Efficacy of CD46-targeting chimeric Ad5/35 adenoviral gene therapy for colorectal cancers.
ABSTRACT: CD46 is a complement inhibitor membrane cofactor which also acts as a receptor for various microbes, including species B adenoviruses (Ads). While most Ad gene therapy vectors are derived from species C and infect cells through coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), CAR expression is downregulated in many cancer cells, resulting inefficient Ad-based therapeutics. Despite a limited knowledge on the expression status of many cancer cells, an increasing number of cancer gene therapy studies include fiber-modified Ad vectors redirected to the more ubiquitously expressed CD46. Since our finding from tumor microarray indicate that CD46 was overexpressed in cancers of the prostate and colon, fiber chimeric Ad5/35 vectors that have infection tropism for CD46 were employed to demonstrate its efficacy in colorectal cancers (CRC). CD46-overexpressed cells showed a significantly higher response to Ad5/35-GFP and to Ad5/35-tk/GCV. While CRC cells express variable levels of CD46, CD46 expression was positively correlated with Ad5/35-mediated GFP fluorescence and accordingly its cell killing. Injection of Ad5/35-tk/GCV caused much greater tumor-suppression in mice bearing CD46-overexpressed cancer xenograft compared to mock group. Analysis of CRC samples revealed that patients with positive CD46 expression had a higher survival rate (p=0.031), carried tumors that were well-differentiated, but less invasive and metastatic, and with a low T stage (all p<0.05). Taken together, our study demonstrated that species B-based adenoviral gene therapy is a suitable approach for generally CD46-overexpressed CRC but would require careful consideration preceding CD46 analysis and categorizing CRC patients.
Project description:Unresectable hepatic colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases are a leading cause of cancer mortality. These tumors and other epithelial tumors often express both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Because adenovirus (Ad) vectors infect the liver and lack tumor tropism, they cannot be used for systemic therapy of hepatic metastases. We used COX-2 transcriptional restriction, in combination with transductional Ad hepatic untargeting and tumor retargeting by a bispecific adapter, sCARhMFE, composed of sCAR [the coxsackie/Ad receptor (CAR) ectodomain] and MFE-23 (a single-chain anti-CEA antibody), to untarget liver after i.v. administration of Ad vectors expressing firefly luciferase and to retarget virus to hepatic colorectal tumor xenografts and non-small cell lung tumor xenografts. To improve both liver untargeting and tumor retargeting, we developed sCARfMFE, a trimerized sCARhMFE adapter. Trimerization greatly improves both untargeting of CAR-dependent Ad infection and CEA-dependent virus retargeting in culture and in vivo. Combining sCARfMFE bispecific adapter transductional liver untargeting and transductional tumor retargeting with COX-2 transcriptional tumor-restricted transgene expression increases systemically administered Ad therapeutic efficacy for hepatic CRC tumors, using herpes virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) as a therapeutic gene in conjunction with the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). Both transductional untargeting and COX-2 transcriptional restriction also reduce HSV1-tk/GCV hepatic toxicity. In addition, transductional sCARfMFE untargeting reduces the innate immune response to systemic Ad administration. Combined transductional liver Ad untargeting, transductional tumor retargeting, and transcriptional transgene restriction suggests a means to engineer practical, effective therapeutic agents for hepatic CRC metastases in particular, as well as hepatic metastases of other epithelial cancers.
Project description:The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transduction of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with type 5 adenoviruses (Ad5) is limited in the efficacy because of the poor expression level of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) molecules. We examined a possible improvement of Ad-mediated gene transfer in MSCs by substituting the fiber region of type 5 Ad with that of type 35 Ad. METHODS:Expression levels of CAR and CD46 molecules, which are the major receptors for type 5 and type 35 Ad, respectively, were assayed with flow cytometry. We constructed vectors expressing the green fluorescent protein gene with Ad5 or modified Ad5 bearing the type 35 fiber region (AdF35), and examined the infectivity to MSCs with flow cytometry. We investigated anti-tumor effects of MSCs transduced with interleukin (IL)-28A gene on human lung carcinoma cells with a colorimetric assay. Expression of IL-28A receptors was tested with the polymerase chain reaction. A promoter activity of transcriptional regulatory regions in MSCs was determined with a luciferase assay and a tumor growth-promoting ability of MSCs was tested with co-injection of human tumor cells in nude mice. RESULTS:MSCs expressed CD46 but scarcely CAR molecules, and subsequently were transduced with AdF35 but not with Ad5. Growth of MSCs transduced with the IL-28A gene remained the same as that of untransduced cells since MSCs were negative for the IL-28A receptors. The IL-28A-transduced MSCs however suppressed growth of lung carcinoma cells co-cultured, whereas MSCs transduced with AdF35 expressing the ?-galactosidase gene did not. A regulatory region of the cyclooygenase-2 gene possessed transcriptional activities greater than other tumor promoters but less than the cytomegalovirus promoter, and MSCs themselves did not support tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:AdF35 is a suitable vector to transduce MSCs that are resistant to Ad5-mediated gene transfer. MSCs infected with AdF35 that activate an exogenous gene by the cytomegalovirus promoter can be a vehicle to deliver the gene product to targeted cells.
