Project description:Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine-selective holoenzyme composed of a catalytic, scaffolding, and regulatory subunit. In the heart, PP2A activity is requisite for cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and central in adrenergic signaling. We found that mice deficient in the PP2A regulatory subunit B56? (1 of 13 regulatory subunits) had altered PP2A signaling in the heart that was associated with changes in cardiac physiology, suggesting that the B56? regulatory subunit had an autoinhibitory role that suppressed excess PP2A activity. The increase in PP2A activity in the mice with reduced B56? expression resulted in slower heart rates and increased heart rate variability, conduction defects, and increased sensitivity of heart rate to parasympathetic agonists. Increased PP2A activity in B56?(+/-) myocytes resulted in reduced Ca(2+) waves and sparks, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation (and thus decreased activation) of the ryanodine receptor RyR2, an ion channel on intracellular membranes that is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in cardiomyocytes. In line with an autoinhibitory role for B56?, in vivo expression of B56? in the absence of altered abundance of other PP2A subunits decreased basal phosphatase activity. Consequently, in vivo expression of B56? suppressed parasympathetic regulation of heart rate and increased RyR2 phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. These data show that an integral component of the PP2A holoenzyme has an important inhibitory role in controlling PP2A enzyme activity in the heart.
Project description:The hetero-trimeric PP2A serine/threonine phosphatases containing the regulatory subunit B56, and in particular B56?, can function as tumor suppressors. In response to DNA damage, the B56? subunit complexes with the PP2A AC core (B56?-PP2A) and binds p53. This event promotes PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of p53 at Thr55, which induces expression of p21, and the subsequent inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation. In addition to dephosphorylation of p53, B56?-PP2A also inhibits cell proliferation and transformation by a second, as yet unknown, p53-independent mechanism. Here, we interrogated a panel of B56? mutations found in human cancer samples and cell lines and showed that these mutations lost B56? tumor-suppressive activity by two distinct mechanisms: one is by disrupting interactions with the PP2A AC core and the other with B56?-PP2A substrates (p53 and unknown proteins). For the first mechanism, due to the absence of the C catalytic subunit in the complex, the mutants are unable to mediate dephosphorylation of any substrate and thus failed to promote both the p53-dependent and -independent tumor-suppressive functions of B56?-PP2A. For the second mechanism, the mutants lacked specific substrate interactions and thus partially lost tumor-suppressive function, i.e., either the p53-dependent or p53-independent contingent upon which substrate binding was affected. Overall, these data provide new insight into the mechanisms of tumor suppression by B56?.This study further indicates the importance of B56?-PP2A in tumorigenesis.
Project description:Beryllium-doped boron clusters display essential similarities to borophene (boron sheet) with a molecular structure characterized by remarkable properties, such as anisotropy, metallicity and high conductivity. Here we have determined low-energy structures of BeBn0/- (n = 10-20) clusters by utilizing CALYPSO searching program and DFT optimization. The results indicated that most ground states of clusters prefer plane or quasi-plane structures by doped Be atom. A novel unexpected fascinating planar BeB16- cluster with C2v symmetry is uncovered which possesses robust relative stability. Furthermore, planar BeB16- offers a possibility to construct metallo-borophene nano-materials. Molecular orbital and chemical bonding analysis reveal the peculiarities of BeB16- cluster brings forth the aromaticity and the strong interaction of B-B σ-bonds in boron network.
Project description:Gene duplication leads to the formation of gene families, wherein purifying or neutral selection maintains the original gene function, while diversifying selection confers new functions onto duplicated genes. The B56 gene family is highly conserved; it is encoded by one gene in protists and fungi, and five genes in vertebrates. B56 regulates protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), an abundant heterotrimeric serine/threonine phosphatase that functions as a tumor suppressor and consists of a scaffolding "A" and catalytic "C" subunit heterodimer bound to a regulatory "B" subunit. Individual regulatory B56 subunits confer disparate functions onto PP2A in various cell-cell signaling pathways. B56 proteins share a conserved central core domain, but have divergent N- and C-termini which play a role in isoform specificity. We carried out a nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution analysis to better understand the divergence of vertebrate B56 genes. When five B56 paralogs from ten vertebrate species were analyzed, the gene family displayed purifying selection; stronger purifying selection was revealed when individual B56 isoforms were analyzed separately. The B56 core experienced stronger purifying selection than the N- and C-termini, which correlates with the presence of several contacts between the core and the AC heterodimer. Indeed, the majority of the contact points that we analyzed between B56 and the AC heterodimer experienced strong purifying selection. B56 subfamilies showed distinct patterns of selection in their N- and C-termini. The C-terminus of the B56-1 subfamily and the N-terminus of the B56-2 subfamily exhibited strong purifying selection, suggesting that these termini carry out subfamily-specific functions, while the opposite termini exhibited diversifying selection and likely carry out isoform-specific functions. We also found reduced synonymous substitutions at the N- and C-termini when grouping B56 genes by species but not by isoform, suggesting species-specific codon bias may have a role in regulating B56 gene expression.
