Impact of Dendrimer Terminal Group Chemistry on Blockage of the Anthrax Toxin Channel: A Single Molecule Study.
ABSTRACT: Nearly all the cationic molecules tested so far have been shown to reversibly block K? current through the cation-selective PA63 channels of anthrax toxin in a wide nM-mM range of effective concentrations. A significant increase in channel-blocking activity of the cationic compounds was achieved when multiple copies of positively charged ligands were covalently linked to multivalent scaffolds, such as cyclodextrins and dendrimers. Even though multivalent binding can be strong when the individual bonds are relatively weak, for drug discovery purposes we often strive to design multivalent compounds with high individual functional group affinity toward the respective binding site on a multivalent target. Keeping this requirement in mind, here we perform a single-channel/single-molecule study to investigate kinetic parameters of anthrax toxin PA63 channel blockage by second-generation (G2) poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers functionalized with different surface ligands, including G2-NH?, G2-OH, G2-succinamate, and G2-COONa. We found that the previously reported difference in IC50 values of the G2-OH/PA63 and G2-NH?/PA63 binding was determined by both on- and off-rates of the reversible dendrimer/channel binding reaction. In 1 M KCl, we observed a decrease of about three folds in k o n and a decrease of only about ten times in t r e s with G2-OH compared to G2-NH?. At the same time for both blockers, k o n and t r e s increased dramatically with transmembrane voltage increase. PAMAM dendrimers functionalized with negatively charged succinamate, but not carboxyl surface groups, still had some residual activity in inhibiting the anthrax toxin channels. At 100 mV, the on-rate of the G2-succinamate binding was comparable with that of G2-OH but showed weaker voltage dependence when compared to G2-OH and G2-NH?. The residence time of G2-succinamate in the channel exhibited opposite voltage dependence compared to G2-OH and G2-NH?, increasing with the cis-negative voltage increase. We also describe kinetics of the PA63 ion current modulation by two different types of the "imperfect" PAMAM dendrimers, the mixed-surface G2 75% OH 25% NH? dendrimer and G3-NH? dendron. At low voltages, both "imperfect" dendrimers show similar rate constants but significantly weaker voltage sensitivity when compared with the intact G2-NH? PAMAM dendrimer.
Project description:In this study, the host-guest behavior of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers bearing amine, hydroxyl, or carboxylate surface functionalities were investigated by paramagnetic NMR studies. 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPO) derivatives were used as paramagnetic guest molecules. The results showed that TEMPO-COOH significantly broaden the ¹H NMR peaks of amine- and hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers. In comparison, no paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) was observed between TEMPO-NH?, TEMPO-OH and the three types of PAMAM dendrimers. The PRE phenomenon observed is correlated with the encapsulation of TEMPO-COOH within dendrimer pockets. Protonation of the tertiary amine groups within PAMAM dendrimers plays an important role during this process. Interestingly, the absence of TEMPO-COOH encapsulation within carboxylate-terminated PAMAM dendrimer is observed due to the repulsion of TEMPO-COO- anion and anionic dendrimer surface. The combination of paramagnetic probes and ¹H NMR linewidth analysis can be used as a powerful tool in the analysis of dendrimer-based host-guest systems.