Project description:Encouraging results from recent clinical trials are revitalizing the field of oncolytic virotherapies. Human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-C5/Ad5) is a common vector for its ease of manipulation, high production titers and capacity to transduce multiple cell types. However, effective clinical applications are hindered by poor tumor-selectivity and vector neutralization. We generated Ad5/kn48 by pseudotyping Ad5 with the fiber knob domain from the less seroprevalent HAdV-D48 (Ad48). The vector was shown to utilize coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) but not CD46 for cell entry. A 20-amino acid peptide NAVPNLRGDLQVLAQKVART (A20) was inserted into the Ad5. Luc HI loop (Ad5.HI.A20) and Ad5/kn48 DG loop (Ad5/kn48.DG.A20) to target a prognostic cancer cell marker, αvβ6 integrin. Relative to the Ad5.Luc parent vector, Ad5.HI.A20, Ad5.KO1.HI.A20 (KO1, ablated CAR-binding) and Ad5/kn48.DG.A20 showed ~ 160-, 270- and 180-fold increased transduction in BT-20 breast carcinoma cells (αvβ6high). Primary human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cultures derived from clinical ascites provided a useful ex vivo model for intraperitoneal virotherapy. Ad5.HI.A20, Ad5.KO1.HI.A20 and Ad5/kn48.DG.A20 transduction was ~ 70-, 60- and 16-fold increased relative to Ad5.Luc in EOC cells (αvβ6high), respectively. A20 vectors transduced EOC cells at up to ~ 950-fold higher efficiency in the presence of neutralizing ovarian ascites, as compared to Ad5.Luc. Efficient transduction and enhanced cancer-selectivity via a non-native αvβ6-mediated route was demonstrated, even in the presence of pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity. Consequently, αvβ6-targeted Ad vectors may represent a promising platform for local intraperitoneal treatment of ovarian cancer metastases.
Project description:One of the objectives in adenovirus (Ad) vector development is to target gene delivery to specific cell types. Major attention has been given to modification of the Ad fiber knob, which is thought to determine virus tropism. However, among the human Ad serotypes with different tissue tropisms, not only the knob but also the length of the fiber shaft domain varies significantly. In this study we attempted to delineate the role of fiber length in coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR)- and non-CAR-mediated infection. A series of Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) capsid-based vectors containing long or short fibers with knob domains derived from Ad5, Ad9, or Ad35 was constructed and tested in adsorption, internalization, and transduction studies. For Ad5 or Ad9 knob-possessing vectors, a long-shafted fiber was critical for efficient adsorption/internalization and transduction of CAR/alphav integrin-expressing cells. Ad5 capids containing short CAR-recognizing fibers were affected in cell adsorption and infection. In contrast, for the chimeric vectors possessing Ad35 knobs, which enter cells by a CAR/alphav integrin-independent pathway, fiber shaft length had no significant influence on binding or infectibility on tested cells. The weak attachment of short-shafted Ad5 or Ad9 knob-possessing vectors seems to be causally associated with a charge-dependent repulsion between Ad5 capsid and acidic cell surface proteins. The differences between short- and long-shafted vectors in attachment or infection were abrogated by preincubation of cells with polycations. This study demonstrates that the fiber-CAR interaction is not the sole determinant for tropism of Ad vectors containing chimeric fibers. CAR- and alphav integrin-mediated infections are influenced by other factors, including the length of the fiber shaft.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Clinical gene therapy trials for cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated the crucial role of efficient gene delivery and transfection technologies in achieving clinically relevant results. We hypothesized that the use of tropism-modified adenoviruses would improve transduction efficacy and to this end we analyzed the transduction efficiency and toxicity of standard Ad5 and tropism-modified Ad5/35 in combination with ultrasound-guided intramyocardial gene delivery. METHODS: Ultrasound-guided intracardiac injections were used to deliver 1 × 10(10) pfu/ml Ad5-lacZ and Ad5/35-lacZ vectors into mouse left ventricle wall. Since Ad5/35 uses human CD46 as its primary receptor, we used transgenic hCD46Ge mice expressing human CD46 at levels comparable to man. Mice were sacrificed 6 or 14 days post-injection and immunohistochemistry and X-gal staining were used to detect transgene and viral receptor expression. Virus-induced cardiac toxicity was evaluated by a pathologist. RESULTS: The intramyocardial injection was well tolerated and both Ad5-lacZ and Ad5/35-lacZ were able to give robust transgene expression after a single injection. Interestingly, while Ad5-lacZ was able to generate greater transgene expression than Ad5/35-lacZ, it also evoked more severe tissue damage with large areas of interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration and myocyte necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided intramyocardial injection is an effective and safe way to deliver vectors to the heart. The observed severe tissue damage of Ad5-lacZ greatly undermines the efficient transgene expression and suggests that Ad5/35 capsid modification can result in safer adenoviral vectors for cardiovascular gene therapy, although at the cost of some vector transduction efficacy.
