Astrocytes mediate neurovascular signaling to capillary pericytes but not to arterioles.
ABSTRACT: Active neurons increase their energy supply by dilating nearby arterioles and capillaries. This neurovascular coupling underlies blood oxygen level-dependent functional imaging signals, but its mechanism is controversial. Canonically, neurons release glutamate to activate metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) on astrocytes, evoking Ca2+ release from internal stores, activating phospholipase A2 and generating vasodilatory arachidonic acid derivatives. However, adult astrocytes lack mGluR5, and knockout of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors that release Ca2+ from stores does not affect neurovascular coupling. We now show that buffering astrocyte Ca2+ inhibits neuronally evoked capillary dilation, that astrocyte [Ca2+]i is raised not by release from stores but by entry through ATP-gated channels, and that Ca2+ generates arachidonic acid via phospholipase D2 and diacylglycerol lipase rather than phospholipase A2. In contrast, dilation of arterioles depends on NMDA receptor activation and Ca2+-dependent NO generation by interneurons. These results reveal that different signaling cascades regulate cerebral blood flow at the capillary and arteriole levels.
Project description:Astrocytes play a critical role in neurovascular coupling by providing a physical linkage from synapses to arterioles and releasing vaso-active gliotransmitters. We identified a gliotransmitter pathway by which astrocytes influence arteriole lumen diameter. Astrocytes synthesize and release NMDA receptor coagonist, D-serine, in response to neurotransmitter input. Mouse cortical slice astrocyte activation by metabotropic glutamate receptors or photolysis of caged Ca(2+) produced dilation of penetrating arterioles in a manner attenuated by scavenging D-serine with D-amino acid oxidase, deleting the enzyme responsible for D-serine synthesis (serine racemase) or blocking NMDA receptor glycine coagonist sites with 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid. We also found that dilatory responses were dramatically reduced by inhibition or elimination of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and that the vasodilatory effect of endothelial nitric oxide synthase is likely mediated by suppressing levels of the vasoconstrictor arachidonic acid metabolite, 20-hydroxy arachidonic acid. Our results provide evidence that D-serine coactivation of NMDA receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase is involved in astrocyte-mediated neurovascular coupling.
Project description:Neurovascular coupling supports brain metabolism by matching focal increases in neuronal activity with local arteriolar dilation. Previously, we demonstrated that an emergence of spontaneous endfoot high-amplitude Ca2+ signals (eHACSs) caused a pathologic shift in neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction in brain slices obtained from subarachnoid hemorrhage model animals. Extracellular purine nucleotides (e.g., ATP) can trigger astrocyte Ca2+ oscillations and may be elevated following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Here, the role of purinergic signaling in subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced eHACSs and inversion of neurovascular coupling was examined by imaging parenchymal arteriolar diameter and astrocyte Ca2+ signals in rat brain slices using two-photon fluorescent and infrared-differential interference contrast microscopy. We report that broad-spectrum inhibition of purinergic (P2) receptors using suramin blocked eHACSs and restored vasodilatory neurovascular coupling after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Importantly, eHACSs were also abolished using a cocktail of inhibitors targeting Gq-coupled P2Y receptors. Further, activation of P2Y receptors in brain slices from un-operated animals triggered high-amplitude Ca2+ events resembling eHACSs and disrupted neurovascular coupling. Neither tetrodotoxin nor bafilomycin A1 affected eHACSs suggesting that purine nucleotides are not released by ongoing neurotransmission and/or vesicular release after subarachnoid hemorrhage. These results indicate that purinergic signaling via P2Y receptors contributes to subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced eHACSs and inversion of neurovascular coupling.
Project description:cAMP-induced Ca2+ fluxes in Dictyostelium discoideum largely depend on phospholipase A2 activity generating non-esterified fatty acids [Schaloske and Malchow (1997) Biochem. J. 327, 233-238]. In the present study the effect of fatty acids on Ca2+ homoeostasis in D. discoideum was investigated. Cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was analysed by digital imaging of single fura2-dextran-loaded cells. Arachidonic acid and linoleic acid induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. The concentration of arachidonic acid determined the percentage of responding cells, with the mean height of the increase being dose-independent. In nominally Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N, N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid (BAPTA), no [Ca2+]i transient was detectable. In spite of this, we found that (1) arachidonic acid induced Ca2+ release from permeabilized cells and from vesicular fractions at concentrations that elicited Ca2+ influx in intact cells and (2) Ca2+ entry was inhibited by inhibitors of Ca2+-transport ATPases and V-type H+-ATPase, indicating that intracellular Ca2+ release precedes Ca2+ entry. Inhibition studies and mutant analysis point to the acidosomal Ca2+ stores as a target of fatty acids. Although fatty acids can substitute fully for cAMP with respect to Ca2+ influx in wild-type cells, experiments with a mutant strain revealed that cAMP also sensitizes the Ca2+-entry mechanism: cAMP-induced Ca2+ influx was normal in a phospholipase C knockout mutant but influx was fairly insensitive to arachidonic acid in this strain. This defect could be overcome by higher doses of arachidonic acid which cause sufficient Ca2+ to be released from the stores to trigger extracellular Ca2+ entry.
