical for the formation of the enzymatically active dimer. Amino acid replacements in this region are mostly associated with a chronic hemolysis phenotype. Using mutagenesis approach, we demonstrated that the phosphorylation status of Tyr401 modulates the interaction of G6PD with G6P and stabilizes G6PD in a catalytically more efficient conformation. RBCs from Fyn-/-mice are defective in G6PD activity, resulting in increased susceptibility to primaquine-induced intravascular hemolysis. This negatively affected the recycling of reduced Prx2 in response to oxidative stress, indicating that defective G6PD phosphorylation impairs defense against oxidation. In human RBCs, we confirm the involvement of the thioredoxin/Prx2 system in the increase vulnerability of G6PD deficient RBCs to oxidation. In conclusion, our data suggest that Fyn is an oxidative radical sensor, and that Fyn-mediated Tyr-401 phosphorylation, by increasing G6PD activity, plays an important role in the physiology of RBCs. Failure of G6PD activation by this mechanism may be a major limiting factor in the ability of G6PD deficient RBCs to withstand oxidative stress.
Project description:Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for maintenance of nicotinamide dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate (NADPH) levels and redox homeostasis. A number of drugs, such as antimalarial drugs, act to induce reactive oxygen species and hemolytic crisis in G6PD-deficient patients. We used diamide (DIA) to mimic drug-induced oxidative stress and studied how these drugs affect cellular metabolism using a metabolomic approach.There are a few differences in metabolome between red blood cells (RBCs) from normal and G6PD-deficient individuals. DIA causes modest changes in normal RBC metabolism. In contrast, there are significant changes in various biochemical pathways, namely glutathione (GSH) metabolism, purine metabolism, and glycolysis, in G6PD-deficient cells. GSH depletion is concomitant with a shift in energy metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) accumulation activates AMP protein kinase (AMPK) and increases entry of glucose into glycolysis. However, inhibition of pyruvate kinase (PK) reduces the efficacy of energy production. Metabolic changes and protein oxidation occurs to a greater extent in G6PD-deficient RBCs than in normal cells, leading to severe irreversible loss of deformability of the former.Normal and G6PD-deficient RBCs differ in their responses to oxidants. Normal cells have adequate NADPH regeneration for maintenance of GSH pool. In contrast, G6PD-deficient cells are unable to regenerate enough NADPH under a stressful situation, and switch to biosynthetic pathway for GSH supply. Rapid GSH exhaustion causes energy crisis and futile AMPK activation. Our findings suggest that drug-induced oxidative stress differentially affects metabolism and metabolite signaling in normal and G6PD-deficient cells. It also provides an insight into the pathophysiology of acute hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient patients.
Project description:In Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBCs), the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase (GR) regenerates reduced glutathione, which is essential for antioxidant defense. GR utilizes NADPH produced in the pentose phosphate shunt by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Thus, conditions affecting host G6PD or GR induce increased sensitivity to oxidants. Hereditary G6PD deficiency is frequent in malaria endemic areas and provides protection against severe malaria. Furthermore, GR deficiency resulting from insufficient saturation of the enzyme with its prosthetic group FAD is common. Based on these naturally occurring phenomena, GR of malaria parasites and their host cells represent attractive antimalarial drug targets. Recently we were given the opportunity to examine invasion, growth, and drug sensitivity of three P. falciparum strains (3D7, K1, and Palo Alto) in the RBCs from three homozygous individuals with total GR deficiency resulting from mutations in the apoprotein. Invasion or growth in the GR-deficient RBCs was not impaired for any of the parasite strains tested. Drug sensitivity to chloroquine, artemisinin, and methylene blue was comparable to parasites grown in GR-sufficient RBCs and sensitivity towards paraquat and sodium nitroprusside was only slightly enhanced. In contrast, membrane deposition of hemichromes as well as the opsonizing complement C3b fragments and phagocytosis were strongly increased in ring-infected RBCs of the GR-deficient individuals compared to ring-infected normal RBCs. Also, in one of the individuals, membrane-bound autologous IgGs were significantly enhanced. Thus, based on our in vitro data, GR deficiency and drug-induced GR inhibition may protect from malaria by inducing enhanced ring stage phagocytosis rather than by impairing parasite growth directly.
Project description:In glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, decreased NADPH regeneration in the pentose phosphate pathway and subnormal levels of reduced glutathione result in insufficient antioxidant defense, increased susceptibility of red blood cells (RBCs) to oxidative stress, and acute hemolysis following exposure to pro-oxidant drugs and infections. Despite the fact that redox disequilibrium is a prominent feature of RBC storage lesion, it has been reported that the G6PD-deficient RBCs store well, at least in respect to energy metabolism, but their overall metabolic phenotypes and molecular linkages to the storability profile are scarcely investigated.We performed UHPLC-MS metabolomics analyses of weekly sampled RBC concentrates from G6PD sufficient and deficient donors, stored in citrate phosphate dextrose/saline adenine glucose mannitol from day 0 to storage day 42, followed by statistical and bioinformatics integration of the data.Other than previously reported alterations in glycolysis, metabolomics analyses revealed bioactive lipids, free fatty acids, bile acids, amino acids, and purines as top variables discriminating RBC concentrates for G6PD-deficient donors. Two-way ANOVA showed significant changes in the storage-dependent variation in fumarate, one-carbon, and sulfur metabolism, glutathione homeostasis, and antioxidant defense (including urate) components in G6PD-deficient vs. sufficient donors. The levels of free fatty acids and their oxidized derivatives, as well as those of membrane-associated plasticizers were significantly lower in G6PD-deficient units in comparison to controls. By using the strongest correlations between in vivo and ex vivo metabolic and physiological parameters, consecutively present throughout the storage period, several interactomes were produced that revealed an interesting interplay between redox, energy, and hemolysis variables, which may be further associated with donor-specific differences in the post-transfusion performance of G6PD-deficient RBCs.The metabolic phenotypes of G6PD-deficient donors recapitulate the basic storage lesion profile that leads to loss of metabolic linkage and rewiring. Donor-related issues affect the storability of RBCs even in the narrow context of this donor subgroup in a way likely relevant to transfusion medicine.
