Comparison of subthreshold micropulse laser (577 nm) treatment and half-dose photodynamic therapy in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.
ABSTRACT: PurposeTo compare the short-term treatment outcome of the 577 nm subthreshold micropulse laser (SML) and half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) and persistent subretinal fluid (SRF).MethodsThis retrospective study included 100 eyes of 100 consecutive patients who were treated with the 577 nm SML (Supra Scan, Quantel Medical) (n=42) or half-dose PDT (n=58) for cCSC. The treatment was applied at the leakage sites in the fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. The treatment success was evaluated 6 weeks after treatment using best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness, and resolution of SRF in spectral domain optical coherence tomography.ResultsPatients showed treatment response more often in the SML group compared with the PDT group (treatment response after SML: 33 eyes (79%), PDT: 34 eyes (59%), P=0.036, χ2 test). The CRT decreased significantly after both treatments (mean CRT before SML: 445±153 μm, after SML: 297±95, P<0.001; mean CRT before PDT: 398±88 μm, after PDT: 322±93 μm, P<0.001, Wilcoxon's signed-rank test). The decrease in CRT was statistically significantly higher in the SML group (decrease in CRT after SML: -148±163 μm, after PDT: -76±104 μm, P=0.041, Mann-Whitney U-test).ConclusionsBoth the half-dose PDT and the 577 nm SML are potent treatments for cCSC with persistent SRF. More patients showed treatment response to the SML treatment and SML leads to a greater decrease in CRT.
Project description:To assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC), in whom subretinal fluid (SRF) was solely present outside the foveal area.In this retrospective study, 16 eyes of 15 cCSC patients who received half-dose PDT because of notable subjective visual complaints due to the presence of extrafoveal SRF, were included. An ophthalmic examination was performed before treatment, including Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity measurement, applanation tonometry, slit-lamp examination, and indirect ophthalmoscopy, followed by multimodal imaging, including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), enhanced-depth imaging OCT of the choroid, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography.In 7 treated patients (47%), PDT led to a decrease in visual complaints at the first evaluation visit. At this visit, extrafoveal SRF on OCT had resolved in 14 eyes (88%), whereas a complete resolution of extrafoveal SRF had occurred in all eyes at final follow-up visit. At baseline, posterior cystoid retinal degeneration was also present in 5 eyes (31%) and this remained present at all evaluation visits in these patients. Choroidal thickness decreased statistically significantly in the treated eyes, both foveally and at the location of the maximum height of extrafoveal SRF. No complications of PDT were observed.Half-dose PDT treatment of cCSC patients with visual complaints due to extrafoveal SRF accumulation is a safe procedure leading to complete SRF resolution, a decrease in choroidal thickness, and a reduction in visual symptoms.
Project description:To compare the efficacy of the subthreshold micropulse laser (SML) to conventional laser (CL) in treating focal leakages of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).Twenty-nine eyes of 28 patients with CSC and typical focal leakage were treated with CL or SML. Both treatments were made with a 577 nm yellow laser (CL: NIDEK MC-500, SML: IRIDEX IQ577). The percentage of eyes with a complete resolution, the distance of the laser burns from the fovea, and injury of the RPE after treatment were studied.A complete resolution was seen in 10 of 15 eyes (66.7%) after CL and 9 of 14 eyes (64.3%) after SML (P = 0.89). The average distance from the foveal center to the leakage point was 1282±596 ?m for eyes treated with CL and 1271±993 ?m for eyes treated with SML (P = 0.4). Only three eyes treated with SML had treatment sites within 500 ?m of the fovea. RPE damage determined by fundus autofluorescence was found in all eyes treated with CL and only one eye treated with SML (P<.01).SML achieved equivalent therapeutic effects as CL but without RPE damage in eyes with CSC.