Project description:Extracellular sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) caused a remarkable elevation in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in immortalized human airway epithelial cells (CFNP9o-). An increase in total inositol phosphates formation was determined; however, the dose responses for [Ca2+]i elevation and inositol phosphates production were slightly different and, furthermore, PMA and pertussis toxin almost completely inhibited [Ca2+]i mobilization by SPC, whereas inositol phosphates production was only partially reduced. The possible direct interaction of SPC with Ca2+ channels of intracellular stores was determined by experiments with permeabilized cells, where SPC failed to evoke Ca2+ release, whereas lysophosphatidic acid was shown to be effective. The level of phosphatidic acid was increased by SPC only in the presence of AACOCF3, a specific inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and blocked by both pertussis toxin and R59022, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol kinase. R59022 enhanced diacylglycerol production by SPC and also significantly reduced [Ca2+]i mobilization. Only polyunsaturated diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid were generated by SPC. Lastly, SPC caused stimulation of arachidonic acid release, indicating the involvement of PLA2. Taken together, these data suggest that, after SPC stimulation, phospholipase C-derived diacylglycerol is phosphorylated by a diacylglycerol kinase to phosphatidic acid, which is further hydrolysed by PLA2 activity to arachidonic and lysophosphatidic acids. We propose that lysophosphatidic acid might be the intracellular messenger able to release Ca2+ from internal stores.
Project description:Functional hyperemia of the cerebral vascular system matches regional blood flow to the metabolic demands of the brain. One current model of neurovascular control holds that glutamate released by neurons activates group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) on astrocytes, resulting in the production of diffusible messengers that act to regulate smooth muscle cells surrounding cerebral arterioles. The acute mouse brain slice is an experimental system in which changes in arteriole diameter can precisely measured with light microscopy. Stimulation of the brain slice triggers specific cellular responses that can be correlated to changes in arteriole diameter. Here we used inositol trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP(3)R2) and cytosolic phospholipase A(2) alpha (cPLA(2)?) deficient mice to determine if astrocyte mGluR activation coupled to IP(3)R2-mediated Ca(2+) release and subsequent cPLA(2)? activation is required for arteriole regulation. We measured changes in astrocyte cytosolic free Ca(2+) and arteriole diameters in response to mGluR agonist or electrical field stimulation in acute neocortical mouse brain slices maintained in 95% or 20% O(2). Astrocyte Ca(2+) and arteriole responses to mGluR activation were absent in IP(3)R2(-/-) slices. Astrocyte Ca(2+) responses to mGluR activation were unchanged by deletion of cPLA(2)? but arteriole responses to either mGluR agonist or electrical stimulation were ablated. The valence of changes in arteriole diameter (dilation/constriction) was dependent upon both stimulus and O(2) concentration. Neuron-derived NO and activation of the group I mGluRs are required for responses to electrical stimulation. These findings indicate that an mGluR/IP(3)R2/cPLA(2)? signaling cascade in astrocytes is required to transduce neuronal glutamate release into arteriole responses.
Project description:A growing number of studies support an important contribution of astrocytes to neurovascular coupling, i.e., the phenomenon by which variations in neuronal activity trigger localized changes in blood flow that serve to match the metabolic demands of neurons. However, since both constriction and dilations have been observed in brain parenchymal arterioles upon astrocyte stimulation, the specific influences of these cells on the vasculature remain unclear. Using acute brain slices, we present evidence showing that the specific degree of constriction of rat cortical arterioles (vascular tone) is a key determinant of the magnitude and polarity of the diameter changes elicited by signals associated with neurovascular coupling. Thus elevation of extracellular K+ concentration, stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), or 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid application all elicited vascular responses that were affected by the particular resting arteriolar tone. Interestingly, the data suggest that the extent and/or polarity of the vascular responses are influenced by a delimited set point centered between 30 and 40% tone. In addition, we report that distinct, tone-dependent effects on arteriolar diameter occur upon stimulation of mGluR during inhibition of enzymes of the arachidonic acid pathway [i.e., phospholipase A2, cytochrome P-450 (CYP) omega-hydroxylase, CYP epoxygenase, and cycloxygenase-1]. Our findings may reconcile previous evidence in which direct astrocytic stimulation elicited either vasoconstrictions or vasodilations and also suggest the novel concept that, in addition to participating in functional hyperemia, astrocyte-derived signals play a role in adjusting vascular tone to a range where dilator responses are optimal.
