MiR-23a-depressed autophagy is a participant in PUVA- and UVB-induced premature senescence.
ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a cellular catabolic mechanism that is activated in response to stress conditions, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, starvation, and misfolded protein accumulation. Abnormalities in autophagy are associated with several pathologies, including aging and cancer. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are potent modulators of the autophagy pathway. As a result, the current study aims to elucidate the role of the autophagy-related miRNA miR-23ain the process of photoaging. Experiments demonstrated that the antagomir-mediated inactivation of miR-23a resulted in the stimulation of PUVA- and UVB-depressed autophagy flux and protected human fibroblasts from premature senescence. Furthermore, AMBRA1 was identified as a miR-23a target. AMBRA1 cellular levels increased following the introduction of miR-23a antagomirs. And a bioinformatics analysis revealed that the AMBRA1 3' UTR contains functional miR-23a responsive sequences. Finally, it was also demonstrated that both AMBRA1 overexpression and Rapamycin treatment were both able to rescue fibroblasts from PUVA and UVB irradiation-induced autophagy inhibition, but that these effects could also be mitigated by miR-23a overexpression. Therefore, this study concludes that miR-23a-regulated autophagy is a novel and important regulator of ultraviolet-induced premature senescence and AMBRA1 is a rate-limiting miRNA target in this pathway.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sunlight is a major etiologic factor for premature skin aging. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various biological processes, and their roles in UV irradiation-induced skin aging have recently been described. Previously, we found that the lncRNA RP11-670E13.6 was up-regulated and delayed cellular senescence in UVB-irradiated primary human dermal fibroblasts. Here, we performed further investigations of RP11-670E13.6 function. The results showed that this lncRNA directly bound to miR-663a and functioned as a sponge for miR-663a to modulate the derepression of Cdk4 and Cdk6, thereby delaying cellular senescence during UV irradiation-induced skin photoaging. Moreover, we found that RP11-670E13.6 may facilitate DNA damage repair by increasing ATM and ?H2A.X levels. In addition, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H physically interacted with RP11-670E13.6 and blocked its expression. Collectively, our results suggested that the RP11-670E13.6/miR-663a/CDK4 and RP11-670E13.6/miR-663a/CDK6 axis, which may function as competitive endogenous RNA networks, played important roles in UVB-induced cellular senescence.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a relevant environment factor to induce cellular senescence and photoaging. Both autophagy- and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1)-dependent pathways are critical cellular processes of not only maintaining normal cellular functions, but also protecting cellular senescence in skin exposed to UV irradiation. In the present studies, we investigated whether modulation of autophagy induction using a novel synthetic SIRT1 activator, heptasodium hexacarboxymethyl dipeptide-12 (named as Aquatide), suppresses the UVB irradiation-induced skin aging. Treatment with Aquatide directly activates SIRT1 and stimulates autophagy induction in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. Next, we found that Aquatide-mediated activation of SIRT1 increases autophagy induction via deacetylation of forkhead box class O (FOXO) 1. Finally, UVB irradiation-induced cellular senescence measured by SA-?-gal staining was significantly decreased in cells treated with Aquatide in parallel to occurring SIRT1 activation-dependent autophagy. Together, Aquatide modulates autophagy through SIRT1 activation, contributing to suppression of skin aging caused by UV irradiation.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a phenotype that is likely linked with aging. Recent concepts view different forms of senescence as permanently maintained DNA damage responses partially characterized by the presence of senescence-associated DNA damage foci at dysfunctional telomeres. Irradiation of primary human dermal fibroblasts with the photosensitizer 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) induces senescence. In the present study, we demonstrate that senescence after PUVA depends on DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) formation that activates ATR kinase. ATR is necessary for the manifestation and maintenance of the senescent phenotype, because depletion of ATR expression before PUVA prevents induction of senescence, and reduction of ATR expression in PUVA-senesced fibroblasts releases cells from growth arrest. We find an ATR-dependent phosphorylation of the histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX). After PUVA, ATR and gamma-H2AX colocalize in multiple nuclear foci. After several days, only few predominantly telomere-localized foci persist and telomeric DNA can be coimmunoprecipitated with ATR from PUVA-senesced fibroblasts. We thus identify ATR as a novel mediator of telomere-dependent senescence in response to ICL induced by photoactivated psoralens.