Project description:Dendrimers are unique highly branched macromolecules with numerous groundbreaking biomedical applications under development. Here we identified poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as novel blockers for the pore-forming B components of the binary anthrax toxin (PA63) and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin (C2IIa). These pores are essential for delivery of the enzymatic A components of the internalized toxins from endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. We demonstrate that at low ?M concentrations cationic PAMAM dendrimers block PA63 and C2IIa to inhibit channel-mediated transport of the A components, thereby protecting HeLa and Vero cells from intoxication. By channel reconstitution and high-resolution current recording, we show that the PAMAM dendrimers obstruct transmembrane PA63 and C2IIa pores in planar lipid bilayers at nM concentrations. These findings suggest a new potential role for the PAMAM dendrimers as effective polyvalent channel-blocking inhibitors, which can protect human target cells from intoxication with binary toxins from pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:Dendrimers have emerged as multifunctional carriers for targeted drug delivery, gene delivery and imaging. Improving the functional versatility at the surface for carrying multiple conjugation reactions is becoming vital. Typically, generation four polyamidoamine (G4-PAMAM) dendrimers bear approximately 64 symmetrical end groups, often requiring different spacers to conjugate various functional groups (drugs and targeting moities), increasing the synthetic steps. In the present study, a simple one-step synthesis to convert each symmetrical end group of G4-PAMAM dendrimers into two reactive, distinct orthogonal and chemoselective groups is described. A near-complete end-capping of the dendrimers (87-93%) with amino acids results in heterobifunctional G4-PAMAM dendrimers bearing a very high (> or = 110) diverse peripheral end groups (OH+NHBoc, OH+COOMe, SH+NHBoc, and COOH+NHBoc). Postfunctionalization ability of these dendrimers was evaluated. The heterobifunctional groups at the dendrimer periphery could be chemoselectively conjugated to multiple moities such as drugs (indomethacin and dexamethasone) and drugs and imaging agents (dexamethasone and FITC). These conjugations could be achieved in immediate succession without functional group conversions, eliminating the additional elaborate synthetic steps traditionally required to append specific linkers. Furthermore, one of the two functional handles at periphery was used to develop in situ forming hydrogels, whereas the other handle could be used for conjugating the drugs (e.g., dexamethasone). The heterobifunctional dendrimers with either "NH(2) or SH (thiopyridyl protected form)" terminations showed in situ hydrogel formation by cross-linking with N-hydroxysuccinimide or thiol-terminated multiarm polyethylene glycol (20 kDa). The choice of amino acids as versatile linkers would enable biocompatible dendrimer scaffolds for use in drug delivery. Zeta-potential measurements showed drastic lowering of the charge on G4-PAMAM-NH(2) dendrimers by end-capping with amino acids, whereas in the case of neutral G4-PAMAM-OH dendrimers, the charge did not increase or decrease substantially. The in vitro cytotoxicity and hemolysis assay showed that the heterobifunctional dendrimers were noncytotoxic in the 100 ng/mL to 1 mg/mL concentration range. With this study, we demonstrate the development of biocompatible dendrimers bearing multiple orthogonal surface groups, enabling the attachment of drugs, imaging agents, and gel formation using minimal synthetic steps.
Project description:Herein, a new Ugi multicomponent reaction strategy is described to enhance activity and solubility of the chemotherapeutic drug chlorambucil through its conjugation to poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM-NH?) dendrimers with the simultaneous introduction of lipidic (i-Pr) and cationic (?NH?) or anionic (?COOH) groups. Standard viability assays were used to evaluate the anticancer potential of the water-soluble dendrimers against PC-3 prostate and HT-29 colon cancer cell lines, as well as non-cancerous mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts. It could be demonstrated that the anticancer activity against PC-3 cells was considerably improved when both chlorambucil and ?NH? (cationic) groups were present on the dendrimer surface (1b). Additionally, this dendrimer showed activity only against the prostate cancer cells (PC-3), while it did not affect colon cancer cells and fibroblasts significantly. The cationic chlorambucil-dendrimer 1b blocks PC-3 cells in the G2/M phase and induces caspase independent apoptosis.
Project description:The barrier functions of the stratum corneum and the epidermal layers present a tremendous challenge in achieving effective transdermal delivery of drug molecules. Although a few reports have shown that poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are effective skin-penetration enhancers, little is known regarding the fundamental mechanisms behind the dendrimer-skin interactions. In this Article, we have performed a systematic study to better elucidate how dendrimers interact with skin layers depending on their size and surface groups. Franz diffusion cells and confocal microscopy were employed to observe dendrimer interactions with full-thickness porcine skin samples. We have found that smaller PAMAM dendrimers (generation 2 (G2)) penetrate the skin layers more efficiently than the larger ones (G4). We have also found that G2 PAMAM dendrimers that are surface-modified by either acetylation or carboxylation exhibit increased skin permeation and likely diffuse through an extracellular pathway. In contrast, amine-terminated dendrimers show enhanced cell internalization and skin retention but reduced skin permeation. In addition, conjugation of oleic acid to G2 dendrimers increases their 1-octanol/PBS partition coefficient, resulting in increased skin absorption and retention. Here we report that size, surface charge, and hydrophobicity directly dictate the permeation route and efficiency of dendrimer translocation across the skin layers, providing a design guideline for engineering PAMAM dendrimers as a potential transdermal delivery vector.
