ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis.White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2fl/fl × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2fl/fl × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots. Additionally, we used multiple housing temperatures to investigate the role of active brown/beige adipocytes in this process.Hig2 localized to LDs in SGBS cells, a human adipocyte cell strain. Mice with adipocyte-specific Hig2 deficiency in all adipose depots demonstrated reduced visceral adipose tissue weight and increased glucose tolerance. This metabolic effect could be attributed to brown/beige adipocyte-specific Hig2 deficiency since Hig2fl/fl × Ucp1 cre+ mice displayed the same phenotype. Furthermore, when adipocyte-deficient Hig2 mice were moved to thermoneutral conditions in which non-shivering thermogenesis is deactivated, these improvements were abrogated and glucose intolerance ensued. Adipocyte-specific Hig2 deficient animals displayed no detectable changes in adipocyte lipolysis or energy expenditure, suggesting that Hig2 may not mediate these metabolic effects by restraining lipolysis in adipocytes.We conclude that Hig2 localizes to LDs in adipocytes, promoting adipose tissue lipid deposition and that its selective deficiency in active brown/beige adipose tissue mediates improved glucose tolerance at 23 °C. Reversal of this phenotype at thermoneutrality in the absence of detectable changes in energy expenditure, adipose mass, or liver triglyceride suggests that Hig2 deficiency triggers a deleterious endocrine or neuroendocrine pathway emanating from brown/beige fat cells.
Project description:While it is now understood that the proper expansion of adipose tissue is critically important for metabolic homeostasis, it is also appreciated that adipose tissues perform far more functions than simply maintaining energy balance. Adipose tissue performs endocrine functions, secreting hormones or adipokines that affect the regulation of extra-adipose tissues, and, under certain conditions, can also be major contributors to energy expenditure and the systemic metabolic rate via the activation of thermogenesis. Adipose thermogenesis takes place in brown and beige adipocytes. While brown adipocytes have been relatively well studied, the study of beige adipocytes has only recently become an area of considerable exploration. Numerous suggestions have been made that beige adipocytes can elicit beneficial metabolic effects on body weight, insulin sensitivity, and lipid levels. However, the potential impact of beige adipocyte thermogenesis on systemic metabolism is not yet clear and an understanding of beige adipocyte development and regulation is also limited. This review will highlight our current understanding of beige adipocytes and select factors that have been reported to elicit the development and activation of thermogenesis in beige cells, with a focus on factors that may represent a link between exercise and 'beiging', as well as the role that thyroid hormone signaling plays in beige adipocyte regulation.
Project description:Iron homeostasis is essential for maintaining cellular function in a wide range of cell types. However, whether iron affects the thermogenic properties of adipocytes is currently unknown. Using integrative analyses of multi-omics data, transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) is identified as a candidate for regulating thermogenesis in beige adipocytes. Furthermore, it is shown that mice lacking Tfr1 specifically in adipocytes have impaired thermogenesis, increased insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation accompanied by iron deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mechanistically, the cold treatment in beige adipocytes selectively stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1?), upregulating the Tfr1 gene, and thermogenic adipocyte-specific Hif1? deletion reduces thermogenic gene expression in beige fat without altering core body temperature. Notably, Tfr1 deficiency in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) leads to the transdifferentiation of brown preadipocytes into white adipocytes and muscle cells; in contrast, long-term exposure to a low-iron diet fails to phenocopy the transdifferentiation effect found in Tfr1-deficient mice. Moreover, mice lacking transmembrane serine protease 6 (Tmprss6) develop iron deficiency in both inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and iBAT, and have impaired cold-induced beige adipocyte formation and brown fat thermogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate that Tfr1 plays an essential role in thermogenic adipocytes via both iron-dependent and iron-independent mechanisms.