Project description:Adenoviruses are efficient vehicles for transducing airway epithelial cells. Human adenoviruses (Ads) are classified into seven species termed A-G. Most species use the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) as a primary cellular receptor. Ad group B is notable because it is further divided into groups B1 and B2 and its members use CD46 or desmoglein 2 (DSG2) as cellular receptors. To date, human Ad types 2 and 5 have been the predominant choices for preclinical and clinical trials using Ad-based viral vectors in the airways. In this study, we screened 14 Ad types representing species C, B1, B2, D, and E. Using well-differentiated primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells (HAEs), we examined transduction efficiency. Based on GFP or nanoluciferase expression, multiple Ad types transduced HAEs as well as or better than Ad5. Ad3, Ad21, and Ad14 belong to species B and had notable transduction properties. We further examined the transduction properties of conditionally reprogrammed airway basal cells and primary basal cells from human lung donors. Again, the transduction efficiency of species B members outperformed the other types. These data suggest that adenoviral vectors based on species B transduce fully differentiated epithelial cells and progenitor cells in the human airways better than Ad5.
Project description:Suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) in combination with ganciclovir (GCV) has emerged as a potential new method for treating cancer. We hypothesize that the efficacy of HSV-TK/GCV therapy is at least partially dependent on p53 status in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Using recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAdV), TK, p53, and ASPP2 were overexpressed individually and in combination in Hep3B (p53 null) and HepG2 (p53 wild-type) cell lines and in primary HCC tumor cells. p53 overexpression induced death in Hep3B cells, but not HepG2 cells. ASPP2 overexpression increased rAdV-TK/GCV-induced HepG2 cell death by interacting with endogenous p53. Similarly, ASPP2 reduced survival in rAdV-TK/GCV-treated primary HCC cells expressing p53 wild-type but not a p53 R249S mutant. Mutated p53 was unable to bind to ASPP2, suggesting that the increase in rAdV-TK/GCV-induced cell death resulting from ASPP2 overexpression was dependent on its interaction with p53. Additionally, ?-H2AX foci, ATM phosphorylation, Bax, and p21 expression increased in rAdV-TK/GCV-treated HepG2 cells as compared to Hep3B cells. This suggests that the combined use of HSV-TK, GCV, rAdV-p53 and rAdV-ASPP2 may improve therapeutic efficacy in HCC patients lacking functional p53.
Project description:In preparation for a phase I clinical trial using a combined cytotoxic/immunotherapeutic strategy with adenoviruses (Ad) expressing Flt3L (Ad-Flt3L) and thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) to treat glioblastoma (GBM), we tested the hypothesis that Ad-TK+GCV would be the optimal tumor-killing agent in relation to efficacy and safety when compared with other proapoptotic approaches.The efficacy and neurotoxicity of Ad-TK+GCV was compared with Ads encoding the proapoptotic cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing factor (TRAIL), and Fas ligand (FasL)], alone or in combination with Ad-Flt3L. In rats bearing small GBMs (day 4), only Ad-TK+GCV or Ad-FasL improved survival.In rats bearing large GBMs (day 9), the combination of Ad-Flt3L with Ad-FasL did not improve survival over FasL alone, whereas Ad-Flt3L combined with Ad-TK+GCV led to 70% long-term survival. Expression of FasL and TRAIL caused severe neuropathology, which was not encountered when we used Ad-TK+/-Ad-Flt3L. In vitro, all treatments elicited release of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) from dying tumor cells. In vivo, the highest levels of circulating HMGB1 were observed after treatment with Ad-TK+GCV+Ad-Flt3L; HMGB1 was necessary for the therapeutic efficacy of AdTK+GCV+Ad-Flt3L because its blockade with glycyrrhizin completely blocked tumor regression. We also showed the killing efficacy of Ad-TK+GCV in human GBM cell lines and GBM primary cultures, which also elicited release of HMGB1.Our results indicate that Ad-TK+GCV+Ad-Flt3L exhibit the highest efficacy and safety profile among the several proapoptotic approaches tested. The results reported further support the implementation of this combined approach in a phase I clinical trial for GBM.
Project description:Recent studies demonstrate that virus-cellular receptor interactions are not the sole determinants of adenovirus (Ad) tropism. It has been shown that the fiber shaft length, which ranges from 6 to 23 beta-repeats in human Ads, also influences viral tropism. However, there is no report that investigates whether artificial extension of the shaft alters the infectivity profile of Ad. Therefore, we constructed Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) capsid-based longer-shafted Ad vectors by incorporating Ad2 shaft fragments of different lengths into the Ad5 shaft. We show that "longer-shafted" Ad vectors (up to 32 beta-repeats) could be rescued. We also show that longer-shafted Ad vectors had no impact on knob-CAR (coxsackievirus and Ad receptor) interaction compared to wild-type Ad. Nevertheless, gene transfer efficiencies of longer-shafted Ad vectors were lower in CAR-positive cell lines compared to wild-type Ad. We suggest that artificial extension of the shaft can inhibit infectivity in the context of CAR-positive cell lines without modification of knob-CAR interaction.