Glucocorticoid receptor and Histone deacetylase 6 mediate the differential effect of dexamethasone during osteogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).
ABSTRACT: Lineage commitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts in vitro is enhanced by a potent synthetic form of glucocorticoid (GC), dexamethasone (Dex). Paradoxically, when used chronically in patients, GCs exert negative effects on bone, a phenomenon known as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in clinical practice. The mechanism on how GC differentially affects bone precursor cells to become mature osteoblasts during osteogenesis remains elusive. In this study, the dose and temporal regulation of Dex on MSC differentiation into osteoblasts were investigated. We found that continuous Dex treatment led to a net reduction of the maturation potential of differentiating osteoblasts. This phenomenon correlated with a decrease in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, hastened degradation, and impaired sub cellular localization. Similarly, Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) expression was found to be regulated by Dex, co-localized with GR and this GR-HDAC6 complex occupied the promoter region of the osteoblast late marker osteocalcin (OCN). Combinatorial inhibition of HDAC6 and GR enhanced OCN expression. Together, the cross-talk between the Dex effector molecule GR and the inhibitory molecule HDAC6 provided mechanistic explanation of the bimodal effect of Dex during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These findings may provide new directions of research to combat glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
Project description:Previous studies indicated that let-7 enhances osteogenesis and bone formation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We also have confirmed that let-7f-5p expression was upregulated during osteoblast differentiation in rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) and was downregulated in the vertebrae of patients with glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). The study was performed to determine the role of let-7f-5p in GC-inhibited osteogenic differentiation of murine BMSCs <i>in vitro</i> and in GIOP <i>in vivo</i>. Here, we report that dexamethasone (Dex) inhibited osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and let-7f-5p expression, while increasing the expression of transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1), a direct target of let-7f-5p during osteoblast differentiation under Dex conditions. In addition, let-7f-5p promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, as indicated by the promotion of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and activity, Von Kossa staining, and osteogenic marker expression (<i>Runx2</i>,<i>Osx</i>, <i>Alp</i>, and <i>Ocn</i>), but decreased TGFBR1 expression in the presence of Dex. However, overexpression of TGFBR1 reversed the upregulation of let-7f-5p during Dex-treated osteoblast differentiation. Knockdown of TGFBR1 reversed the effect of let-7f-5p downregulation during Dex-treated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. We also found that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediated transcriptional silencing of let-7f-5p and its knockdown enhanced Dex-inhibited osteogenic differentiation. Further, when injected <i>in vivo</i>, agomiR-let-7f-5p significantly reversed bone loss induced by Dex, as well as increased osteogenic marker expression (<i>Runx2</i>, <i>Osx</i>, <i>Alp</i>, and <i>Ocn</i>) and decreased TGFBR1 expression in bone extracts. These findings indicated that the regulatory axis of GR/let-7f-5p/TGFBR1 may be important for Dex-inhibited osteoblast differentiation and that let-7f-5p may be a useful therapeutic target for GIOP.
Project description:The efficacy of glucocorticoids (GCs) in treating a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions is blemished by severe side effects, including osteoporosis. The chief mechanism leading to GC-induced osteoporosis is inhibition of bone formation, but the role of RUNX2, a master regulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, has not been well studied. We assessed effects of the synthetic GC dexamethasone (dex) on transcription of RUNX2-stimulated genes during the differentiation of mesenchymal pluripotent cells into osteoblasts. Dex inhibited a RUNX2 reporter gene and attenuated locus-dependently RUNX2-driven expression of several endogenous target genes. The anti-RUNX2 activity of dex was not attributable to decreased RUNX2 expression, but rather to physical interaction between RUNX2 and the GC receptor (GR), demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation assays and co-immunofluorescence imaging. Investigation of the RUNX2/GR interaction may lead to the development of bone-sparing GC treatment modalities for the management of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is one of the major side effects of long-term glucocorticoid (GC) therapy mediated mainly via the suppression of bone formation and osteoblast differentiation independently of GC receptor (GR) dimerization. Since microRNAs play a critical role in osteoblast differentiation processes, we investigated the role of Dicer dependent microRNAs in the GC-induced suppression of osteoblast differentiation. MicroRNA sequencing of dexamethasone-treated wild-type and GR dimer-deficient mesenchymal stromal cells revealed GC-controlled miRNA expression in a GR dimer-dependent and GR dimer-independent manner. To determine the functional relevance of mature miRNAs in GC-induced osteoblast suppression, mice with an osteoblast-specific deletion of Dicer (Dicer(Runx2Cre)) were exposed to glucocorticoids. In vitro generated Dicer-deficient osteoblasts were treated with dexamethasone and analyzed for proliferation, differentiation and mineralization capacity. In vivo, abrogation of Dicer-dependent miRNA biogenesis in osteoblasts led to growth retardation and impaired bone formation. However, subjecting these mice to GIO showed that bone formation was similar reduced in Dicer(Runx2Cre) mice and littermate control mice upon GC treatment. In line, differentiation of Dicer deficient osteoblasts was suppressed to the same extent as wild type cells by GC treatment. Therefore, Dicer-dependent small RNA biogenesis in osteoblasts plays only a minor role in the pathogenesis of GC-induced inhibition of bone formation.