Project description:Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme consists of a heterodimeric core (AC core) comprising a scaffolding subunit (A), a catalytic subunit (C), and a variable regulatory subunit (B). Earlier studies suggest that upon DNA damage, a specific B subunit, B56?, bridges the PP2A AC core to p53, leading to dephosphorylation of p53 at Thr-55, induction of the p53 transcriptional target p21, and the inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation. In addition to dephosphorylation of p53, B56?-PP2A also inhibits cell proliferation and transformation by an unknown mechanism. B56? contains 18 ?-helices that are organized into eight HEAT (Huntington-elongation-A subunit-TOR) repeat motifs. Although previous crystal structure study has revealed the residues of B56? that directly contact the A and C subunits, the contribution of HEAT repeats to holoenzyme assembly and to B56?-PP2A tumor-suppressive function remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that HEAT repeat 1 is required for the interaction of B56? with the PP2A AC core and, more importantly, for B56?-PP2A tumor-suppressive function. Within this region, we identified a tumor-associated mutation, C39R, which disrupts the interaction of B56? with the AC core and thus was unable to mediate dephosphorylation of p53 by PP2A. Furthermore, due to its lack of AC interaction, C39R was also unable to promote the p53-independent tumor-suppressive function of B56?-PP2A. This study provides structural insight into the PP2A holoenzyme assembly and emphasizes the importance of HEAT repeat 1 in B56?-PP2A tumor-suppressive function.
Project description:Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase that functions as a tumor suppressor in numerous cell-cell signaling pathways, including Wnt, myc, and ras. The B56 subunit of PP2A regulates its activity, and is encoded by five genes in humans. B56 proteins share a central core domain, but have divergent amino- and carboxy-termini, which are thought to provide isoform specificity. We performed phylogenetic analyses to better understand the evolution of the B56 gene family. We found that B56 was present as a single gene in eukaryotes prior to the divergence of animals, fungi, protists, and plants, and that B56 gene duplication prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes led to the origin of two B56 subfamilies, B56??? and B56??. Further duplications led to three B56??? genes and two B56?? in vertebrates. Several nonvertebrate B56 gene names are based on distinct vertebrate isoform names, and would best be renamed. B56 subfamily genes lack significant divergence within primitive chordates, but each became distinct in complex vertebrates. Two vertebrate lineages have undergone B56 gene loss, Xenopus and Aves. In Xenopus, B56? function may be compensated for by an alternatively spliced transcript, B56?/?, encoding a B56?-like amino-terminal region and a B56? core.
Project description:The recruitment of substrates by the ser/thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is poorly understood, limiting our understanding of PP2A-regulated signaling. Recently, the first PP2A:B56 consensus binding motif, LxxIxE, was identified. However, most validated LxxIxE motifs bind PP2A:B56 with micromolar affinities, suggesting that additional motifs exist to enhance PP2A:B56 binding. Here, we report the requirement of a positively charged motif in a subset of PP2A:B56 interactors, including KIF4A, to facilitate B56 binding via dynamic, electrostatic interactions. Using molecular and cellular experiments, we show that a conserved, negatively charged groove on B56 mediates dynamic binding. We also discovered that this positively charged motif, in addition to facilitating KIF4A dephosphorylation, is essential for condensin I binding, a function distinct and exclusive from PP2A-B56 binding. Together, these results reveal how dynamic, charge-charge interactions fine-tune the interactions mediated by specific motifs, providing a new framework for understanding how PP2A regulation drives cellular signaling.
Project description:PP2A-B56 is a serine/threonine phosphatase complex that regulates several major mitotic processes, including sister chromatid cohesion, kinetochore-microtubule attachment and the spindle assembly checkpoint. We show here that these key functions are divided between different B56 isoforms that localise to either the centromere or kinetochore. The centromeric isoforms rely on a specific interaction with Sgo2, whereas the kinetochore isoforms bind preferentially to BubR1 and other proteins containing an LxxIxE motif. In addition to these selective binding partners, Sgo1 helps to anchor PP2A-B56 at both locations: it collaborates with BubR1 to maintain B56 at the kinetochore and it helps to preserve the Sgo2/B56 complex at the centromere. A series of chimaeras were generated to map the critical region in B56 down to a small C-terminal loop that regulates the key interactions and defines B56 localisation. Together, this study describes how different PP2A-B56 complexes utilise isoform-specific interactions to control distinct processes during mitosis.
Project description:Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical human tumor suppressor. Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) supports the activity of several critical cancer drivers (Akt, MYC, E2F1) and promotes malignancy in most cancer types via PP2A inhibition. However, the 3D structure of CIP2A has not been solved, and it remains enigmatic how it interacts with PP2A. Here, we show by yeast two-hybrid assays, and subsequent validation experiments, that CIP2A forms homodimers. The homodimerization of CIP2A is confirmed by solving the crystal structure of an N-terminal CIP2A fragment (amino acids 1-560) at 3.0 Å resolution, and by subsequent structure-based mutational analyses of the dimerization interface. We further describe that the CIP2A dimer interacts with the PP2A subunits B56? and B56?. CIP2A binds to the B56 proteins via a conserved N-terminal region, and dimerization promotes B56 binding. Intriguingly, inhibition of either CIP2A dimerization or B56?/? expression destabilizes CIP2A, indicating opportunities for controlled degradation. These results provide the first structure-function analysis of the interaction of CIP2A with PP2A/B56 and have direct implications for its targeting in cancer therapy.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with a number of cellular defects such as hyperproliferation, apoptosis, and dedifferentiation. Mutations in polycystin-1 (PC1) account for ?85% of ADPKD. Here, we showed that wild-type (WT) or mutant PC1 composed of the last five transmembrane (TM) domains and the C-terminus (termed PC1-5TMC) inhibits cell proliferation and protein translation, as well as the downstream effectors of mTOR, consistent with previous reports. Knockdown of B56?, a subunit of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex, or application of PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid or calyculin A, abolished the inhibitory effect of PC1 and PC1-5TMC on proliferation, indicating that PP2A/B56? mediates the regulation of cell proliferation by PC1. In addition to the phosphorylated S6 and 4EBP1, B56? was also downregulated by PC1 and PC1-5TMC. Furthermore, the downregulation of B56?, which may be mediated by mTOR but not AKT, can account for the dependence of PC1-inhibited proliferation on PP2A.