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) may be involved in a key mechanism of the skin aging process, influencing several aspects related to the age-related degeneration of skin cells, including antioxidant unbalance. Therefore, we investigated whether the up-modulation of this nuclear receptor exerts a protective effect in a stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) model based on a single exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to 8-methoxypsoralen plus + ultraviolet-A-irradiation (PUVA). Among possible PPAR? modulators, we selected 2,4,6-octatrienoic acid (Octa), a member of the parrodiene family, previously reported to promote melanogenesis and antioxidant defense in normal human melanocytes through a mechanism involving PPAR? activation. Exposure to PUVA induced an early and significant decrease in PPAR? expression and activity. PPAR? up-modulation counteracted the antioxidant imbalance induced by PUVA and reduced the expression of stress response genes with a synergistic increase of different components of the cell antioxidant network, such as catalase and reduced glutathione. PUVA-treated fibroblasts grown in the presence of Octa are partially but significantly rescued from the features of the cellular senescence-like phenotype, such as cytoplasmic enlargement, the expression of senescence-associated-?-galactosidase, matrix-metalloproteinase-1, and cell cycle proteins. Moreover, the alterations in the cell membrane lipids, such as the decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of phospholipids and the increase in cholesterol levels, which are typical features of cell aging, were prevented. Our data suggest that PPAR? is one of the targets of PUVA-SIPS and that its pharmacological up-modulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the photooxidative skin damage.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cellular senescence can be induced by a variety of extrinsic stimuli, and sustained exposure to sunlight is a key factor in photoaging of the skin. Accordingly, irradiation of skin fibroblasts by UVB light triggers cellular senescence, which is thought to contribute to extrinsic skin aging, although molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we addressed molecular mechanisms underlying UVB induced senescence of human diploid fibroblasts.<h4>Results</h4>We observed a parallel activation of the p53/p21(WAF1) and p16(INK4a)/pRb pathways. Using genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we identified a transcriptional signature of UVB-induced senescence that was conserved in three independent strains of human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) from skin. In parallel, a comprehensive screen for microRNAs regulated during UVB-induced senescence was performed which identified five microRNAs that are significantly regulated during the process. Bioinformatic analysis of miRNA-mRNA networks was performed to identify new functional mRNA targets with high confidence for miR-15a, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-93, and miR-101. Already known targets of these miRNAs were identified in each case, validating the approach. Several new targets were identified for all of these miRNAs, with the potential to provide new insight in the process of UVB-induced senescence at a genome-wide level. Subsequent analysis was focused on miR-101 and its putative target gene Ezh2. We confirmed that Ezh2 is regulated by miR-101 in human fibroblasts, and found that both overexpression of miR-101 and downregulation of Ezh2 independently induce senescence in the absence of UVB irradiation. However, the downregulation of miR-101 was not sufficient to block the phenotype of UVB-induced senescence, suggesting that other UVB-induced processes induce the senescence response in a pathway redundant with upregulation of miR-101.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We performed a comprehensive screen for UVB-regulated microRNAs in human diploid fibroblasts, and identified a network of miRNA-mRNA interactions mediating UVB-induced senescence. In addition, miR-101 and Ezh2 were identified as key players in UVB-induced senescence of HDF.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate the effects of baicalin on ultraviolet radiation B (UVB)-mediated microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse skin. We determined miRNA expression profiles in UVB irradiated mice, baicalin treated irradiated mice, and untreated mice, and conducted TargetScan and Gene Ontology analyses to predict miRNA targets. Three miRNAs (mmu-miR-125a-5p, mmu-miR-146a, and mmu-miR-141) were downregulated and another three (mmu-miR-188-5p, mmu-miR-223 and mmu-miR-22) were upregulated in UVB irradiated mice compared with untreated mice. Additionally, these miRNAs were predicted to be related to photocarcinogenesis, hypomethylation and apoptosis. Three miRNAs (mmu-miR-378, mmu-miR-199a-3p and mmu-miR-181b) were downregulated and one (mmu-miR-23a) was upregulated in baicalin treated mice compared with UVB irradiated mice, and they were predicted to be related to DNA repair signaling pathway. These deregulated miRNAs are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of photodamage, and may aid treatment and prevention of UVB-induced dermatoses.
Project description:The human skin has an important role in barrier function. Ultraviolet rays (UV) from sunlight exposure can cause cell apoptosis in the skin epidermis, resulting in the disruption of the barrier. Previously, we have demonstrated that BNIP3 stimulates autophagy in epidermal keratinocytes and has a protective effect in these cells upon UVB irradiation. In this study, we found that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by UVB irradiation was sufficient to trigger the activation of JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in human primary epidermal keratinocytes. In turn, activated JNK and ERK MAPK mediated the upregulation of BNIP3 expression. Treatment with an antioxidant reagent or a specific inhibitor of MAPK, U0126, and a JNK inhibitor significantly attenuated the expression of BNIP3 triggered by UVB, followed by the induction of cell death by apoptosis. Furthermore, UVB-induced apoptosis was significantly stimulated by chloroquine or bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of autophagy. Moreover, BNIP3 was required for the degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria upon UVB irradiation. These data clearly indicated that BNIP3-induced autophagy, which occurs via UVB-generated ROS-mediated JNK and ERK MAPK activation, has a crucial role in the protection of the skin epidermis against UVB irradiation.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) light is known to potentially damage human skin and accelerate the skin aging process. Upon UVB exposure, melanocytes execute skin protection by increasing melanin production. Senescent cells, including senescent melanocytes, are known to accumulate in aged skin and contribute to the age-associated decline of tissue function. However, melanocyte senescence is still insufficiently explored. Here we describe a new model to investigate mechanisms of UVB-induced senescence in melanocytes and its role in photoaging. Exposure to mild and repeated doses of UVB directly influenced melanocyte proliferation, morphology and ploidy. We confirmed UVB-induced senescence with increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase positivity and changed expression of several senescence markers, including p21, p53 and Lamin B1. UVB irradiation impaired proteasome and increased autophagic activity in melanocytes, while expanding intracellular melanin content. In addition, using a co-culture system, we could confirm that senescence-associated secretory phenotype components secreted by senescent fibroblasts modulated melanogenesis. In conclusion, our new model serves as an important tool to explore UVB-induced melanocyte senescence and its involvement in photoaging and skin pigmentation.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) play vital roles in various immune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The current study aimed to assess the role of miR-145 in interleukin-6 (IL-6)-treated HaCaT cells under ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation and further explore the potential regulatory mechanism. HaCaT cells were pretreated with IL-6 and then exposed to UVB to assess the effect of IL-6 on sensitivity of HaCaT cells to UVB irradiation. The levels of miR-145 and MyD88 were altered by transfection and the transfected efficiency was verified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)/western blot analysis. Cell viability, percentage of apoptotic cells and expression levels of apoptosis-related factors were measured by trypan blue assay, flow cytometry assay, and western blot analysis, respectively. In addition, the levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related factors were assessed by western blot analysis. IL-6 treatments significantly aggravated the reduction of cell viability and promotion of cell apoptosis caused by UVB irradiation in HaCaT cells. Interestingly, miR-145 level was augmented by UVB exposure and miR-145 mimic alleviated IL-6-induced increase of sensitivity to UVB irradiation in HaCaT cells, as dramatically increased cell viability and reduced cell apoptosis. Opposite effects were observed in miR-145 inhibitor-transfected cells. Meanwhile, MyD88 was negatively regulated by miR-145 and MyD88 mediated the regulatory effect of miR-145 on IL-6- and UVB-treated cells. In addition, miR-145 mimic inhibited the JNK and NF-κB pathways by down-regulating MyD88. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that miR-145 alleviated IL-6-induced increase of sensitivity to UVB irradiation by down-regulating MyD88 in HaCaT cells.
Project description:PUVA pretreatment leads to develop early senescence confirmed by p16, p21 and SA-β-GAL positivity which was completely normalised by longer gap. Indicating that PUVA pretreatment causes conditioning set of genes that led to a marked delay in psoriasis development. Overall design: To study the induction and phenotypes development of Aldara-mediated dermatitis in mice pretreated with PUVA in comparison to UVB