Project description:PURPOSE:To compare the efficacy and safety of subthreshold micropulse laser (SML) with threshold conventional laser (TCL) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS:Prospective, randomized, double-masked, non-inferiority, 12-week clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to SML group or TCL group. Patients in the SML group were treated with 577?nm micropulse laser. The spot size was 160?µm, the duty cycle was 5% and exposure time was 0.2?s. The power was 50% threshold tested. Patients in the TCL group were treated with 577?nm continuous laser. The power was 100% threshold tested. The primary outcome was the mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at week 12, with a non-inferiority limit of five letters on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity charts. RESULTS:Eighty-eight patients were enroled. Seventy-seven patients were male. Forty-four patients were in SML group and 44 in TCL group. At week 12, SML was equivalent to TCL with a gain of 6.23?±?8.59 and 6.61?±?6.35 letters, respectively, (SML-TCL difference: -0.38 letters; 95% confidence interval (CI):-3.58-2.81; Pnon-inferiority?=?0.0026). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (t?=?0.240, P?=?0.811). At week 12, the proportion of patients whose SRF had been totally absorbed was 63.63 and 81.82% respectively for SML and TCL groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (?2?=?3.67, P?=?0.056). CONCLUSIONS:Both SML and TCL can improve visual acuity in CSC. SML was non-inferior to TCL in the improvement of BCVA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To investigate the one-year visual and anatomical outcomes of combination therapy with intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS:This was a retrospective case-series study, including 30 eyes from 30 patients with treatment-naïve PCV treated by combination therapy with IVA and PDT. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), complete polyp regression rate, and dry macula rate were recorded every 3 months during 12-month follow-up. Clinical factors associated with final visual outcome and retreatment were investigated. RESULTS:The mean LogMAR BCVA was significantly improved from 0.73 ± 0.65 at baseline to 0.51 ± 0.60 (p = 0.01), and the mean CRT was also significantly improved from 339 ± 96 μm at baseline to 244 ± 43 μm at 12-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Complete regression of polypoidal lesions was 76.7%, and dry macula rate was 100% at 12 months. Better final BCVA was associated with younger age and better baseline BCVA (p = 0.02 and p < 0 001). The patients without complete polyp regression at 3-month follow-up were associated with retreatment (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION:In this study, combination therapy with IVA and PDT had significant visual and anatomical improvements to PCV patients during one-year follow-up. Better baseline BCVA and younger age were found to be associated with better visual outcome.
Project description:To evaluate the effect of spironolactone on chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).In this prospective interventional case series, patients with chronic CSC were treated with spironolactone (25 mg daily) for at least 6 weeks. If the subretinal fluid (SRF) had not completely resolved by this time, treatment was continued, and the dosage was increased to 25 mg twice daily. Primary outcome measure was the change in maximum SRF height at the final follow-up visit, as detected by optical coherence tomography. Secondary outcome measures were changes in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT).Sixteen eyes of 14 patients with chronic CSC were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 6.4 ± 4.3 months. Baseline BCVA was 0.54 ± 0.44 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (log MAR), which improved to 0.42 ± 0.43 log MAR at the final visit (P = 0.04). Mean CMT decreased from 282.69 ± 103.23 μm at baseline to 236.75 ± 90.10 μm at final visit (P = 0.11), and the mean of maximum SRF height decreased from 155.63 ± 95.27 μm at baseline to 77.19 ± 95.68 μm at the final visit (P = 0.04). SRF resolved completely in seven eyes (43.75%).In eyes with persistent SRF due to CSC, spironolactone therapy was associated with a statistically significant decrease in maximum SRF height, as well as an improvement in BCVA.
Project description:To evaluate the long-term efficacy and factors involved in the recurrence and persistence of subretinal fluid (SRF) after half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).In this retrospective observational case series, 79 eyes (73 patients) with chronic CSC were treated with half-dose PDT and followed up for at least 3 years. They were divided into successful (64 eyes) and unsuccessful (15 eyes) groups based on SRF absorption and disease recurrence after one PDT session. Age, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness, neuroretinal thickness, height of SRF, subfoveal choroidal thickness, window defect area detected by fluorescein angiography, and PDT spot area were compared between the groups. Factors associated with PDT success and BCVA at 3 years were investigated.LogMAR BCVA improved from 0.21±0.24 to 0.08±0.16 (P<0.001) at 3 years after PDT. Compared with the unsuccessful group, the successful group had a significantly younger mean age (50.5±9.7 vs. 56.5±9.1 years, P = 0.032) and better baseline BCVA (0.18±0.23 vs. 0.32±0.25, P = 0.034). Other parameters were not significantly different. Multivariate analyses showed that unsuccessful PDT was significantly associated with lower baseline BCVA (P = 0.026) and older age (P = 0.029) and that BCVA at 3 years after PDT was positively associated with baseline BCVA (P<0.001).Half-dose PDT has a long-term efficacy in chronic CSC. Relatively early PDT may improve anatomic and functional outcomes of chronic CSC.
Project description:The optimal treatment for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is still under debate. Little knowledge is known about the treatment effect of "1+pro re nata(PRN)" treatment regimen for PCV. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of photodynamic therapy (PDT), intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVR) and combination therapy under the "1 + PRN" treatment regimen for PCV.Fifty-seven eyes of 57 patients completed the 12 months' follow-up in this prospective study. The patients in the PDT arm(n = 23), ranibizumab arm(n = 18), or combination arm(n = 16) underwent a session of PDT, IVR or combination of both at baseline followed by additional IVR as needed. Mean change of logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA), central foveal thickness (CFT) and the regression rate of polyps were evaluated. Cost-benefit analysis was also performed.At Month 12, the mean logMAR VA improved from 0.90 ± 0.52 to 0.75 ± 0.57 in the PDT group (P < 0.05), from 0.96 ± 0.58 to 0.77 ± 0.41 in the IVR group (P < 0.05), and from 0.94 ± 0.55 to 0.72 ± 0.44 in the combination group (P < 0.05), respectively. The CFT decreased from 478.04 ± 156.70 μm, 527.5 ± 195.90 μm, and 522.63 ± 288.40 μm at the baseline to 366.43 ± 148.28 μm, 373.17 ± 134.88 μm and 328.44 ± 103.25 in the PDT group (P < 0.05), IVR group (P < 0.01), and the combination group (P < 0.05), respectively. However, no statistical difference was found between groups (P > 0.05). PDT treatment (60.87%) was superior to the IVR therapy (22.22%) in achieving complete regression of polyps (P < 0.05). Cost-benefit analysis showed that IVR treatment cost the least money for improving per 0.1logMAR units and the combination therapy demanded the least money for reducing per 100 μm of CFT.PDT, IVR and the combination therapy have similar efficacy in the VA improvement as well as the reduction of CFT under the "1 + PRN" treatment regimen.Current Controlled Trials NCT03459144 . Registered retrospectively on March 2, 2018.
Project description:Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) is an eye disease characterized by an accumulation of serous fluid under the retina. It is postulated that this fluid accumulation results from hyperpermeability and swelling of the choroid, the underlying vascular tissue of the eye, causing a dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium. This fluid accumulation causes neuroretinal detachment. A prolonged neuroretinal detachment in the macula can lead to permanent vision loss. Therefore, treatment is aimed primarily at achieving resolution of subretinal fluid, preferably within the first 4 months after diagnosis of the disease. A broad spectrum of treatment modalities has been investigated in cCSC, but no consensus exists on the optimal treatment of cCSC. Currently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and high-density subthreshold micropulse laser treatment (HSML) are among the most frequently cited treatments in obtaining successful neuroretinal reattachment.This is a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial comparing the efficacy of half-dose PDT to HSML in treating patients with cCSC. A total of 156 patients will be recruited, 78 patients in each treatment arm, with a maximum follow-up duration of 8 months after the first treatment. A complete ophthalmological examination with vision-related quality of life (NEI VFQ-25) and stress questionnaires, will be performed at baseline, 6 to 8 weeks after the first treatment, 6 to 8 weeks after a second treatment (if necessary), and at the final follow-up visit at 7 to 8 months after the first treatment. Treatment visits will be scheduled within 3 weeks after the baseline visit, and within 3 weeks after the first control visit, if a second treatment is required.Both half-dose PDT and HSML may be effective treatments in cCSC, but because of the lack of prospective randomized controlled trials, which treatment should be the first choice remains unclear. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of half-dose PDT to HSML. The primary endpoint to evaluate efficacy will be a complete absence of subretinal fluid on optical coherence tomography after treatment. Secondary functional endpoints include change in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected visual acuity, retinal sensitivity on microperimetry, and NEI VFQ-25 questionnaire of visual functioning. Registration number Institutional Review Board (CMO Arnhem-Nijmegen, the Netherlands): 2013/203 NL nr.: 41266.091.13 TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01797861 . Date of registration: 21 February 2013.