Project description:Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are multifunctional nanoparticles with tunable physicochemical features, making them promising candidates for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system (CNS). Systemically administered dendrimers have been shown to localize in activated glial cells, which mediate neuroinflammation in the CNS. These dendrimers delivered drugs specifically to activated microglia, producing significant neurological improvements in multiple brain injury models, including in a neonatal rabbit model of cerebral palsy. To gain further insight into the mechanism of dendrimer cell uptake, we utilized an in vitro model of primary glial cells isolated from newborn rabbits to assess the differences in hydroxyl-terminated generation 4 PAMAM dendrimer (D4-OH) uptake by activated and non-activated glial cells. We used fluorescently-labelled D4-OH (D-Cy5) as a tool for investigating the mechanism of dendrimer uptake. D4-OH PAMAM dendrimer uptake was determined by fluorescence quantification using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Our results indicate that although microglial cells in the mixed cell population demonstrate early uptake of dendrimers in this in vitro system, activated microglia take up more dendrimer compared to resting microglia. Astrocytes showed delayed and limited uptake. We also illustrated the differences in mechanism of uptake between resting and activated microglia using different pathway inhibitors. Both resting and activated microglia primarily employed endocytotic pathways, which are enhanced in activated microglial cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that hydroxyl terminated dendrimers are taken up by primary microglia using other mechanisms including pinocytosis, caveolae, and aquaporin channels for dendrimer uptake.
Project description:The biodistribution profile of a series of linear N-(2-hydroxylpropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers was compared with that of branched poly(amido amine) dendrimers containing surface hydroxyl groups (PAMAM-OH) in orthotopic ovarian-tumor-bearing mice. Below an average molecular weight (MW) of 29 kDa, the HPMA copolymers were smaller than the PAMAM-OH dendrimers of comparable molecular weight. In addition to molecular weight, hydrodynamic size and polymer architecture affected the biodistribution of these constructs. Biodistribution studies were performed by dosing mice with (125)iodine-labeled polymers and collecting all major organ systems, carcass, and excreta at defined time points. Radiolabeled polymers were detected in organ systems by measuring gamma emission of the (125)iodine radiolabel. The hyperbranched PAMAM dendrimer, hydroxyl-terminated, generation 5 (G5.0-OH), was retained in the kidney over 1 week, whereas the linear HPMA copolymer of comparable molecular weight was excreted into the urine and did not show persistent renal accumulation. PAMAM dendrimer, hydroxyl-terminated, generation 6.0 (G6.0-OH), was taken up by the liver to a higher extent, whereas the HPMA copolymer of comparable molecular weight was observed to have a plasma exposure three times that of this dendrimer. Tumor accumulation and plasma exposure were correlated with the hydrodynamic sizes of the polymers. PAMAM dendrimer, hydroxyl-terminated, generation 7.0 (G7.0-OH), showed extended plasma circulation, enhanced tumor accumulation, and prolonged retention with the highest tumor/blood ratio for the polymers under study. Head-to-head comparative study of HPMA copolymers and PAMAM dendrimers can guide the rational design and development of carriers based on these systems for the delivery of bioactive and imaging agents.