Project description:Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is a frequent complication of systemic glucocorticoid (GC) therapy and mainly characterized by suppressed osteoblast activity. Wnt16 derived from osteogenic cells is a key determinant of bone mass. Here, we assessed whether GC suppress bone formation via inhibiting Wnt16 expression. GC treatment with dexamethasone (DEX) decreased Wnt16 mRNA levels in murine bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) time- and dose-dependently. Similarly, Wnt16 expression was also suppressed after DEX treatment in calvarial organ cultures. Consistently, mice receiving GC-containing slow-release prednisolone pellets showed lower skeletal Wnt16 mRNA levels and bone mineral density than placebo-treated mice. The suppression of Wnt16 by GCs was GC-receptor-dependent as co-treatment of mBMSCs with DEX and the GR antagonist RU-486 abrogated the GC-mediated suppression of Wnt16. Likewise, DEX failed to suppress Wnt16 expression in GR knockout-mBMSCs. In addition, Wnt16 mRNA levels were unaltered in bone tissue of GC-treated GR dimerization-defective GR <sup>dim</sup> mice, suggesting that GCs suppress Wnt16 via direct DNA-binding mechanisms. Consistently, DEX treatment reduced Wnt16 promoter activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. Finally, recombinant Wnt16 restored DEX-induced suppression of bone formation in mouse calvaria. Thus, this study identifies Wnt16 as a novel target of GC action in GC-induced suppression of bone formation.
Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy decreases bone mass and increases the risk of fractures. We investigated interactions between the GC dexamethasone (DEX) and the bone resorptive agents 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on osteoclastogenesis. We observed a synergistic potentiation of osteoclast progenitor cell differentiation and formation of osteoclasts when DEX was added to either D3- or PTH-treated mouse bone marrow cell (BMC) cultures. Cotreatment of DEX with D3 or PTH increased gene encoding calcitonin receptor (Calcr), acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant (Acp5), cathepsin K (Ctsk), and TNF superfamily member 11 (Tnfsf11) mRNA, receptor activator of NF-?B ligand protein (RANKL), numbers of osteoclasts on plastic, and pit formation and release of C-terminal fragment of type I collagen from cells cultured on bone slices. Enhanced RANKL protein expression caused by D3 and DEX was absent in BMC from mice in which the GC receptor (GR) was deleted in stromal cells/osteoblasts. Synergistic interactions between DEX and D3 on RANKL and osteoclast formation were present in BMC from mice with attenuated GR dimerization. These data demonstrate that the GR cooperates with D3 and PTH signaling, causing massive osteoclastogenesis, which may explain the rapid bone loss observed with high dosages of GC treatment.-Conaway, H. H., Henning, P., Lie, A., Tuckermann, J., Lerner, U. H. Glucocorticoids employ the monomeric glucocorticoid receptor to potentiate vitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone-induced osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:Although marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts derive from a common bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), the mechanisms that underlie osteoporosis-associated bone loss and marrow adipogenesis during prolonged steroid treatment are unclear. We show in human BMSCs (hBMSCs) that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling in response to high concentrations of glucocorticoid (GC) supports adipogenesis but inhibits osteogenesis by reducing c-Jun expression and hBMSC proliferation. Conversely, significantly lower concentrations of GC, which permit hBMSC proliferation, are necessary for normal bone mineralization. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling increases both JNK/c-Jun activity and hBMSC expansion, favoring osteogenic differentiation instead of adipogenesis. Indeed, PDGF antagonizes the proadipogenic qualities of GC/GR signaling. Thus our results reveal a novel c-Jun-centered regulatory network of signaling pathways in differentiating hBMSCs that controls the proliferation-dependent balance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis.
Project description:In the present study, we investigated the importance of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediated effects on glucose metabolism, and its potential as a therapeutic target for the prevention of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced diabetes. Dexamethasone (dex)-induced hepatic glucose output and GR translocation were analysed in wildtype (wt) and HDAC6-deficient (HDAC6ko) mice. The effect of the specific HDAC6-inhibitor tubacin was analysed in-vitro. Wt and HDAC6ko mice were subjected to 3 weeks dex treatment before analysis of glucose and insulin tolerance. HDAC6ko mice showed impaired dex-induced hepatic GR translocation. Accordingly, dex induced expression of a large number of hepatic genes was significantly attenuated in mice lacking HDAC6 and by tubacin in-vitro. Glucose output of primary hepatocytes from HDAC6ko mice was diminished. A significant improvement of dex-induced whole-body glucose intolerance as well as insulin resistance in HDAC6ko mice compared to wt littermates was observed. The present study demonstrates that HDAC6 is an essential regulator of hepatic GC stimulated gluconeogenesis and impairment of whole body glucose metabolism through modification of GR nuclear translocation. Selective pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 may provide a future therapeutic option against the pro-diabetogenic actions of GCs. In this dataset, we include the expression data obtained from isolated RNA of dissected mouse livers using wildtype and HDAC6 deficient animals which were treated over a timespan of 3 weeks with 1mg/kg dexamethasone and vehicle respectively. These data are used to show the hdac6-deficiency mediated attenuation of several dexamethasone induced genes. 12 samples in total were analyzed. 3 samples of different animals of each group (wt vehicle, wt dexamethasone, hdac6ko vehicle and hdac6ko dexamethasone)
Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC) induction of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a classic model used to investigate steroid-regulated gene expression. Classic studies analyzing GC-induction of the TAT gene demonstrated that despite having very high affinity for GR, some steroids cannot induce maximal TAT enzyme activity, but the molecular basis for this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we used RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine TAT mRNA accumulation and GR recruitment to the TAT promoter (TAT-GRE) in rat hepatoma cells induced by seven GR ligands: dexamethasone (DEX), cortisol (CRT), corticosterone (CCS), 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), aldosterone (ALD), progesterone (PRG) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17P). As expected, DEX, CRT, CCS and ALD all induced both TAT mRNA and GR recruitment to the TAT-GRE, while PRG and 17P did not. However, while DOC could not induce significant TAT mRNA, it did induce robust GR occupancy of the TAT-GRE. DOC also induced recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase p300 to the TAT-GRE as efficiently as DEX. These DOC-induced effects recapitulated at another GR target gene (sulfonyltransferase 1A1), and DOC also failed to promote the multiple changes in gene expression required for glucocorticoid-dependent 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Structural simulations and protease sensitivity assays suggest that DOC and DEX induce different conformations in GR. Thus, although steroids that bind GR with high affinity can induce GR and p300 occupancy of target promoters, they may not induce a conformation of GR capable of activating transcription.
Project description:Objective. Prenatal glucocorticoids (GC) can induce long term effects on offspring health. However, reports and related studies regarding the prolonged effects of prenatal GC on the development of autoimmunity are limited. Here, we aimed to explore the immunological effects of dexamethasone (DEX) exposure on young adults and whether glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is involved in this process. Methods. Wistar rats were given DEX during pregnancy. Susceptibility to autoimmunity in offspring was assessed using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) animal models. To reveal the possible mechanism, glucocorticoid response, GR expression, and methylation status were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results. Our results showed that the DEX-treated rats had greater susceptibility to EAE (100% versus 62.5%, P < 0.05) and AIA (63.6% versus 0%, P < 0.05) than saline control group. Glucocorticoid response and GR expression were decreased in DEX rats. Significant difference was also found in the methylation levels of GR exon 1-10 to exon 1-11 region. Conclusions. Prenatal DEX administration increases the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, which is potentially mediated by programming GR methylation status and glucocorticoid sensitivity.
Project description:Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been widely used as coadjuvants in the treatment of solid tumours, but GC treatment may be associated with poor pharmacotherapeutic response or prognosis. The genomic action of GC in these tumours is largely unknown. Here we find that dexamethasone (Dex, a synthetic GC)-regulated genes in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells are associated with drug resistance. Importantly, these GC-regulated genes are aberrantly expressed in TNBC patients and are associated with unfavourable clinical outcomes. Interestingly, in TNBC cells, Compound A (CpdA, a selective GR modulator) only regulates a small number of genes not involved in carcinogenesis and therapy resistance. Mechanistic studies using a ChIP-exo approach reveal that Dex- but not CpdA-liganded glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds to a single glucocorticoid response element (GRE), which drives the expression of pro-tumorigenic genes. Our data suggest that development of safe coadjuvant therapy should consider the distinct genomic function between Dex- and CpdA-liganded GR.