Project description:With increasing experience using anti-VEGF therapy for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), ophthalmologists have shifted away from a "one size fits all" to an "individualised" approach based on disease activity with the aim of achieving a fluid-free retina. The FLUID study investigates the non-inferiority of a Treat and Extend (T&E) protocol of 0.5 mg ranibizumab, which allows treatment extension in the presence of incomplete resolution of sub-retinal fluid (SRF) ≤200 μm at the foveal centre relative to a T&E protocol that requires complete resolution of all retinal fluid (i.e., both SRF and intra-retinal fluid [IRF]) in patients with nAMD.This 24 month, randomised, phase IV trial has completed recruitment of treatment-naïve patients randomised 1:1 to ranibizumab "intensive" treatment (complete resolution of IRF and SRF) or ranibizumab "relaxed" treatment (resolution of IRF or >200 μm SRF only at foveal centre). Patients in both arms follow a T&E regimen where extension decisions are based upon assessment of lesion activity: loss of ≥5 letters of visual acuity, new haemorrhage, presence of IRF and SRF on an optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan. The determination of SRF is conducted at a reading centre while the assessment of IRF is physician-determined. The primary endpoint is the mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to 24 months. Secondary endpoints include the mean change in central retinal thickness (CRT) from baseline to 12 and 24 months, the number of ranibizumab injections administered at 12 and 24 months, and the pharmacogenomic assessment of AMD Gene Consortium-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with treatment response. Three hundred and forty seven (347) patients have been recruited by 16 Australian sites within approximately 16 months. A protocol to adjudicate on SRF has been established by the central reading centre and is demonstrating good concordance with investigator assessment.This study will provide important insights into retreatment criteria for managing nAMD using a T&E regimen. The current paper describes the clinical rationale for using a less intensive treatment approach using ranibizumab and details of the treatment protocol.NCT01972789. Date of registration: 24th October 2013.
Project description:Purpose:Reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy (RFPDT) has proven effective for some patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC). Several clinicodemographic factors influencing treatment response have been identified, but associations with genetic factors have not been examined. Therefore, we investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) implicated in cCSC pathogenesis with clinical outcome following RFPDT. Methods:This was a retrospective study of 87 eyes from 87 patients with cCSC who underwent RFPDT and were followed up for more than 12 months. Patients were divided into a good response group (53 patients) and a poor response group (34 patients) based on either persistence or recurrence of subretinal fluid detected with spectral domain optical coherence tomography after the first application of RFPDT. SNPs in the genes encoding age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2, SNP rs10490924) and complement factor H (CFH, SNP rs800292) were genotyped using TaqMan technology. Results:There were no statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the response groups except the degree of hyperfluorescence on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA; p = 0.011). The minor (T) allele frequency of ARMS2 (rs10490924) were statistically significantly lower in the good response group than in the poor response group (24.0% versus 41.0%, p = 0.021). Further, the good response frequency was statistically significantly lower in patients with at least one minor allele (GT or TT) compared to the homozygous major allele group (GG; p<0.05). The baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 12 months after RFPDT was statistically significantly better in the GG carriers than in the GT or TT carriers (p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed less intense hyperfluorescence on ICGA, and the T allele of ARMS2 (rs10490924) was statistically significantly associated with poor response to PDT treatment (p = 0.012, p = 0.039, respectively). Conclusions:Carriers of the ARMS2 rs10490924 minor allele (GT or TT) demonstrated a higher subretinal fluid persistence or recurrence rate and poorer visual outcome following RFPDT. In addition to the ICGA findings, genotyping of ARMS2 (rs10490924) may assist in the selection of patients with cCSC most likely to benefit from RFPDT.