Prevalence and Parental Risk Factors for Speech Disability Associated with Cleft Palate in Chinese Children-A National Survey.
ABSTRACT: Although the prevalence of oral clefts in China is among the highest worldwide, little is known about the prevalence of speech disability associated with cleft palate in Chinese children. The data for this study were collected from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability, and identification of speech disability associated with cleft palate was based on consensus manuals. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A weighted number of 112,070 disabled children affected by cleft palate were identified, yielding a prevalence of 3.45 per 10,000 children (95% CI: 3.19-3.71). A history of speech disability in the mother (OR = 20.266, 95% CI 5.788-70.959, p < 0.0001), older paternal child-bearing age (OR = 1.061, 95% CI 1.017-1.108, p = 0.0065, per year increase in age), and lower parental education (maternal: OR = 3.424, 95% CI 1.082-10.837, p = 0.0363; paternal: OR = 2.923, 95% CI 1.245-6.866, p = 0.0138) were strongly associated with risk of speech disability associated with cleft palate in the offspring. Our results showed that maternal speech disability, older paternal child-bearing age, and lower levels of parental education were independent risk factors for speech disability associated with cleft palate for children in China. These findings may have important implications for health disparities and prevention.
Project description:The speech unit segmentation is an important pre-processing step in the analysis of cleft palate speech. In Mandarin, one syllable is composed of two parts: initial and final. In cleft palate speech, the resonance disorders occur at the finals and the voiced initials, while the articulation disorders occur at the unvoiced initials. Thus, the initials and finals are the minimum speech units, which could reflect the characteristics of cleft palate speech disorders. In this work, an automatic initial/final segmentation method is proposed. It is an important preprocessing step in cleft palate speech signal processing. The tested cleft palate speech utterances are collected from the Cleft Palate Speech Treatment Center in the Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, which has the largest cleft palate patients in China. The cleft palate speech data includes 824 speech segments, and the control samples contain 228 speech segments. The syllables are extracted from the speech utterances firstly. The proposed syllable extraction method avoids the training stage, and achieves a good performance for both voiced and unvoiced speech. Then, the syllables are classified into with "quasi-unvoiced" or with "quasi-voiced" initials. Respective initial/final segmentation methods are proposed to these two types of syllables. Moreover, a two-step segmentation method is proposed. The rough locations of syllable and initial/final boundaries are refined in the second segmentation step, in order to improve the robustness of segmentation accuracy. The experiments show that the initial/final segmentation accuracies for syllables with quasi-unvoiced initials are higher than quasi-voiced initials. For the cleft palate speech, the mean time error is 4.4ms for syllables with quasi-unvoiced initials, and 25.7ms for syllables with quasi-voiced initials, and the correct segmentation accuracy P30 for all the syllables is 91.69%. For the control samples, P30 for all the syllables is 91.24%.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To identify child-, surgeon- and hospital-specific factors at the time of primary cleft palate repair that are associated with the use of secondary palate surgery. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:Forty-nine pediatric hospitals. PARTICIPANTS:Children who underwent cleft palate repair between 1998 and 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:Time from primary cleft palate repair to secondary palate surgery. RESULTS:By 5 years after the primary palate repair, 27.5% of children had undergone secondary palate surgery. In multivariable analysis, cleft type and age at primary palate repair were both associated with secondary surgery ( P < .01). Children with unilateral cleft lip and palate had a 1.69-fold increased hazard of secondary surgery (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54-1.85) compared to children with cleft palate alone. Primary palate repair before 9 months had a 3.99-fold increased hazard of secondary surgery (95% CI: 3.39-4.07) compared to repair at 16 to 24 months of age. After adjusting for cleft type, age at repair, and procedure volume, there remained substantial variation in secondary surgery use among surgeons and hospitals ( P < .01). For children with isolated cleft palate, the predicted proportion of children undergoing secondary surgery within 5 years of primary repair ranged from 8.5% to 46.0% across surgeons and 9.1% to 49.4% across hospitals. CONCLUSIONS:There are substantial differences among surgeons and hospitals in the rates of secondary palate surgery. Further work is needed to identify causes for this variation among providers and develop interventions to reduce the need for secondary surgery.
Project description:To describe the perceptual speech outcomes from the Cleft Care UK (CCUK) study and compare them to the 1998 Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) audit.A cross-sectional study of 248 children born with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007 who underwent speech assessment.Centre-based specialist speech and language therapists (SLT) took speech audio-video recordings according to nationally agreed guidelines. Two independent listeners undertook the perceptual analysis using the CAPS-A Audit tool. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were tested.For each speech parameter of intelligibility/distinctiveness, hypernasality, palatal/palatalization, backed to velar/uvular, glottal, weak and nasalized consonants, and nasal realizations, there was strong evidence that speech outcomes were better in the CCUK children compared to CSAG children. The parameters which did not show improvement were nasal emission, nasal turbulence, hyponasality and lateral/lateralization.These results suggest that centralization of cleft care into high volume centres has resulted in improvements in UK speech outcomes in five-year-olds with unilateral cleft lip and palate. This may be associated with the development of a specialized workforce. Nevertheless, there still remains a group of children with significant difficulties at school entry.
Project description:To evaluate the outcomes of care for children by type of oral cleft.Data were collected through structured telephone interviews during 2003 in Iowa with mothers of 2- to 12-year-old children with oral clefts. Interviews with mothers of children with clubfoot and statewide data on Iowa children were used for comparison.Participants included mothers of children in Iowa born between 1990 and 2000 with nonsyndromic oral clefts. Children were identified by the statewide Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders.Rating of cleft care, severity of condition, health status, esthetic outcome, speech, and school performance were evaluated by type of oral cleft.Children with cleft lip and palate were most likely to have their clefts rated as very severe. Children with palatal involvement were reported to have a lower health status and were almost twice as likely to be identified as having a special health care need compared with either children with cleft lip or children statewide. Children with cleft lip had more esthetic concerns; children with palatal involvement had the most speech concerns.Although mothers generally believed their children had received high-quality care, ratings of the children's current health status and outcomes of care varied significantly by type of cleft (cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate). Differences observed in this population-based study support the proposition that cleft type should be considered when examining outcomes of care for children with oral clefts.
Project description:Evidence on association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with risk of orofacial clefts is inconsistent.Six large case-control studies of orofacial clefts from Northern Europe and the USA were included in analyses pooling individual-level data. Cases included 4943 mothers of children with orofacial clefts (cleft lip only: 1135, cleft palate with cleft lip: 2081, cleft palate only: 1727) and controls included 10 592 mothers of unaffected children. Association of orofacial cleft risk with pre-pregnancy maternal weight classified by level of body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) was evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for multiple covariates.Cleft palate, both alone and with cleft lip (CP+/-CL), was associated with maternal class II+ pre-pregnancy obesity (? 35)compared with normal weight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.58]. CP+/-CL was marginally associated with maternal underweight (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI?=?0.98, 1.36). Cleft lip alone was not associated with BMI.In this largest population-based study to date, we found an increased risk of cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, in class II+ obese mothers compared with normal-weight mothers; underweight mothers may also have an increased risk, but this requires further study. These results also suggest that extremes of weight may have a specific effect on palatal development.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Early life exposure to anesthesia and surgery is suspected to associate with cognitive impairment later in life. We compared academic achievement among adolescents with cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), and cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) with a noncleft control group to investigate whether outcome depends on timing and number of operations during childhood and/or type of oral cleft. DESIGN:Nationwide register-based follow-up study. SETTING:Danish birth cohort 1986 to 1990. PARTICIPANTS:Five hundred fifty-eight children with isolated CL (n = 171), CLP (n = 222), or CP (n = 195), of which 509 children had been exposed to anesthesia and one or more cleft operation(s), and a 5% sample of the birth cohort (n = 14,677). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Test score in the Danish standardized ninth-grade exam and proportion of nonattainment, defined as "results for ninth-grade exam unavailable." Data adjusted for sex, birth weight, parental age, and parental level of education. RESULTS:Compared to controls, children with CL achieved higher scores (mean difference 0.12, 95% CI -0.05; 0.29) and children with CLP presented with lower scores (mean difference -0.06, 95% CI -0.21; 0.09), albeit both statistically insignificant. Children with CP achieved significantly lower scores, mean difference -0.20 (95% CI -0.38; -0.03). Odds ratios for nonattainment at final exam were: CL 0.79 (95% CI 0.46; 1.35), CLP 1.07 (95% CI 0.71; 1.61), CP 2.59 (95% CI 1.78; 3.76). CONCLUSIONS:Oral cleft type rather than number and timing of anesthesia and operations associate to poorer academic performance. Although a potential neurotoxic effect due to anesthetic agents is not reflected in the data, it cannot be completely excluded.
Project description:The objective of this study was to examine the associations between paternal age and birth defects of unknown etiologies while carefully controlling for maternal age.By using 1997 to 2004 data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we fit logistic regression models with paternal and maternal age as continuous variables while adjusting for demographic and other factors.Elevated odds ratios (ORs) for each year increase in paternal age were found for cleft palate (OR. 1.02, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.00-1.04), diaphragmatic hernia (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), and pulmonary valve stenosis (OR, 1.02, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04). At younger paternal ages, each year increase in paternal age correlated with increased odds of having offspring with encephalocele, cataract, esophageal atresia, anomalous pulmonary venous return, and coarctation of the aorta, but these increased odds were not observed at older paternal ages. The effect of paternal age was modified by maternal age for gastroschisis, omphalocele, spina bifida, all orofacial clefts, and septal heart defects.Our findings suggest that paternal age may be a risk factor for some multifactorial birth defects.
Project description:To test whether cleft centres vary in their use of secondary cleft palate surgery, also known as revision palate surgery, and if so to identify modifiable hospital- and surgeon-factors that are associated with use of secondary surgery.Retrospective cohort study.Forty-three paediatric hospitals across the United States.Children with cleft lip and palate who underwent primary cleft palate repair from 1999 to 2013.Time from primary cleft palate repair to secondary palate surgery.We identified 4,939 children who underwent primary cleft palate repair. At ten years after primary palate repair, 44% of children had undergone secondary palate surgery. Significant variation existed among hospitals (p<0.001); the proportion of children undergoing secondary surgery by 10 years ranged from 9% to 77% across hospitals. After adjusting for patient demographics, primary palate repair before nine months of age was associated with an increased hazard of secondary palate surgery (initial hazard ratio 6.74, 95% CI 5.30-8.73). Postoperative antibiotics, surgeon procedure volume, and hospital procedure volume were not associated with time to secondary surgery (p>0.05). Of the outcome variation attributable to hospitals and surgeons, between-hospital differences accounted for 59% (p<0.001), while between-surgeon differences accounted for 41% (p<0.001).Substantial variation in the hazard of secondary palate surgery exists depending on a child's age at primary palate repair and the hospital and surgeon performing their repair. Performing primary palate repair before nine months of age substantially increases the hazard of secondary surgery. Further research is needed to identify other factors contributing to variation in palate surgery outcomes among hospitals and surgeons.
Project description:One of the most controversial topics concerning cleft palate is the diagnosis and treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI).This paper reviews current genetic aspects of cleft palate, imaging diagnosis of VPI, the planning of operations for restoring velopharyngeal function during speech, and strategies for speech pathology treatment of articulation disorders in patients with cleft palate.An updated review of the scientific literature concerning genetic aspects of cleft palate was carried out. Current strategies for assessing and treating articulation disorders associated with cleft palate were analyzed. Imaging procedures for assessing velopharyngeal closure during speech were reviewed, including a recent method for performing intraoperative videonasopharyngoscopy.Conclusions from the analysis of genetic aspects of syndromic and nonsyndromic cleft palate and their use in its diagnosis and management are presented. Strategies for classifying and treating articulation disorders in patients with cleft palate are presented. Preliminary results of the use of multiplanar videofluoroscopy as an outpatient procedure and intraoperative endoscopy for the planning of operations which aimed to correct VPI are presented.This paper presents current aspects of the diagnosis and management of patients with cleft palate and VPI including 3 main aspects: genetics and genomics, speech pathology and imaging diagnosis, and surgical management.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The association between the risk of orofacial clefts in infants and the use of corticosteroids during pregnancy is unclear from the available evidence. We conducted a nationwide cohort study of all live births in Denmark over a 12-year period. METHODS: We collected data on all live births in Denmark from Jan. 1, 1996, to Sept. 30, 2008. We included live births for which information was available from nationwide health registries on the use of corticosteroids during pregnancy, the diagnosis of an orofacial cleft and possible confounders. RESULTS: There were 832,636 live births during the study period. Exposure to corticosteroids during the first trimester occurred in 51,973 of the pregnancies. A total of 1232 isolated orofacial clefts (i.e., cleft lip, cleft palate, or cleft lip and cleft palate) were diagnosed within the first year of life, including 84 instances in which the infant had been exposed to corticosteroids during the first trimester of pregnancy. We did not identify any statistically significant increased risk of orofacial clefts associated with the use of corticosteroids: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, prevalence odds ratio (OR) 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.38]; cleft palate alone, prevalence OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.83-1.82). Odds ratios for risk of orofacial clefts by method of delivery (i.e., oral, inhalant, nasal spray, or dermatologic and other topicals) were consistent with the overall results of the study and did not display significant heterogeneity, although the OR for cleft lip with or without cleft palate associated with the use of dermatologic corticosteroids was 1.45 (95% CI 1.03-2.05). INTERPRETATION: Our results add to the safety information on a class of drugs commonly used during pregnancy. Our study did not show an increased risk of orofacial clefts with the use of corticosteroids during pregnancy. Indepth investigation of the pattern of association between orofacial clefts and the use of dermatologic corticosteroids during pregnancy indicated that this result did not signify a causal connection and likely arose from multiple statistical comparisons.