Data on some socio-economic parameters explaining the movement of extra-EU asylum seekers in Europe.
ABSTRACT: This article contains data concerning the movement of extra-EU asylum seekers in Europe. Data used in this paper were collected from the Eurostat database and the UNHCR database. The data consist of some socio-economic features related to 30 European countries where extra-EU asylum seekers have applied for protection. All variables were transformed into their natural logs. The degree of statistical correlation is evaluated from Pearson?s coefficient, using the 0.05 level of significance. Regression analysis is conducted to identify some socio-economic predictors of countries attracting asylum migration. Six models are presented, where 'first time asylum applicants' in 2015 (1,324,215 individuals) in 30 European countries were regressed on 2014 predictors. The multilinear regression model was tested by using data on asylum seekers in 2014, regressed on the same predictors referred to 2013. The data here shared provide a resource for researchers working in the topical field of migration.
Project description:Asylum seekers are exposed to a range of social and financial difficulties suggested to adversely impact mental health. Uprooted social networks and living conditions during the asylum seeking process potentially predispose this population to low access to social support. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social and financial hardship and mental health problems, and assess the potential mediating role of social support among asylum seekers. Cross sectional survey data from a cohort of asylum seekers in Sweden (N = 455) were subjected to structural equation modelling for examining hypothesized pathways between social and financial hardship, common mental health problems (CMHPs) and social support. Fit indices showed adequate to excellent fit of the examined models with CMHPs as the outcome (all CFI ? 0.951, RMSEA < 0.05, SRMR < 0.056). CMHPs were positively regressed on social and financial hardship (B = 0.786, S = 0.102, p < 0.001) and negatively regressed on social support (B = -0.103, SE = 0.032, p = 0.001). Social support mediated the association between social and financial hardship and CMHPs (effect estimate = 0.075, 95% CI = 0.032-0.136). The results point to the importance of social and living conditions of asylum seekers and indicate that social support is both socially patterned and may act as a mitigating resource to inform interventions and policies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Health, well-being and health service needs of asylum seekers have emerged as urgent topics following the arrival of 2.5 million asylum seekers to the European Union (EU) between 2015 and 2016. However, representative information on the health, well-being and service needs of asylum seekers is scarce. The Asylum Seekers Health and Wellbeing (TERTTU) Survey aims to: (1) gather population-based representative information; (2) identify key indicators for systematic monitoring; (3) produce the evidence base for development of systematic screening of asylum seekers' health, well-being and health service needs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:TERTTU Survey is a population-based prospective study with a total population sample of newly arrived asylum seekers to Finland, including adults and children. Baseline data collection is carried out in reception centres in 2018 and consists of a face-to-face interview, self-administered questionnaire and a health examination following a standardised protocol. Altogether 1000 asylum seekers will be included into the study. Baseline data will be followed up with national electronic health record data encompassing the entire asylum process and later with national register data among persons who receive residency permits. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval has been granted by the Coordinating Ethics Committee of the Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District. Participation is voluntary and based on written informed consent. Results will be widely disseminated on a national and international level to inform health and welfare policy as well as development of services for asylum seekers. Results of the study will constitute the evidence base for development and implementation of the initial health assessment for asylum seekers on a national level.
Project description:IntroductionIn 2015, there was an increase in the number of asylum seekers arriving in Europe. Like in other countries, deciding screening priorities for tuberculosis (TB) and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was a challenge. At least five of 428 municipalities chose to screen asylum seekers for MRSA before TB; the Norwegian Institute for Public Health advised against this.AimTo evaluate the MRSA/TB screening results from 2014 to 2016 and create a generalised framework for screening prioritisation in Norway through simulation modelling.MethodsThis is a register-based cohort study of asylum seekers using data from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases from 2014 to 2016. We used survey data from municipalities that screened all asylum seekers for MRSA and denominator data from the Directorate of Immigration. A comparative risk assessment model was built to investigate the outcomes of prioritising between TB and MRSA in screening regimes.ResultsOf 46,090 asylum seekers, 137 (0.30%) were diagnosed with active TB (notification rate: 300/100,000 person-years). In the municipalities that screened all asylum seekers for MRSA, 13 of 1,768 (0.74%) were found to be infected with MRSA. The model estimated that screening for MRSA would prevent eight MRSA infections while prioritising TB screening would prevent 24 cases of active TB and one death.ConclusionOur findings support the decision to advise against screening for MRSA before TB among newly arrived asylum seekers. The model was an effective tool for comparing screening priorities and can be applied to other scenarios in other countries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Finland, asylum seekers from countries with high tuberculosis (TB) incidence (>?50/100,000 population/year) and those coming from a refugee camp or conflict area are eligible for TB screening. The aim of this study was to characterise the TB cases diagnosed during screening and estimate the yield of TB screening at the reception centres among asylum seekers, who arrived in Finland during 2015-2016. METHODS:Voluntary screening conducted at reception centres included an interview and a chest X-ray. Data on TB screening and health status of asylum seekers was obtained from the reception centres' national health register (HRS). To identify confirmed TB cases, the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) data of foreign-born cases during 2015-2016 were linked with HRS data. TB screening yield was defined as the percentage of TB cases identified among screened asylum seekers, stratified by country of origin. RESULTS:During 2015-2016, a total of 38,134 asylum applications were received (57% were from Iraq, 16% from Afghanistan and 6% from Somalia) and 25,048 chest x-rays were performed. A total of 96?TB cases were reported to the NIDR among asylum seekers in 2015-2016; 94 (98%) of them had been screened. Screening identified 48 (50%) cases: 83% were male, 56% aged 18-34?years, 42% from Somalia, 27% from Afghanistan and 13% from Iraq. Furthermore, 92% had pulmonary TB, 61% were culture-confirmed and 44% asymptomatic. TB screening yield was 0.19% (48/25048) (95%CI, 0.14-0.25%) and it varied between 0 and 0.83% stratified by country of origin. Number needed to screen was 522. CONCLUSIONS:TB screening yield was higher as compared with data reported from other European countries conducting active screening among asylum seekers. Half of the TB cases among asylum seekers were first suspected in screening; 44% were asymptomatic. TB yield varied widely between asylum seekers from different geographic areas.
Project description:Background:Asylum seekers display high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and panic disorder due to pre-, peri-, and post-migration stressors. In contrast to the high mental health burden, health care utilization among asylum seekers in the early phase of resettlement is low. However, the early stages after migration are a particularly vulnerable phase in which psychosocial support measures are needed to prevent mental disorders from becoming chronic. Objective:To identify predictors of asylum seekers' health care utilization in the early stages of resettlement. Methods:Using hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the variance explanation of the (1) general utilization of health care services as well as the individual utilization of (2) outpatient psychiatrists, (3) counselling centers, and (4) general practitioners was analyzed in n = 65 asylum seekers. A structured interview on health care utilization took place between three to five months after assessment of possible predictors. We defined the following three groups of predictors a) the sociodemographic variables gender, age, number of children, religion, language proficiency, b) the psychological variables sense of coherence and emotion regulation as well as c) the asylum seekers' psychiatric diagnoses. Results:Individual sociodemographic factors, such as gender, age, and number of children as well as the emotion regulation strategy of expressive suppression and sense of coherence were shown to be predictive for the utilization of health care services among asylum seekers. Conclusions:Low-threshold, culture-sensitive treatment offers for asylum seekers should be established in the early phase after migration. General practitioners should be a central hub for further referrals to disorder-specific treatments.
Project description:I examine the pattern of selection on education of asylum seekers recently arrived in Germany from five key source countries: Afghanistan, Albania, Iraq, Serbia, and Syria. The analysis relies on original individual-level data collected in Germany combined with surveys conducted at origin. The results reveal a positive pattern of selection on education for asylum seekers who were able to flee Iraq and Syria, and the selection is neutral for individuals seeking asylum from Afghanistan and negative for asylum seekers from Albania and Serbia. I provide an interpretation of these patterns based on differences in the expected length of stay at destination, the migration costs faced by asylum seekers to reach Germany, and the size of migration networks at destination.
Project description:The number of asylum seekers arriving in Germany has increased rapidly since 2014 and cases of vaccine-preventable diseases at reception centres were reported. Asylum seekers 12 years and older arriving in Lower Saxony were serologically screened for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella between November 2014 and October 2015. We calculated the seroprevalence from the screening data by disease, country of origin and age group and compared them to literature-based herd immunity thresholds in order to identify immunisation gaps. In total, 23,647 specimens were included in our study. Although the vast majority of asylum seekers tested positive for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella, the seroprevalences were not sufficient to ensure herd immunity. The seroprevalences varied substantially between countries of origin and increased with age. Immunisation of asylum seekers against measles, rubella and varicella is needed and the detailed information on seroprevalences among subgroups of asylum seekers can be used for targeted immunisations at reception centres.
Project description:This paper aims to evaluate the economic and fiscal effects of inflows of asylum seekers into Western Europe from 1985 to 2015. It relies on an empirical methodology that is widely used to estimate the macroeconomic effects of structural shocks and policies. It shows that inflows of asylum seekers do not deteriorate host countries' economic performance or fiscal balance because the increase in public spending induced by asylum seekers is more than compensated for by an increase in tax revenues net of transfers. As asylum seekers become permanent residents, their macroeconomic impacts become positive.
Project description:Screening asylum-seekers for active pulmonary tuberculosis is common practice among many European countries with low incidence of tuberculosis. The reported yields vary substantially, partly due to the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of asylum-seeking populations. Rather than screening all new arrivals (indiscriminate screening), a few countries apply targeted screening based on incidence of tuberculosis in asylum-seekers' country of origin. However, evaluations of its cost-effectiveness have been scarce. The aim of this modelling study was to assess whether the introduction of a screening threshold based on the tuberculosis incidence in the country of origin is sensible from an economic perspective. To this end, we compare the current, indiscriminate screening policy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Germany with a hypothetical targeted screening programme using several potential screening thresholds based on WHO-reported incidence of tuberculosis in countries of origin. Screening data is taken from a large German federal state over 14 years (2002-2015). Incremental cost-effectiveness is measured as cost per case found and cost per case prevented. Our analysis shows that incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of screening asylum-seekers from countries with an incidence of 50 to 250/100,000 range between 15,000€ and 17,000€ per additional case found when compared to lower thresholds. The ICER for screening asylum-seekers from countries with an incidence <50/100,000 is 112,000€ per additional case found. Costs per case prevented show a similar increase in costs. The high cost per case found and per case prevented at the <50/100,000 threshold scenario suggests this threshold to be a sensible cut-off for targeted screening. Acknowledging that no screening measure can find all cases of tuberculosis, and that reactivation of latent infections makes up a large proportion of foreign-born cases, targeting asylum-seekers from countries with an incidence above 50/100,000 is likely to be a more reasonable screening measure for the prevention and control of tuberculosis than indiscriminate screening measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Screening programmes for tuberculosis (TB) among immigrants rarely consider the heterogeneity of risk related to migrants' country of origin. We assess the performance of a large screening programme in asylum seekers by analysing (i) the difference in yield and numbers needed to screen (NNS) by country and WHO-reported TB burden, (ii) the possible impact of screening thresholds on sensitivity, and (iii) the value of WHO-estimated TB burden to improve the prediction accuracy of screening yield. METHODS:We combined individual data of 119,037 asylum seekers screened for TB in Germany (2002-2015) with TB estimates of the World Health Organization (WHO) (1990-2014) for their 81 countries of origin. Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) and 95% credible intervals (CrI) of the observed yield of screening were calculated in Bayesian Poisson regression models by categories of WHO-estimated TB incidence. We assessed changes in sensitivity depending on screening thresholds, used WHO TB estimates as prior information to predict TB in asylum seekers, and modelled country-specific probabilities of numbers needed to screen (NNS) conditional on different screening thresholds. RESULTS:The overall yield was 82 per 100,000 and the annual yield ranged from 44.1 to 279.7 per 100,000. Country-specific yields ranged from 10 (95%- CrI: 1-47) to 683 (95%-CrI: 306-1336) per 100,000 in Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, respectively. The observed yield was higher in asylum seekers from countries with a WHO-estimated TB incidence > 50 relative to those from countries ≤50 per 100,000 (aRR: 4.17, 95%-CrI: 2.86-6.59). Introducing a threshold in the range of a WHO-estimated TB incidence of 50 and 100 per 100,000 resulted in the lowest "loss" in sensitivity. WHO's TB prevalence estimates improved prediction accuracy for eight of the 11 countries, and allowed modelling country-specific probabilities of NNS. CONCLUSIONS:WHO's TB data can inform the estimation of screening yield and thus be used to improve screening efficiency in asylum seekers. This may help to develop more targeted screening strategies by reducing uncertainty in estimates of expected country-specific yield, and identify thresholds with lowest loss in sensitivity. Further modelling studies are needed which combine clinical, diagnostic and country-specific parameters.