Utilization of zinc chloride for surface modification of activated carbon derived from Jatropha curcas L. for absorbent material.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this research is to produce the low-cost activated carbon from Jatropha curcas L. by chemical activation using zinc chloride ZnCl2. The effects of the impregnation ratio on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon were investigated. The impregnation ratio was selected at the range of 1:1-10:1 for investigation. The optimum conditions resulted in an activated carbon with a carbon content of 80% wt, while the specific surface area evaluated using nitrogen adsorption isotherm corresponds to 600 m2/g.
Project description:Jatropha curcas is currently known as an alternative source for biodiesel production. Beside its high free fatty acid content, J. curcas also contains typical diterpenoid-toxic compounds of Euphorbiaceae plant namely phorbol esters. This article present the transcription profile data of genes involved in the biosynthesis of phorbol esters at different developmental stages of leaves, fruit, and seed in Jatropha curcas. Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We used two genes including GGPPS (Geranylgeranyl diphospate synthase), which is responsible for the formation of common diterpenoid precursor (GGPP) and CS (Casbene Synthase), which functions in the synthesis of casbene. Meanwhile, J. curcas Actin (ACT) was used as internal standard. We demonstrated dynamic of GGPPS and CS expression among different stage of development of leaves, fruit and seed in Jatropha.
Project description:Random regression models (RRM) are a powerful tool to evaluate genotypic plasticity over time. However, to date, RRM remains unexplored for the analysis of repeated measures in Jatropha curcas breeding. Thus, the present work aimed to apply the random regression technique and study its possibilities for the analysis of repeated measures in Jatropha curcas breeding. To this end, the grain yield (GY) trait of 730 individuals of 73 half-sib families was evaluated over six years. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, genetic values were predicted by best linear unbiased prediction and RRM were fitted through Legendre polynomials. The best RRM was selected by Bayesian information criterion. According to the likelihood ratio test, there was genetic variability among the Jatropha curcas progenies; also, the plot and permanent environmental effects were statistically significant. The variance components and heritability estimates increased over time. Non-uniform trajectories were estimated for each progeny throughout the measures, and the area under the trajectories distinguished the progenies with higher performance. High accuracies were found for GY in all harvests, which indicates the high reliability of the results. Moderate to strong genetic correlation was observed across pairs of harvests. The genetic trajectories indicated the existence of genotype × measurement interaction, once the trajectories crossed, which implies a different ranking in each year. Our results suggest that RRM can be efficiently applied for genetic selection in Jatropha curcas breeding programs.
Project description:Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986?SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680?bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5'UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3'UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5'UTRs and 3'UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302?SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (?70%) amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content) value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species) suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.
Project description:We estimated the genetic diversity of 50 Jatropha curcas samples from the Costa Rican germplasm bank using 18 EST-SSR, one G-SSR and nrDNA-ITS markers. We also evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among samples using nuclear ribosomal ITS markers. Non-toxicity was evaluated using G-SSRs and SCARs markers. A Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree and a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree were constructed using SSR markers and ITS sequences, respectively. Heterozygosity was moderate (He = 0.346), but considerable compared to worldwide values for J. curcas. The PIC (PIC = 0.274) and inbreeding coefficient (f = - 0.102) were both low. Clustering was not related to the geographical origin of accessions. International accessions clustered independently of collection sites, suggesting a lack of genetic structure, probably due to the wide distribution of this crop and ample gene flow. Molecular markers identified only one non-toxic accession (JCCR-24) from Mexico. This work is part of a countrywide effort to characterize the genetic diversity of the Jatropha curcas germplasm bank in Costa Rica.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Jatropha curcas is an oil-bearing plant, and has seeds with high oil content (~?40%). Several advantages, such as easy genetic transformation and short generation duration, have led to the emergence of J. curcas as a model for woody energy plants. With the development of high-throughput sequencing, the genome of Jatropha curcas has been sequenced by different groups and a mass of transcriptome data was released. How to integrate and analyze these omics data is crucial for functional genomics research on J. curcas. RESULTS:By establishing pipelines for processing novel gene identification, gene function annotation, and gene network construction, we systematically integrated and analyzed a series of J. curcas transcriptome data. Based on these data, we constructed a J. curcas database (JCDB), which not only includes general gene information, gene functional annotation, gene interaction networks, and gene expression matrices but also provides tools for browsing, searching, and downloading data, as well as online BLAST, the JBrowse genome browser, ID conversion, heatmaps, and gene network analysis tools. CONCLUSIONS:JCDB is the most comprehensive and well annotated knowledge base for J. curcas. We believe it will make a valuable contribution to the functional genomics study of J. curcas. The database is accessible at http://jcdb.xtbg.ac.cn.
Project description:Jatropha curcas L. or the physic nut is a monoecious shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The plant is an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production; oil-rich seed (37-42%), has a broad range of growth habitat such as arid, semi-arid and tropical and a relatively feasible process for conversion of crude oil into biodiesel. The major constraint affecting the success of large-scale J. curcas plantation is seed yield inconsistency. Numerous research projects conducted on J. curcas with integrated genetic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches have been applied on the leaf, apical meristem, flower, root and fruit tissues. However, to date, no genomics data of J. curcas shoot system are publicly available, despite its importance in understanding flowering, fruiting and seed set qualities targeted for yield improvement. Here, we present eighteen sets of shoot and inflorescence transcriptomes generated from J. curcas plants with contrasting yields. Raw reads of the RNA-seq data are found in NCBI?s Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database with the accession number SRP090662 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/?term=SRP090662). This transcriptomic data could be integrated with the present genomic resources for in depth understanding of J. curcas reproductive system.
Project description:Recent research revealed that TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) homologues are involved in the critical developmental process of floral initiation in several plant species. In this study, the functions of three putative TFL1 homologues (JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c) in the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas were analysed using the transgenic approach. JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c, but not JcTFL1a, could complement the TFL1 function and rescue early flowering and determinate inflorescence phenotype in tfl1-14 Arabidopsis mutant, thus suggesting that JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c may be homologues of TFL1. Transgenic Jatropha overexpressing JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b or JcTFL1c showed late flowering, whereas only JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c overexpression delayed flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. JcTFL1b-RNAi transgenic Jatropha consistently exhibited moderately early flowering phenotype. JcFT and JcAP1 were significantly downregulated in transgenic Jatropha overexpressing JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b or JcTFL1c, which suggested that the late flowering phenotype of these transgenic Jatropha may result from the repressed expression of JcFT and JcAP1. Our results indicate that these three JcTFL1 genes play redundant roles in repressing flowering in Jatropha.
Project description:This article contains metadata related to the research article "Behavior of genetic diversity in F1 crosses of selected accessions of Jatropha curcas" (Sánchez-Velázquez et al., 2018). The data presented in this article belong to a diversity study using ISSR molecular markers of a J. curcas germplasm collection that includes bred offspring and analysis of similarity between accessions. We tested previously reported primers in PCR assays to obtain a genetic profile of the accessions. These profiles were used to calculate Dice similarities. Similarity between offspring and parentals can be compared either with the maternal side or paternal side.
Project description:Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha.