Nucleoside-Diphosphate-Kinase of P. gingivalis is Secreted from Epithelial Cells In the Absence of a Leader Sequence Through a Pannexin-1 Interactome.
ABSTRACT: Nucleoside-diphosphate-kinases (NDKs) are leaderless, multifunctional enzymes. The mode(s) of NDK secretion is currently undefined, while extracellular translocation of bacterial NDKs is critical for avoidance of host pathogen clearance by opportunistic pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis-NDK during infection inhibits extracellular-ATP (eATP)/P2X7-receptor mediated cell death in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) via eATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, depletion of pannexin-1-hemichannel (PNX1) coupled with P2X7-receptor blocks the infection-induced eATP release in GECs, and P. gingivalis-NDK impacts this pathway. Ultrastructural and confocal microscopy of P. gingivalis-co-cultured GECs or green-fluorescent-protein (GFP)-P. gingivalis-NDK transfected GECs revealed a perinuclear/cytoplasmic localization of NDK. eATP stimulation induced NDK recruitment to the cell periphery. Depletion of PNX1 by siRNA or inhibition by probenecid resulted in significant blocking of extracellular NDK activity and secretion using ATPase and ELISA assays. Co-immunoprecipitation-coupled Mass-spectrometry method revealed association of P. gingivalis-NDK to the myosin-9 motor molecule. Interestingly, inhibition of myosin-9, actin, and lipid-rafts, shown to be involved in PNX1-hemichannel function, resulted in marked intracellular accumulation of NDK and decreased NDK secretion from infected GECs. These results elucidate for the first time PNX1-hemichannels as potentially main extracellular translocation pathway for NDKs from an intracellular pathogen, suggesting that PNX1-hemichannels may represent a therapeutic target for chronic opportunistic infections.
Project description:We have previously shown that a homologue of a conserved nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase (Ndk) family of multifunctional enzymes and secreted molecule in Porphyromonas gingivalis can modulate select host molecular pathways including downregulation of reactive-oxygen-species generation to promote bacterial survival in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). In this study, we describe a novel kinase function for bacterial effector, P. gingivalis-Ndk, in abrogating epithelial cell death by phosphorylating heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) in GECs. Infection by P. gingivalis was recently suggested to increase phosphorylation of HSP27 in cancer-epithelial cells; however, the mechanism and biological significance of antiapoptotic phospho-HSP27 during infection has never been characterised. Interestingly, using glutathione S-transferase-rNdk pull-down analysed by mass spectrometry, we identified HSP27 in GECs as a strong binder of P. gingivalis-Ndk and further verified using confocal microscopy and ELISA. Therefore, we hypothesised P. gingivalis-Ndk can phosphorylate HSP27 for inhibition of apoptosis in GECs. We further employed P. gingivalis-Ndk protein constructs and an isogenic P. gingivalis-ndk-deficient-mutant strain for functional examination. P. gingivalis-infected GECs displayed significantly increased phospho-HSP27 compared with ndk-deficient-strain during 24 hr infection. Phospho-HSP27 was significantly increased by transfection of GFP-tagged-Ndk into uninfected-GECs, and in vitro phosphorylation assays revealed direct phosphorylation of HSP27 at serines 78 and 82 by P. gingivalis-Ndk. Depletion of HSP27 via siRNA significantly reversed resistance against staurosporine-mediated-apoptosis during infection. Transfection of recombinant P. gingivalis-Ndk protein into GECs substantially decreased staurosporine-induced-apoptosis. Finally, ndk-deficient-mutant strain was unable to inhibit staurosporine-induced Cytochrome C release/Caspase-9 activation. Thus, we show for the first time the phosphorylation of HSP27 by a bacterial effector-P. gingivalis-Ndk-and a novel function of Ndks that is directly involved in inhibition of host cell apoptosis and the subsequent bacterial survival.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major opportunistic pathogen in the etiology of chronic periodontitis, successfully survives in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). P. gingivalis abrogates the effects of a host danger molecule, extracellular ATP (eATP)/P2X7 signaling, such as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the mitochondria and NADPH oxidases (NOX) from primary GECs. However, antimicrobial functions of ROS production are thoroughly investigated in myeloid-lineage immune cells and have not been well-understood in epithelial cells. Therefore, this study characterizes antibacterial NOX2 generated ROS and host downstream effects in P. gingivalis infected human primary GECs. We examined the expression of NOX isoforms in the GECs and demonstrate eATP stimulation increased the mRNA expression of NOX2 (p < 0.05). Specific peptide inhibition of NOX2 significantly reduced eATP-mediated ROS as detected by DCFDA probe. The results also showed P. gingivalis infection can temporally modulate NOX2 pathway by reorganizing the localization and activation of cytosolic molecules (p47phox, p67phox, and Rac1) during 24 h of infection. Investigation into downstream biocidal factors of NOX2 revealed an eATP-induced increase in hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in GECs detected by R19-S fluorescent probe, which is significantly reduced by a myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitor. MPO activity of the host cells was assayed and found to be positively affected by eATP treatment and/or infection. However, P. gingivalis significantly reduced the MPO product, bactericidal HOCl, in early times of infection upon eATP stimulation. Analysis of the intracellular levels of a major host-antioxidant, glutathione during early infection revealed a substantial decrease (p < 0.05) in reduced glutathione indicative of scavenging of HOCl by P. gingivalis infection and eATP treatment. Examination of the mRNA expression of key enzymes in the glutathione synthesis pathway displayed a marked increase (p < 0.05) in glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) subunits GCLc and GCLm, glutathione synthetase, and glutathione reductase during the infection. These suggest P. gingivalis modulates the danger signal eATP-induced NOX2 signaling and also induces host glutathione synthesis to likely avoid HOCl mediated clearance. Thus, we characterize for the first time in epithelial cells, an eATP/NOX2-ROS-antibacterial pathway and demonstrate P. gingivalis can circumvent this important antimicrobial defense system potentially for successful persistence in human epithelial tissues.
Project description:Cell surface nucleotide-metabolizing enzyme, ectonucleotidase-CD73, has emerged as a central component of the cellular homeostatic-machinery that counterbalances the danger-molecule (extracellular-ATP)-driven proinflammatory response in immune cells. While the importance of CD73 in microbial host fitness and symbiosis is gradually being unraveled, there remains a significant gap in knowledge of CD73 and its putative role in epithelial cells. Here, we depict a novel host-pathogen adaptation mechanism where CD73 takes a center role in the intracellular persistence of <i>Porphyromonas gingivalis</i>, a major colonizer of oral mucosa, using human primary gingival epithelial cell (GEC) system. Temporal analyses revealed, upon invasion into the GECs, <i>P. gingivalis</i> can significantly elevate the host-surface CD73 activity and expression. The enhanced and active CD73 significantly increases <i>P. gingivalis</i> intracellular growth in the presence of substrate-AMP and simultaneously acts as a negative regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon eATP treatment. The inhibition of CD73 by siRNA or by a specific inhibitor markedly increases ROS production. Moreover, CD73 and <i>P. gingivalis</i> cross-signaling significantly modulates pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the GECs. Conversely, exogenous treatment of the infected GECs with IL-6 suppresses the intracellular bacteria via amplified ROS generation. However, the decreased bacterial levels can be restored by overexpressing functionally active CD73. Together, these findings illuminate how the local extracellular-purine-metabolism, in which CD73 serves as a core molecular switch, can alter intracellular microbial colonization resistance. Further, host-adaptive pathogens such as <i>P. gingivalis</i> can target host ectonucleotidases to disarm specific innate defenses for successful intracellular persistence in mucosal epithelia.
Project description:Connexin (Cxs) hemichannels participate in several physiological and pathological processes, but the molecular mechanisms that control their gating remain elusive. We aimed at determining the role of extracellular cysteines (Cys) in the gating and function of Cx46 hemichannels. We studied Cx46 and mutated all of its extracellular Cys to alanine (Ala) (one at a time) and studied the effects of the Cys mutations on Cx46 expression, localization, and hemichannel activity. Wild-type Cx46 and Cys mutants were expressed at comparable levels, with similar cellular localization. However, functional experiments showed that hemichannels formed by the Cys mutants did not open either in response to membrane depolarization or removal of extracellular divalent cations. Molecular-dynamics simulations showed that Cys mutants may show a possible alteration in the electrostatic potential of the hemichannel pore and an altered disposition of important residues that could contribute to the selectivity and voltage dependency in the hemichannels. Replacement of extracellular Cys resulted in "permanently closed hemichannels", which is congruent with the inhibition of the Cx46 hemichannel by lipid peroxides, through the oxidation of extracellular Cys. These results point to the modification of extracellular Cys as potential targets for the treatment of Cx46-hemichannel associated pathologies, such as cataracts and cancer, and may shed light into the gating mechanisms of other Cx hemichannels.
Project description:Connexin (Cx) gap junction channels comprise two hemichannels in neighboring cells, and their permeability is well-described, but permeabilities of the single Cx hemichannel remain largely unresolved. Moreover, determination of isoform-specific Cx hemichannel permeability is challenging because of concurrent expression of other channels with similar permeability profiles and inhibitor sensitivities. The mammalian Cx hemichannels Cx30 and Cx43 are gated by extracellular divalent cations, removal of which promotes fluorescent dye uptake in both channels but atomic ion conductance only through Cx30. To determine the molecular determinants of this difference, here we employed chimeras and mutagenesis of predicted pore-lining residues in Cx43. We expressed the mutated channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes to avoid background activity of alternative channels. Oocytes expressing a Cx43 hemichannel chimera containing the N terminus or the first extracellular loop from Cx30 displayed ethidium uptake and, unlike WT Cx43, ion conduction, an observation further supported by molecular dynamics simulations. Additional C-terminal truncation of the chimeric Cx43 hemichannel elicited an even greater ion conductance with a magnitude closer to that of Cx30. The inhibitory profile for the connexin hemichannels depended on the permeant, with conventional connexin hemichannel inhibitors having a higher potency toward the ion conductance pathway than toward fluorescent dye uptake. Our results demonstrate a permeant-dependent, isoform-specific inhibition of connexin hemichannels. They further reveal that the outer segments of the pore-lining region, including the N terminus and the first extracellular loop, together with the C terminus preclude ion conductance of the open Cx43 hemichannel.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-driven inflammatory disease that leads to bone destruction. This pathogen stimulates pro-interleukin (IL)-1? synthesis but not mature IL-1? secretion, unless the P2X7 receptor is activated by extracellular ATP (eATP). Here, we investigated the role of P. gingivalis fimbriae in eATP-induced IL-1? release. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild-type (WT) or P2X7-deficient mice were infected with P. gingivalis (381) or isogenic fimbria-deficient (DPG3) strain with or without subsequent eATP stimulation. DPG3 induced higher IL-1? secretion after eATP stimulation compared to 381 in WT BMDMs, but not in P2X7-deficient cells. This mechanism was dependent on K(+) efflux and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 activity. Accordingly, non-fimbriated P. gingivalis failed to inhibit apoptosis via the eATP/P2X7 pathway. Furthermore, P. gingivalis-driven stimulation of IL-1? was Toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88 dependent, and not associated with fimbria expression. Fimbria-dependent down-modulation of IL-1? was selective, as levels of other cytokines remained unaffected by P2X7 deficiency. Confocal microscopy demonstrated the presence of discrete P2X7 expression in the absence of P. gingivalis stimulation, which was enhanced by 381-stimulated cells. Notably, DPG3-infected macrophages revealed a distinct pattern of P2X7 receptor expression with a marked focus formation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that eATP-induced IL-1? secretion is impaired by P. gingivalis fimbriae in a P2X7-dependent manner.
Project description:Connexin-43 (Cx43), a predominant cardiac connexin, forms gap junctions (GJs) that facilitate electrical cell-cell coupling and unapposed/nonjunctional hemichannels that provide a pathway for the exchange of ions and metabolites between cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. Uncontrolled opening of hemichannels in the plasma membrane may be deleterious for the myocardium and blocking hemichannels may confer cardioprotection by preventing ionic imbalance, cell swelling and loss of critical metabolites. Currently, all known hemichannel inhibitors also block GJ channels, thereby disturbing electrical cell-cell communication. Here we aimed to characterize a nonapeptide, called Gap19, derived from the cytoplasmic loop (CL) of Cx43 as a hemichannel blocker and examined its effect on hemichannel currents in cardiomyocytes and its influence in cardiac outcome after ischemia/reperfusion. We report that Gap 19 inhibits Cx43 hemichannels without blocking GJ channels or Cx40/pannexin-1 hemichannels. Hemichannel inhibition is due to the binding of Gap19 to the C-terminus (CT) thereby preventing intramolecular CT-CL interactions. The peptide inhibited Cx43 hemichannel unitary currents in both HeLa cells exogenously expressing Cx43 and acutely isolated pig ventricular cardiomyocytes. Treatment with Gap19 prevented metabolic inhibition-enhanced hemichannel openings, protected cardiomyocytes against volume overload and cell death following ischemia/reperfusion in vitro and modestly decreased the infarct size after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in mice in vivo. We conclude that preventing Cx43 hemichannel opening with Gap19 confers limited protective effects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Project description:Recent studies using the genetic partial epilepsy model have demonstrated that hyperfunction of astroglial hemichannels contributes to pathomechanism of epileptic seizure. Therefore, to explore the novel anticonvulsive mechanisms, the present study determined the effects of voltage-dependent Na+ channel (VDSC)-inhibiting anticonvulsants, carbamazepine (CBZ), lacosamide (LCM), and zonisamide (ZNS) on the astroglial release of l-glutamate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The effects of subchronic administration of therapeutic-relevant dose of three anticonvulsants on the release of l-glutamate and ATP in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were determined using microdialysis. The concentration-dependent effects of acute and subchronic administrations of anticonvulsants on astroglial gliotransmitter release were determined using primary cultured astrocytes. The concentration-dependent effects of subchronic administrations of anticonvulsants on connexin43 (Cx43) expression in the plasma membrane of primary cultured astrocytes were determined using the Simple Western system. An increase in the levels of extracellular K+ resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in the astroglial release of l-glutamate and ATP. The depleted levels of extracellular Ca2+ alone did not affect astroglial gliotransmitter release but did accelerate K+-evoked gliotransmitter release via activation of astroglial hemichannels. Both non-selective hemichannel inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) and selective Cx43 inhibitor GAP19 prevented both gliotransmitter release through activated astroglial hemichannels and the hemichannel-activating process induced by elevation of the levels of extracellular K+ with depletion of the levels of extracellular Ca2+. ZNS subchronically decreased Cx43 expression and acutely/subchronically inhibited Cx43 hemichannel activity. LCM acutely inhibited hemichannel activity but did not subchronically affect Cx43 expression. Therapeutic-relevant concentration of CBZ did not affect hemichannel activity or Cx43 expression, but supratherapeutic concentration of CBZ decreased Cx43 expression and hemichannel activity. Therefore, the present study demonstrated the distinct effects of CBZ, LCM, and ZNS on gliotransmitter release via modulation of astroglial hemichannel function. The different features of the effects of three VDSC-inhibiting anticonvulsants on astroglial transmission associated with hemichannels, at least partially, possibly contributing to the formation of the properties of these three anticonvulsants, including the antiepileptic spectrum and adverse effects regarding mood and cognitive disturbance.
Project description:Mutations in the GJB2 gene, which encodes Cx26, are the most common cause of sensorineural deafness. In syndromic cases, such as keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome, in which deafness is accompanied by corneal inflammation and hyperkeratotic skin, aberrant hemichannel function has emerged as the leading contributing factor. We found that D50N, the most frequent mutation associated with KID syndrome, produces multiple aberrant hemichannel properties, including loss of inhibition by extracellular Ca(2+), decreased unitary conductance, increased open hemichannel current rectification and voltage-shifted activation. We demonstrate that D50 is a pore-lining residue and that negative charge at this position strongly influences open hemichannel properties. Examination of two putative intersubunit interactions involving D50 suggested by the Cx26 crystal structure, K61-D50 and Q48-D50, showed no evidence of a K61-D50 interaction in hemichannels. However, our data suggest that Q48 and D50 interact and disruption of this interaction shifts hemichannel activation positive along the voltage axis. Additional shifts in activation by extracellular Ca(2+) remained in the absence of a D50-Q48 interaction but required an Asp or Glu at position 50, suggesting a separate electrostatic mechanism that critically involves this position. In gap junction (GJ) channels, D50 substitutions produced loss of function, whereas K61 substitutions functioned as GJ channels but not as hemichannels. These data demonstrate that D50 exerts effects on Cx26 hemichannel and GJ channel function as a result of its dual role as a pore residue and a component of an intersubunit complex in the extracellular region of the hemichannel. Differences in the effects of substitutions in GJ channels and hemichannels suggest that perturbations in structure occur upon hemichannel docking that significantly impact function. Collectively, these data provide insight into Cx26 structure-function and the underlying bases for the phenotypes associated with KID syndrome patients carrying the D50N mutation.
Project description:Mutations in Connexin-31 (Cx31) are associated with multiple human diseases including erythrokeratodermia variabilis (EKV). The molecular action of Cx31 pathogenic mutants remains largely elusive. We report here that expression of EKV pathogenic mutant Cx31R42P induces cell death with necrotic characteristics. Inhibition of hemichannel activity by a connexin hemichannel inhibitor or high extracellular calcium suppresses Cx31R42P-induced cell death. Expression of Cx31R42P induces ER stress resulting in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, in turn, to regulate gating of Cx31R42P hemichannels and Cx31R42P induced cell death. Moreover, Cx31R42P hemichannels play an important role in mediating ATP release from the cell. In contrast, no hemichannel activity was detected with cells expressing wildtype Cx31. Together, the results suggest that Cx31R42P forms constitutively active hemichannels to promote necrotic cell death. The Cx31R42P active hemichannels are likely resulted by an ER stress mediated ROS overproduction. The study identifies a mechanism of EKV pathogenesis induced by a Cx31 mutant and provides a new avenue for potential treatment strategy of the disease.