Project description:Control of malaria increasingly involves administration of 8-aminoquinolines, with accompanying risk of haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Few data on the prevalence and genotypic basis of G6PD deficiency are available from Bangladesh, where malaria remains a major problem in the South (Chittagong Division). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency, and associated G6PD genotypes, in adults with falciparum malaria in southern Bangladesh.G6PD status was assessed via a combination of fluorescent spot testing (FST) and genotyping in 141 Bengali patients admitted with falciparum malaria to two centres in Chittagong Division from 2012 to 2014. In addition, an analysis of genomic data from 1000 Genomes Project was carried out among five healthy Indian subcontinent populations.One male patient with uncomplicated malaria was found to have G6PD deficiency on FST and a genotype associated with deficiency (hemizygous Orissa variant). In addition, there were two female patients heterozygous for deficiency variants (Orissa and Kerala-Kalyan). These three patients had a relatively long duration of symptoms prior to admission compared to G6PD normal cases, possibly suggesting an interaction with parasite multiplication rate. In addition, one of 27 healthy local controls was deficient on FST and hemizygous for the Mahidol variant of G6PD deficiency. Examination of 1000 Genomes Project sequencing data across the Indian subcontinent showed that 19/723 chromosomes (2.63%) carried a variant associated with deficiency. In the Bengali from Bangladesh 1000 Genomes population, three of 130 chromosomes (2.31%) carried deficient alleles; this included single chromosomes carrying the Kerala-Kalyan and Orissa variants.In line with other recent work, G6PD deficiency is uncommon in Bengalis in Bangladesh. Further studies of particular ethnic groups are needed to evaluate the potential risk of wide deployment of primaquine in malaria control efforts in Bangladesh.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most prevalent inborn disorder. This X-chromosome-linked recessive disease affects more than 400 million people globally, and is associated with haemolytic anaemia after medication with the anti-latent malaria drug, primaquine. To prevent malaria, the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army administers malaria chemoprophylaxis. Due to the previously low G6PD deficiency prevalence in the ROK, prior to primaquine administration, testing for G6PD deficiency was not mandatory. In this study, to evaluate the risk from malaria chemoprophylaxis in the ROK, G6PD deficiency prevalence was investigated. METHODS:Blood specimens from 1632 soldiers entering training camp for the 3rd Infantry of the ROK Army were collected. CareStart™ Biosensor for G6PD and haemoglobin (Hb) was used to detect G6PD levels. G6PD variants using the DiaPlexC G6PD Genotyping kit (Asian type) and full-length sequencing were examined. RESULTS:Of 1632 blood specimens tested, none was observed to be G6PD deficient. The median value of all tested samples was 7.582 U/g Hb. An investigation of 170 G6PD DNA variants was analysed and categorized as partially low normal [n?=?131, 30-80% (2.27-6.05 U/g Hb) of the median value], high [n?=?3, >?150% (>?11.373 U/g Hb) of the median value], or normal [n?=?36, 80-150% (6.05-11.373 U/g Hb) of the median value], and none was amplified by the DiaPlexC kit. Five silent mutations (C?T) in 131 partially low normal specimens were found at the 1311th nucleotide position by sequence analysis. Another 8 silent mutations (T93C) were also detected in 131 partially low normal specimens. Thus, it is inferred that these silent mutations could be related to G6PD activity. CONCLUSIONS:This G6PD deficiency prevalence study, conducted among participants from the 3rd Infantry of the ROK Army, provided crucial evidence for the safety of malaria chemoprophylaxis. This study showed that the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among 1632 young soldiers was wholly absent. Although G6PD phenotypic mutations were not detected, many silent mutations (C1311T and T93C) were observed. Thus, it is inferred that malaria chemoprophylaxis is relatively safe against G6PD deficiency-mediated haemolytic anaemia. However, given the number of individuals whose G6PD were at the partially low normal range and the frequent detection of G6PD deficiency-related mutations, consistent monitoring of G6PD deficiency is needed.
Project description:This article contains data on the variation in several physiological parameters of red blood cells (RBCs) donated by eligible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient donors during storage in standard blood bank conditions compared to control, G6PD sufficient (G6PD(+)) cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell fragility and membrane exovesiculation were measured in RBCs throughout the storage period, with or without stimulation by oxidants, supplementation of N-acetylcysteine and energy depletion, following incubation of stored cells for 24 h at 37 °C. Apart from cell characteristics, the total or uric acid-dependent antioxidant capacity of the supernatant in addition to extracellular potassium concentration was determined in RBC units. Finally, procoagulant activity and protein carbonylation levels were measured in the microparticles population. Further information can be found in "Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better "storers" than donors of red blood cells" .
Project description:Chikungunya viruses from the 2017 outbreak in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were analysed phylogenetically. E1 sequences from 21 strains belonged to the Indian Ocean clade of the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype, forming a novel cluster with latest South Asian strains. They lacked the A226V substitution.