Project description:Brown and beige adipocytes expend chemical energy to produce heat and are therefore important in regulating body temperature and body weight. Brown adipocytes develop in discrete and relatively homogenous depots of brown adipose tissue, whereas beige adipocytes are induced to develop in white adipose tissue in response to certain stimuli - notably, exposure to cold. Fate-mapping analyses have identified progenitor populations that give rise to brown and beige fat cells, and have revealed unanticipated cell-lineage relationships between vascular smooth muscle cells and beige adipocytes, and between skeletal muscle cells and brown fat. In addition, non-adipocyte cells in adipose tissue, including neurons, blood vessel-associated cells and immune cells, have crucial roles in regulating the differentiation and function of brown and beige fat.
Project description:Adipocytes have unique morphological traits in insulin sensitivity control. However, how the appearance of adipocytes can determine insulin sensitivity has not been understood. Here, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton reorganization upon lipid droplet (LD) configurations in adipocytes plays important roles in insulin-dependent glucose uptake by regulating GLUT4 trafficking. Compared to white adipocytes, brown/beige adipocytes with multilocular LDs exhibited well-developed filamentous actin (F-actin) structure and potentiated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in the presence of insulin. In contrast, LD enlargement and unilocularization in adipocytes downregulated cortical F-actin formation, eventually leading to decreased F-actin-to-globular actin (G-actin) ratio and suppression of insulin-dependent GLUT4 trafficking. Pharmacological inhibition of actin polymerization accompanied with impaired F/G-actin dynamics reduced glucose uptake in adipose tissue and conferred systemic insulin resistance in mice. Thus, our study reveals that adipocyte remodeling with different LD configurations could be an important factor to determine insulin sensitivity by modulating F/G-actin dynamics.
Project description:?-Adrenergic receptor (?-AR) signaling is a pathway controlling adaptive thermogenesis in brown or beige adipocytes. Here we investigate the biological roles of the transcription factor Foxp1 in brown/beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. Adipose-specific deletion of Foxp1 leads to an increase of brown adipose activity and browning program of white adipose tissues. The Foxp1-deficient mice show an augmented energy expenditure and are protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Consistently, overexpression of Foxp1 in adipocytes impairs adaptive thermogenesis and promotes diet-induced obesity. A robust change in abundance of the ?3-adrenergic receptor (?3-AR) is observed in brown/beige adipocytes from both lines of mice. Molecularly, Foxp1 directly represses ?3-AR transcription and regulates its desensitization behavior. Taken together, our findings reveal Foxp1 as a master transcriptional repressor of brown/beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis, and provide an important clue for its targeting and treatment of obesity.
Project description:Beige adipocytes can dissipate energy as heat. Elaborate communication between metabolism and gene expression is important in the regulation of beige adipocytes. Although lipid droplet (LD) binding proteins play important roles in adipose tissue biology, it remains unknown whether perilipin 3 (Plin3) is involved in the regulation of beige adipocyte formation and thermogenic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that Plin3 ablation stimulates beige adipocytes and thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Compared with wild-type mice, Plin3 knockout mice were cold tolerant and displayed enhanced basal and stimulated lipolysis in iWAT, inducing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation. In adipocytes, Plin3 deficiency promoted PPARα target gene and uncoupling protein 1 expression and multilocular LD formation upon cold stimulus. Moreover, fibroblast growth factor 21 expression and secretion were upregulated, which was attributable to activated PPARα in Plin3-deficient adipocytes. These data suggest that Plin3 acts as an intrinsic protective factor preventing futile beige adipocyte formation by limiting lipid metabolism and thermogenic gene expression.