Project description:The effect of decreased temperature on Ca(2+)-dependent arachidonic acid release was studied in vascular endothelial cells by investigating bradykinin (BK)-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization, inositol phosphate formation and arachidonic acid release. At both 37 degrees C and 22 degrees C, BK efficiently increased cytosolic Ca2+ concn. ([Ca2+]i). At 22 degrees C, peak [Ca2+]i was higher and returned to basal levels more slowly. Although this response was preceded by rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, the activity of phospholipase C was significantly impaired at 22 degrees C. To determine if Ins(1,4,5)P3 effectively mobilized intracellular Ca2+, we used saponin-permeabilized cells. Ins(1,4,5)P3, mobilized sequestered Ca2+ to a similar degree at 37 degrees C and 22 degrees C, although Ca2+ release was prolonged at 22 degrees C. In intact cells, BK mobilized intracellular Ca2+ stores and activated Ca2+ entry. The rate of 45Ca2+ entry was approx. 2-fold slower at 22 degrees C, even though the peak and duration of the rise in [Ca2+]i were higher and sustained at the lower temperature. TG mobilized intracellular Ca2+, activated Ca2+ entry and elevated [Ca2+]i at both temperatures. As with BK, the peak [Ca2+]i reached after thapsigargin treatment was higher at 22 degrees C. This effect of lower temperature on [Ca2+]i was most probably due to decreased Ca2+ efflux after a decrease in activity of the Ca(2+)-ATPase on the plasma membrane. Both A23187 and BK were shown to stimulate phospholipase A2 and arachidonic acid release at 22 degrees C. In each case, the rate and extent of release were decreased compared with that at 37 degrees C. Among several effects, lowering the temperature decreases the activity of phospholipase C, Ca(2+)-ATPase(s), Ca(2+)-entry mechanisms and phospholipase A2. Together, these effects lead to a higher and more prolonged elevation of [Ca2+]i, but a decrease in arachidonate release in response to BK.
Project description:We have described the pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive potentiation of P2-purinergic agonist-induced phospholipase C activation, Ca2+ mobilization and arachidonic acid release by an adenosine receptor agonist, N6-(L-2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (PIA), which alone cannot influence any of these cellular activities [Okajima, Sato, Nazarea, Sho and Kondo (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13029-13037]. In the present study we have found that arachidonic acid release was associated with lysophosphatidylcholine production, and conclude that arachidonic acid is produced by phospholipase A2 in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. This led us to assume that PIA augments P2-purinergic arachidonic acid release by increasing [Ca2+]i which, in turn, activates Ca(2+)-sensitive phospholipase A2. The arachidonic acid-releasing response to PIA was, however, always considerably higher (3.1-fold increase) than the Ca2+ response (1.3-fold increase) to the adenosine derivative. In addition, arachidonic acid release induced by the [Ca2+]i increase caused by thapsigargin, an endoplasmic-reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, or calcium ionophores was also potentiated by PIA without any effect on [Ca2+]i and phospholipase C activity. This action of PIA was also PTX-sensitive, but not affected by the forskolin- or cholera toxin-induced increase in the cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP), suggesting that a PTX-sensitive G-protein(s) and not cAMP mediates the PIA-induced potentiation of Ca(2+)-generated phospholipase A2 activation. Although acute phorbol ester activation of protein kinase C induced arachidonic acid release, P2-purinergic and alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation of arachidonic acid release was markedly increased by the protein kinase C down-regulation caused by the phorbol ester. This suggests a suppressive role for protein kinase C in the agonist-induced activation of arachidonic acid release. We conclude that PIA (and perhaps any of the G1-activating agonists) augments an agonist (maybe any of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents)-induced arachidonic acid release by activation of Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A2 in addition to enhancement of agonist-induced phospholipase C followed by an increase in [Ca2+]i.
Project description:The relationship between Ca2(+)-dependent arachidonic acid release and exocytosis from digitonin-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was investigated. The phospholipase A2 inhibitors mepacrine, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and indomethacin had no effect on either arachidonic acid release or secretion. The phospholipase A2 activator melittin had no effect on secretion. The specific diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RG80267 had no effect on secretion, but decreased basal arachidonic acid release to such an extent that the level of arachidonic acid in treated cells in response to 10 microM-Ca2+ was equivalent to that of control cells in the absence of Ca2+. Staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, was found to abolish Ca2(+)-dependent arachidonic acid release completely, but had only a slight inhibitory effect on Ca2(+)-dependent secretion. It is concluded that arachidonic acid is not essential for Ca2(+)-dependent exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells.
Project description:Different forms of phospholipase A2, together with pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins, [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+ concentration), protein kinase C, calmodulin, protein tyrosine kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase appear to play a role in agonist-mediated release of arachidonic acid. Here we report that fibroblasts from 14-day-old mouse embryos with inactivated Gi2alpha (alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein Gi2) gene display a marked decrease in the ability of lysophosphatidic acid, thrombin and Ca2+ ionophores to release arachidonic acid compared with their normal counterparts. The requirement for Gi2alpha in the release of arachidonic acid following increased [Ca2+]i may be explained by the incomplete translocation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 observed in Gi2alpha-deficient cells. Paradoxically, inactivation of the Gi2alpha gene resulted in up-regulation of bradykinin receptors and their coupling to increased arachidonic acid release, phospholipase C activity and [Ca2+]i. A concomitant increase in basal phospholipase C activity was also observed in the Gi2alpha-deficient cells. These observations establish a pleiotropic and essential role for Gi2alpha in receptor-phospholipase coupling that contrasts with its less obligatory participation in agonist-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase.