NOS1AP associates with Scribble and regulates dendritic spine development.
ABSTRACT: The formation and function of the neuronal synapse is dependent on the asymmetric distribution of proteins both presynaptically and postsynaptically. Recently, proteins important in establishing cellular polarity have been implicated in the synapse. We therefore performed a proteomic screen with known polarity proteins and identified novel complexes involved in synaptic function. Specifically, we show that the tumor suppressor protein, Scribble, associates with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) adaptor protein (NOS1AP) [also known as C-terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS (CAPON)] and is found both presynaptically and postsynaptically. The Scribble-NOS1AP association is direct and is mediated through the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of NOS1AP and the fourth PDZ domain of Scribble. Further, we show that Scribble bridges NOS1AP to a beta-Pix [beta-p21-activated kinase (PAK)-interacting exchange factor]/Git1 (G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein)/PAK complex. The overexpression of NOS1AP leads to an increase in dendritic protrusions, in a fashion that depends on the NOS1AP PTB domain. Consistent with these observations, both full-length NOS1AP and the NOS1AP PTB domain influence Rac activity. Together these data suggest that NOS1AP plays an important role in the mammalian synapse.
Project description:Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is widely regarded as an important contributor to a number of disorders of excitable tissues. Recently the adaptor protein NOS1AP has emerged as a contributor to several nNOS-linked conditions. As a consequence, the unexpectedly complex mechanisms of interaction between nNOS and its effector NOS1AP have become a particularly interesting topic from the point of view of both basic research and the potential for therapeutic applications. Here we demonstrate that the concerted action of two previously described motif regions contributing to the interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP, the ExF region and the PDZ ligand motif, efficiently excludes an alternate ligand from the nNOS-PDZ ligand-binding pocket. Moreover, we identify an additional element with a denaturable structure that contributes to interaction of NOS1AP with nNOS. Denaturation does not affect the functions of the individual motifs and results in a relatively mild drop, ?3-fold, of overall binding affinity of the C-terminal region of NOS1AP for nNOS. However, denaturation selectively prevents the concerted action of the two motifs that normally results in efficient occlusion of the PDZ ligand-binding pocket, and results in 30-fold reduction of competition between NOS1AP and an alternate PDZ ligand.
Project description:Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and p38MAPK are strongly implicated in excitotoxicity, a mechanism common to many neurodegenerative conditions, but the intermediary mechanism is unclear. NOS1AP is encoded by a gene recently associated with sudden cardiac death, diabetes-associated complications, and schizophrenia (Arking et al., 2006; Becker et al., 2008; Brzustowicz, 2008; Lehtinen et al., 2008). Here we find it interacts with p38MAPK-activating kinase MKK3. Excitotoxic stimulus induces recruitment of NOS1AP to nNOS in rat cortical neuron culture. Excitotoxic activation of p38MAPK and subsequent neuronal death are reduced by competing with the nNOS:NOS1AP interaction and by knockdown with NOS1AP-targeting siRNAs. We designed a cell-permeable peptide that competes for the unique PDZ domain of nNOS that interacts with NOS1AP. This peptide inhibits NMDA-induced recruitment of NOS1AP to nNOS and in vivo in rat, doubles surviving tissue in a severe model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia, a major cause of neonatal death and pediatric disability. The highly unusual sequence specificity of the nNOS:NOS1AP interaction and involvement in excitotoxic signaling may provide future opportunities for generation of neuroprotectants with high specificity.
Project description:Deregulation of cellular polarity proteins and their associated complexes leads to changes in cell migration and proliferation. The nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) associates with the tumor suppressor protein Scribble to control cell migration and oncogenic transformation. However, how NOS1AP is linked to the cell signaling events that curb oncogenic progression has remained elusive. Here we identify several novel NOS1AP isoforms, NOS1APd, NOS1APe, and NOS1APf, with distinct cellular localizations. We show that isoforms with a membrane-interacting phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain can associate with Scribble and recognize acidic phospholipids. In a screen to identify novel binding proteins, we have discovered a complex consisting of NOS1AP and the transcriptional coactivator YAP linking NOS1AP to the Hippo signaling pathway. Silencing of NOS1AP reduces the phosphorylation of YAP and of the upstream kinase Lats1. Conversely, expression of NOS1AP promotes YAP and Lats1 phosphorylation, which correlates with reduced TEAD activity and restricted cell proliferation. Together, these data implicate a role for NOS1AP in the regulation of core Hippo signaling and are consistent with the idea that NOS1AP functions as a tumor suppressor.