Project description:Synthetic polymers of a specific shape and size play major role in drug delivery systems. Dendrimers are unique synthetic macromolecules of nanometer dimensions with a highly branched structure and globular shape with potential applications in gene and drug delivery. We examine the interaction of several dendrimers of different compositions mPEG-PAMAM (G3), mPEG-PAMAM (G4) and PAMAM (G4) with hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs cisplatin, resveratrol, genistein and curcumin at physiological conditions. FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyse drug binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of drug complexation on dendrimer stability and conformation. Structural analysis showed that cisplatin binds dendrimers in hydrophilic mode via Pt cation and polymer terminal NH(2) groups, while curcumin, genistein and resveratrol are located mainly in the cavities binding through both hydrophobic and hydrophilic contacts. The overall binding constants of durg-dendrimers are ranging from 10(2) M(-1) to 10(3) M(-1). The affinity of dendrimer binding was PAMAM-G4>mPEG-PAMAM-G4>mPEG-PAMAM-G3, while the order of drug-polymer stability was curcumin>cisplatin>genistein>resveratrol. Molecular modeling showed larger stability for genisten-PAMAM-G4 (?G = -4.75 kcal/mol) than curcumin-PAMAM-G4 ((?G = -4.53 kcal/mol) and resveratrol-PAMAM-G4 ((?G = -4.39 kcal/mol). Dendrimers might act as carriers to transport hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs.
Project description:As a continued effort to develop multivalent ligands to enhance the pharmacological effects of monomeric drugs, DITC-APEC, a chemically reactive nucleoside A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) agonist, was employed to derivatize the surface of third-generation (G3) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. The resulting conjugates carried multiple copies of the agonist attached through a thiourea linkage and differed in the number of attachments and in the presence of a fluorophore or additional surface modification. Computer modeling studies suggested that these DITC-APEC-loaded dendrimers extended the overall diameter of the previously reported PAMAM-CGS21680 dendrimer derivatives (Kim et al., Bioconjugate Chem 2008 19:406-411) by ca. 20 A, potentially increasing the conformational flexibility of the appended ligands to achieve optimal geometry for efficient binding at A(2A) ARs. Increased affinity and selectivity in binding in comparison to the CGS21680 conjugate were envisioned, due to the presence of an extended linker, i.e., a dithioureylenephenyl functionality. In vitro radioligand competition experiments showed effective binding of these PAMAM-DITC-APEC dendrimer conjugates at the human A(2A) and A(3) ARs with submicromolar K (i) values and selectivity in comparison to the human A(1) AR. Furthermore, these nucleoside-loaded dendrimers exhibited an A(2A) AR-mediated inhibitory effect on ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets. The present study demonstrates the potential of applying the functionalized congener concept to engineer dendrimer-based multivalent ligands for G protein-coupled receptors.
Project description:Generation 7 (G7) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers with amine, acetamide, and carboxylate end groups were prepared to investigate polymer/cell membrane interactions in vitro. G7 PAMAM dendrimers were used in this study because higher-generation of dendrimers are more effective in permeabilization of cell plasma membranes and in the formation of nanoscale holes in supported lipid bilayers than smaller, lower-generation dendrimers. Dendrimer-based conjugates were characterized by (1)H NMR, UV/vis spectroscopy, GPC, HPLC, and CE. Positively charged amine-terminated G7 dendrimers (G7-NH(2)) were observed to internalize into KB, Rat2, and C6 cells at a 200 nM concentration. By way of contrast, neither negatively charged G7 carboxylate-terminated dendrimers (G7-COOH) nor neutral acetamide-terminated G7 dendrimers (G7-Ac) associated with the cell plasma membrane or internalized under similar conditions. A series of in vitro experiments employing endocytic markers cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), transferrin, and GM(1)-pyrene were performed to further investigate mechanisms of dendrimer internalization into cells. G7-NH(2) dendrimers colocalized with CTB; however, experiments with C6 cells indicated that internalization of G7-NH(2) was not ganglioside GM(1) dependent. The G7/CTB colocalization was thus ascribed to an artifact of direct interaction between the two species. The presence of GM(1) in the membrane also had no effect upon XTT assays of cell viability or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays of membrane permeability.