Project description:White adipocytes store excess energy in the form of triglycerides, whereas brown and beige adipocytes dissipate energy in the form of heat. This thermogenic function relies on the activation of brown and beige adipocyte-specific gene programmes that are coordinately regulated by adipose-selective chromatin architectures and by a set of unique transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. A number of transcriptional and epigenetic regulators are also required for promoting beige adipocyte biogenesis in response to various environmental stimuli. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the generation and function of brown and beige adipocytes is necessary to allow us to control adipose cell fate and stimulate thermogenesis. This may provide a therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and obesity-associated diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Transcriptional and epigenetic regulation is fundamentally involved in initiating and maintaining progression of cellular differentiation. The 2 types of thermogenic adipocytes, brown and beige, are thought to be of different origins but share functionally similar phenotypes. Here, we report that lysine-specific demethylase 2 (LSD2) regulates the expression of genes associated with lineage identity during the differentiation of brown and beige adipogenic progenitors in mice. In HB2 mouse brown preadipocytes, short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of LSD2 impaired formation of lipid droplet-containing adipocytes and down-regulated brown adipogenesis-associated genes. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that myogenesis-associated genes were up-regulated in LSD2-KD cells under adipogenic induction. In addition, loss of LSD2 during later phases of differentiation had no obvious influence on adipogenic traits, suggesting that LSD2 functions during earlier phases of brown adipocyte differentiation. Using adipogenic cells from the brown adipose tissues of LSD2-knockout (KO) mice, we found reduced expression of brown adipogenesis genes, whereas myogenesis genes were not affected. In contrast, when LSD2-KO cells from inguinal white adipose tissues were subjected to beige induction, these cells showed a dramatic rise in myogenic gene expression. Collectively, these results suggest that LSD2 regulates distinct sets of genes during brown and beige adipocyte formation.-Takase, R., Hino, S., Nagaoka, K., Anan, K., Kohrogi, K., Araki, H., Hino, Y., Sakamoto, A., Nicholson, T. B., Chen, T., Nakao, M. Lysine-specific demethylase-2 is distinctively involved in brown and beige adipogenic differentiation.
Project description:Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue, where it generates heat by uncoupling electron transport from ATP production. UCP1 is also found outside classical brown adipose tissue depots, in adipocytes that are termed 'brite' (brown-in-white) or 'beige'. In humans, the presence of brite or beige (brite/beige) adipocytes is correlated with a lean, metabolically healthy phenotype, but whether a causal relationship exists is not clear. Here we report that human brite/beige adipocyte progenitors proliferate in response to pro-angiogenic factors, in association with expanding capillary networks. Adipocytes formed from these progenitors transform in response to adenylate cyclase activation from being UCP1 negative to being UCP1 positive, which is a defining feature of the beige/brite phenotype, while displaying uncoupled respiration. When implanted into normal chow-fed, or into high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, glucose-intolerant NOD-scid IL2rg(null) (NSG) mice, brite/beige adipocytes activated in vitro enhance systemic glucose tolerance. These adipocytes express neuroendocrine and secreted factors, including the pro-protein convertase PCSK1, which is strongly associated with human obesity. Pro-angiogenic conditions therefore drive the proliferation of human beige/brite adipocyte progenitors, and activated beige/brite adipocytes can affect systemic glucose homeostasis, potentially through a neuroendocrine mechanism.
Project description:Adipocytes express angiotensin receptors, but the direct effects of angiotensin II (AngII) stimulating this cell type are undefined. Adipocytes express angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR) and AT2R, both of which have been implicated in obesity. In this study, we determined the effects of adipocyte AT1aR deficiency on adipocyte differentiation and the development of obesity in mice fed low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets. Mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the aP2 promoter were bred with AT1aR-floxed mice to generate mice with adipocyte AT1aR deficiency (AT1aR(aP2)). AT1aR mRNA abundance was reduced significantly in both white and brown adipose tissue from AT1aR(aP2) mice compared with nontransgenic littermates (AT1aR(fl/fl)). Adipocyte AT1aR deficiency did not influence body weight, glucose tolerance, or blood pressure in mice fed either LF or high-fat diets. However, LF-fed AT1aR(aP2) mice exhibited striking adipocyte hypertrophy even though total fat mass was not different between genotypes. Stromal vascular cells from AT1aR(aP2) mice differentiated to a lesser extent to adipocytes compared with controls. Conversely, incubation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with AngII increased Oil Red O staining and increased mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) via AT1R stimulation. These results suggest that reductions in adipocyte differentiation in LF-fed AT1aR(aP2) mice resulted in increased lipid storage and hypertrophy of remaining adipocytes. These results demonstrate that AngII regulates adipocyte differentiation and morphology through the adipocyte AT1aR in lean mice.