Project description:Scribble is a highly conserved protein regulator of cell polarity that has been demonstrated to function as a tumor suppressor or, conversely, as an oncogene in a context-dependent manner, and it also controls many physiological processes ranging from immunity to memory. Scribble consists of a leucine-rich repeat domain and four PDZ domains, with the latter being responsible for most of Scribble's complex formation with other proteins. Given the similarities of the Scribble PDZ domain sequences in their binding grooves, it is common for these domains to show overlapping preferences for the same ligand. Yet, Scribble PDZ domains can still exhibit unique binding profiles toward other ligands. This raises the fundamental question as to how these PDZ domains discriminate ligands and exert specificities in Scribble complex formation. To better understand how Scribble PDZ domains direct cell polarity signaling, we investigated here their interactions with the well-characterized Scribble binding partner ?-PIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. We report the interaction profiles of all isolated Scribble PDZ domains with a ?-PIX peptide. We show that Scribble PDZ1 and PDZ3 are the major interactors with ?-PIX and reveal a distinct binding hierarchy in the interactions between the individual Scribble PDZ domains and ?-PIX. Furthermore, using crystal structures of PDZ1 and PDZ3 bound to ?-PIX, we define the structural basis for Scribble's ability to specifically engage ?-PIX via its PDZ domains and provide a mechanistic platform for understanding Scribble-?-PIX-coordinated cellular functions such as directional cell migration.
Project description:As the neural network becomes wired, postsynaptic signaling molecules are thought to control the growth of dendrites and synapses. However, how these molecules are coordinated to sculpt postsynaptic structures is less well understood. We find that ephrin-B3, a transmembrane ligand for Eph receptors, functions postsynaptically as a receptor to transduce reverse signals into developing dendrites of mouse hippocampal neurons. Both tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent GRB4 SH2/SH3 adaptor-mediated signals and PSD-95-discs large-zona occludens-1 (PDZ) domain-dependent signals are required for inhibition of dendrite branching, whereas only PDZ interactions are necessary for spine formation and excitatory synaptic function. PICK1 and syntenin, two PDZ domain proteins, participate with ephrin-B3 in these postsynaptic activities. PICK1 has a specific role in spine and synapse formation, and syntenin promotes both dendrite pruning and synapse formation to build postsynaptic structures that are essential for neural circuits. The study thus dissects ephrin-B reverse signaling into three distinct intracellular pathways and protein-protein interactions that mediate the maturation of postsynaptic neurons.
Project description:NMDA receptors (NMDAR) are glutamate-gated calcium channels that play pivotal roles in fundamental aspects of neuronal function. Dysregulated receptor function contributes to many disorders. Recruitment by NMDARs of calcium-dependent enzyme nNOS via PSD95 is seen as a key contributor to neuronal dysfunction. nNOS adaptor protein (NOS1AP), originally described as a competitor of PSD95:nNOS interaction, is regarded an inhibitor of NMDAR-driven nNOS function. In conditions of NMDAR hyperactivity such as excitotoxicity, one expects NOS1AP to be neuroprotective. Conditions of NMDAR hypoactivity, as thought to occur in schizophrenia, might be exacerbated by NOS1AP. Indeed GWAS have implicated NOS1AP and nNOS in schizophrenia. Several studies now indicate NOS1AP can mediate rather than inhibit NMDAR/nNOS-dependent responses, including excitotoxic signaling. Yet the concept of NOS1AP as an inhibitor of nNOS predominates in studies of human disease genetics. Here we review the experimental evidence to evaluate this apparent controversy, consider whether the known functions of NOS1AP might defend neurons against NMDAR dysregulation and highlight specific areas for future investigation to shed light on the functions of this adaptor protein.
Project description:Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) is the biosynthetic enzyme responsible for nitric oxide (·NO) production in muscles and in the nervous system. This constitutive enzyme, unlike its endothelial and inducible counterparts, presents an N-terminal PDZ domain known to display a preference for PDZ-binding motifs bearing acidic residues at -2 position. In a previous work, we discovered that the C-terminal end of two members of protein kinase D family (PKD1 and PKD2) constitutes a PDZ-ligand. PKD1 has been shown to regulate multiple cellular processes and, when activated, becomes autophosphorylated at Ser 916, a residue located at -2 position of its PDZ-binding motif. Since nNOS and PKD are spatially enriched in postsynaptic densities and dendrites, the main objective of our study was to determine whether PKD1 activation could result in a direct interaction with nNOS through their respective PDZ-ligand and PDZ domain, and to analyze the functional consequences of this interaction. Herein we demonstrate that PKD1 associates with nNOS in neurons and in transfected cells, and that kinase activation enhances PKD1-nNOS co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular colocalization. However, transfection of mammalian cells with PKD1 mutants and yeast two hybrid assays showed that the association of these two enzymes does not depend on PKD1 PDZ-ligand but its pleckstrin homology domain. Furthermore, this domain was able to pull-down nNOS from brain extracts and bind to purified nNOS, indicating that it mediates a direct PKD1-nNOS interaction. In addition, using mass spectrometry we demonstrate that PKD1 specifically phosphorylates nNOS in the activatory residue Ser 1412, and that this phosphorylation increases nNOS activity and ·NO production in living cells. In conclusion, these novel findings reveal a crucial role of PKD1 in the regulation of nNOS activation and synthesis of ·NO, a mediator involved in physiological neuronal signaling or neurotoxicity under pathological conditions such as ischemic stroke or neurodegeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs), such as Discs-Large (DLG), play critical roles in synapse maturation by regulating the assembly of synaptic multiprotein complexes. Previous studies have revealed a genetic interaction between DLG and another PDZ scaffolding protein, SCRIBBLE (SCRIB), during the establishment of cell polarity in developing epithelia. A possible interaction between DLG and SCRIB at synaptic junctions has not yet been addressed. Likewise, the biochemical nature of this interaction remains elusive, raising questions regarding the mechanisms by which the actions of both proteins are coordinated. RESULTS:Here we report the isolation of a new DLG-interacting protein, GUK-holder, that interacts with the GUK domain of DLG and which is dynamically expressed during synaptic bouton budding. We also show that at Drosophila synapses DLG colocalizes with SCRIB and that this colocalization is likely to be mediated by direct interactions between GUKH and the PDZ2 domain of SCRIB. We show that DLG, GUKH, and SCRIB form a tripartite complex at synapses, in which DLG and GUKH are required for the proper synaptic localization of SCRIB. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide a mechanism by which developmentally important PDZ-mediated complexes are associated at the synapse.
Project description:Transgenic gene deletion/over-expression studies have established the cardioprotective role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). However, it remains unclear whether nNOS-mediated heart protection can be translated to gene therapy. In this study, we generated an adeno-associated virus (AAV) nNOS vector and tested its therapeutic efficacy in the aged mdx model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy. A PDZ domain-deleted nNOS gene (?PDZ nNOS) was packaged into tyrosine mutant AAV-9 and delivered to the heart of ~14-month-old female mdx mice, a phenotypic model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy. Seven months later, we observed robust nNOS expression in the myocardium. Supra-physiological ?PDZ nNOS expression significantly reduced myocardial fibrosis, inflammation and apoptosis. Importantly, electrocardiography and left ventricular hemodynamics were significantly improved in treated mice. Additional studies revealed increased phosphorylation of phospholamban and p70S6K. Collectively, we have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the AAV ?PDZ nNOS vector in a symptomatic Duchenne cardiomyopathy model. Our results suggest that the cardioprotective role of ?PDZ nNOS is likely through reduced apoptosis, enhanced phospholamban phosphorylation and improved Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling. Our study has opened the door to treat Duchenne cardiomyopathy with ?PDZ nNOS gene transfer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Loss of sarcolemmal nNOS? is a common manifestation in a wide variety of muscle diseases and contributes to the dysregulation of multiple muscle activities. Given the critical role sarcolemmal nNOS? plays in muscle, restoration of sarcolemmal nNOS? should be considered as an important therapeutic goal. METHODS:nNOS? is anchored to the sarcolemma by dystrophin spectrin-like repeats 16 and 17 (R16/17) and the syntrophin PDZ domain (Syn PDZ). To develop a strategy that can independently restore sarcolemmal nNOS?, we engineered an R16/17-Syn PDZ fusion construct and tested whether this construct alone is sufficient to anchor nNOS? to the sarcolemma in three different mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). RESULTS:Membrane-associated nNOS? is completely lost in DMD. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated delivery of the R16/17-Syn PDZ fusion construct successfully restored sarcolemmal nNOS? in all three models. Further, nNOS restoration was independent of the dystrophin-associated protein complex. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the R16/17-Syn PDZ fusion construct is sufficient to restore sarcolemmal nNOS? in the dystrophin-null muscle.