Clinical Experience of Patients Receiving Doripenem-Containing Regimens for the Treatment of Healthcare-Associated Infections.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical experience of patients receiving doripenem-containing regimens for the treatment of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in a tertiary care center and assessed the clinical usefulness of doripenem therapy in this clinical setting. In this retrospective study, the medical records of all adult patients who had ever received doripenem-containing therapy for the treatment of HCAIs were reviewed between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2014, and the following data were extracted: age, gender, type of infection, disease severity, underlying comorbidities or conditions, and laboratory results. Additionally, we also extracted data regarding the rates of mortality and clinical and microbiological response. A total of 184 adult patients with HCAIs who had received doripenem-containing therapy were included in this study. Respiratory tract infections (n = 91, 49.5%) were the most common type of infection, followed by urinary tract infections, intra-abdominal infections and skin and soft tissue infections. The mean APACHE II score was 14.5. The rate of clinical success was 78.2%, and the overall in-hospital mortality rate was only 13.0%. Among patients, in-hospital mortality was independently and significantly associated with APACHE II score (odds ratio (OR), 1.2825; 95% CI, 1.1123-1.4788) and achieving clinical success (OR, 0.003; 95% CI, 0.0003-0.409). In conclusion, the overall in-hospital mortality rate was low and the clinical success rate was high among HCAI patients receiving doripenem treatment. These results suggest that doripenem may be judiciously used for the treatment of patients with HCAIs.
Project description:Health care associated infections (HCAIs) add incrementally to the morbidity, mortality, and cost expected of the patient's underlying diseases alone. Approximately, about half all cases of HCAIs are associated with medical devices. As Candida medical device-associated infection is highly drug resistant and can lead to serious life-threatening complications, there is a need of continuous surveillance of these infections to initiate preventive and corrective measures. The present study was conducted at a rural tertiary care hospital of India with an aim to evaluate the rate of medical device-associated Candida infections. Three commonly encountered medical device-associated infections (MDAI), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI), intravascular catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), were targeted. The overall rate of MDAI in our hospital was 2.1 per 1000 device days. The rate of Candida related CA-UTI and CR-BSI was noted as 1.0 and 0.3, respectively. Untiring efforts taken by team members of Hospital Acquired Infection Control Committee along with maintenance of meticulous hygiene of the hospital and wards may explain the low MDAI rates in our institute. The present surveillance helped us for systematic generation of institutional data regarding MDAI with special reference to role of Candida spp.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the potential clinical and economic impact of introducing an electronic audit and feedback system into current practice to improve hand hygiene compliance in a hypothetical general hospital in England, to reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). METHODS:Decision analysis estimated the impact of introducing an electronic audit and feedback system into current practice to improve hand hygiene compliance among front-line healthcare practitioners (HCPs). RESULTS:The model assumed 4.7% of adult inpatients (ie, ≥18 years of age) and 1.72% of front-line HCPs acquire a HCAI in current practice. The model estimated that if use of the electronic audit and feedback system could lead to a reduction in the incidence of HCAIs of between 5% and 25%, then the annual number of HCAIs avoided could range between 184 and 921 infections per hospital and HCAI-related mortality could range between 6 and 31 deaths per annum per hospital. Additionally, up to 86 days of absence among front-line HCPs could be avoided and up to 7794 hospital bed days could be released for alternative use. Accordingly, the total annual hospital cost attributable to HCAIs could be reduced by between 3% and 23%, depending on the effectiveness of the electronic audit and feedback system. If introduction of the electronic audit and feedback system into current practice could lead to a reduction in the incidence of HCAIs by at least 15%, it would have a ≥0.75 probability of affording the National Health Service (NHS) a cost-effective intervention. CONCLUSION:If the introduction of the electronic audit and feedback system into current practice in a hypothetical general hospital in England can improve hand hygiene compliance among front-line HCPs leading to a reduction in the incidence of HCAIs by ≥15%, it would potentially afford the NHS a cost-effective intervention.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the annual health economic impact of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) to the National Health Service (NHS) in England. DESIGN:A modelling study based on a combination of published data and clinical practice. SETTING:NHS hospitals in England. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Annual number of HCAIs, additional NHS cost, number of occupied hospital bed days and number of days front-line healthcare professionals (HCPs) are absent from work. RESULTS:In 2016/2017, there were an estimated 653 000 HCAIs among the 13.8?million adult inpatients in NHS general and teaching hospitals in England, of which 22?800 patients died as a result of their infection. Additionally, there were an estimated 13 900 HCAIs among 810?000 front-line HCPs in the year. These infections were estimated to account for a total of 5.6?million occupied hospital bed days and 62?500 days of absenteeism among front-line HCPs. In 2016/2017, HCAIs were estimated to have cost the NHS an estimated £2.1?billion, of which 99.8% was attributable to patient management and 0.2% was the additional cost of replacing absent front-line HCPs with bank or agency staff for a period of time. When the framework of the model was expanded to include all NHS hospitals in England (by adding specialist hospitals), there were an estimated 834 000 HCAIs in 2016/2017 costing the NHS £2.7?billion, and accounting for 28?500 patient deaths, 7.1?million occupied hospital bed days (equivalent to 21% of the annual number of all bed days across all NHS hospitals in England) and 79?700 days of absenteeism among front-line HCPs. CONCLUSION:This study should provide updated estimates with which to inform policy and budgetary decisions pertaining to preventing and managing these infections. Clinical and economic benefits could accrue from an increased awareness of the impact that HCAIs impose on patients, the NHS and society as a whole.
Project description:Abstract Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are a major source of morbidity and mortality and are the second most prevalent cause of death. Furthermore, it has been reported that for every one-hundred patients admitted to hospital, seven patients in high-income economies and ten in emerging and low-income economies acquire at least one type of HCAI. Currently, almost all pathogenic microorganisms have developed antimicrobial resistance, and few new antimicrobials are being developed and brought to market. The literature search for this narrative review was performed by searching bibliographic databases (including Google Scholar and PubMed) using the search terms: “Strategies,” “Prevention,” and “Healthcare-Associated Infections,” followed by snowballing references cited by critical articles. We found that although hand hygiene is a centuries-old concept, it is still the primary strategy used around the world to prevent HCAIs. It forms one of a bundle of approaches used to clean and maintain a safe hospital environment and to stop the transmission of contagious and infectious microorganisms, including multidrug-resistant microbes. Finally, antibiotic stewardship also has a crucial role in reducing the impact of HCAIs through conserving currently available antimicrobials.
Project description:Health care-associated infections (HCAIs) are infections that occur while receiving health care, developed in a hospital or other health care facility that first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission, or within 30 days after having received health care. Multiple studies indicate that the common types of adverse events affecting hospitalized patients are adverse drug events, HCAIs, and surgical complications. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention identifies that nearly 1.7 million hospitalized patients annually acquire HCAIs while being treated for other health issues and that more than 98,000 patients (one in 17) die due to these. Several studies suggest that simple infection-control procedures such as cleaning hands with an alcohol-based hand rub can help prevent HCAIs and save lives, reduce morbidity, and minimize health care costs. Routine educational interventions for health care professionals can help change their hand-washing practices to prevent the spread of infection. In support of this, the WHO has produced guidelines to promote hand-washing practices among member countries.
Project description:Background:Antimicrobial resistance is an increasingly serious threat to public health, and the increased occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a concern in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically appraise current antimicrobial treatment options for infections with MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Methods:A literature search for treatment of MDR extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa was conducted in MEDLINE in January 2019. Relevant studies published in English, German, and French that evaluated clinical success, microbiological success, and 30-day mortality outcomes were included. The population of interest was adult patients. Results:Of 672 studies, 43 met the inclusion criteria. Carbapenems are the most common antibiotics used for the treatment of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The clinical and microbiological success was similar for group 1 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, or doripenem), group 2 carbapenems (ertapenem), and non-carbapenem antibiotics. Mortality data were contradictory for group 1 carbapenems compared to group 2 carbapenems. The most common treatment option for A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa infections was intravenous colistin, regardless of infection site. Clinical success and mortality were similar in A. baumannii infections treated with colistin combination therapy vs. colistin monotherapy, whereas heterogeneous results were found with respect to microbiological success. Monotherapy and colistin combination therapy were used against P. aeruginosa with clinical and microbiological success (70-100%) depending on the infection site and severity, and the antibiotic used. Ceftazidime-avibactam therapy for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa showed good clinical success in one study. Conclusion:We did not find robust evidence for antibiotic treatment of any infection with MDR Gram-negative bacteria, including ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa, that would lead to a firm recommendation for one specific antibiotic over another or for monotherapy over combination therapy. The choice of antibiotic treatment should be based on susceptibility testing balancing the expected clinical success rate against the risk of development of antibiotic resistance and the risk of severe side effects.
Project description:Clinical course and mortality in septic patients with low disease severity remain poorly understood and is worth further investigation. We enrolled septic patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) between 2010 and 2014 with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores of ≤15. We sought to determine their clinical trajectories and causes of death, and to analyze risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. A total of 352 patients were included, of whom 89 (25%) did not survive to hospital discharge, at a rate higher than predicted (<21%) by the APACHE II score. Approximately one third (31/89) of non-survivors succumbed to index sepsis; however, more patients (34/89) died of subsequent sepsis. New-onset ICU sepsis developed in 99 (28%) patients and was an independent risk factor for mortality. In addition, septic patients with comorbid malignancy or index infection acquired in the hospital settings were more likely to have in-hospital mortality than those without. In conclusion, septic patients with low APACHE II scores were at a higher mortality risk than expected, and subsequent sepsis rather than index sepsis was the primary cause of death. This study provides insight into unexpected clinical trajectories and outcomes of septic patients with low disease severity at ICU admission and highlights the need for more research and clinical attention in this patient population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the most common hospital-acquired infection in China with substantial morbidity and mortality. But no specific risk assessment model has been well validated in patients with HAP. The aim of this study was to investigate the published risk assessment models that could potentially be used to predict 30-day mortality in HAP patients in non-surgical departments.<h4>Methods</h4>This study was a single-center, retrospective study. In total, 223 patients diagnosed with HAP from 2012 to 2017 were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory data during the initial 24 hours after HAP diagnosis were collected to calculate the pneumonia severity index (PSI); consciousness, urea nitrogen, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age ?65 years (CURB-65); Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II); Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA); and Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) scores. The discriminatory power was tested by constructing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>The all-cause 30-day mortality rate was 18.4% (41/223). The PSI, CURB-65, SOFA, APACHE II, and qSOFA scores were significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors (all P?<?0.001). The discriminatory abilities of the APACHE II and SOFA scores were better than those of the CURB-65 and qSOFA scores (ROC AUC: APACHE II vs. CURB-65, 0.863 vs. 0.744, Z?=?3.055, P?=?0.002; APACHE II vs. qSOFA, 0.863 vs. 0.767, Z?=?3.017, P?=?0.003; SOFA vs. CURB-65, 0.856 vs. 0.744, Z?=?2.589, P?=?0.010; SOFA vs. qSOFA, 0.856 vs. 0.767, Z?=?2.170, P?=?0.030). The cut-off values we defined for the SOFA, APACHE II, and qSOFA scores were 4, 14, and 1.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggest that the APACHE II and SOFA scores determined during the initial 24 h after HAP diagnosis may be useful for the prediction of 30-day mortality in HAP patients in non-surgical departments. The qSOFA score may be a simple tool that can be used to quickly identify severe infections.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHE IV) in patients with cancer admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) in a single medical center in China.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>This is a retrospective observational cohort study including nine hundred and eighty one consecutive patients over a 2-year period.<h4>Results</h4>The hospital mortality rate was 4.5%. When all 981 patients were evaluated, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC, 95% Confidential Intervals) of the three models in predicting hospital mortality were 0.948 (0.914-0.982), 0.863 (0.804-0.923), and 0.873 (0.813-0.934) for SAPS 3, APACHE II and APACHE IV respectively. The p values of Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics for the models were 0.759, 0.900 and 0.878 for SAPS 3, APACHE II and APACHE IV respectively. However, SAPS 3 and APACHE IV underestimated the in-hospital mortality with standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.5 and 1.17 respectively, while APACHE II overestimated the in-hospital mortality with SMR of 0.72. Further analysis showed that discrimination power was better with SAPS 3 than with APACHE II and APACHE IV whether for emergency surgical and medical patients (AUROC of 0.912 vs 0.866 and 0.857) or for scheduled surgical patients (AUROC of 0.945 vs 0.834 and 0.851). Calibration was good for all models (all p > 0.05) whether for scheduled surgical patients or emergency surgical and medical patients. However, in terms of SMR, SAPS 3 was both accurate in predicting the in-hospital mortality for emergency surgical and medical patients and for scheduled surgical patients, while APACHE IV and APACHE II were not.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this cohort, we found that APACHE II, APACHE IV and SAPS 3 models had good discrimination and calibration ability in predicting in-hospital mortality of critically ill patients with cancer in need of intensive care. Of these three severity scores, SAPS 3 was superior to APACHE II and APACHE IV, whether in terms of discrimination and calibration power, or standardized mortality ratios.
Project description:Background Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common complication of sepsis that may result in worse outcomes. This study was designed to determine the epidemiology, clinical features, and risk factors of SAE. Methods This was a retrospective study of all patients with sepsis who were admitted to the Critical Care Medicine Department of Hangzhou First People’s Hospital Affiliated with Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2015 to December 2019. Results A total of 291 sepsis patients were screened, and 127 (43.6%) were diagnosed with SAE. There were significant differences in median age, proportion of underlying diseases such as hypertension, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, gastrointestinal infections, detection rate of Enterococcus, and 28-day mortality between the SAE and non-SAE groups. Both the SOFA score and APACHE II score were independent risk factors for SAE in patients with sepsis. All 127 SAE patients were divided into survival and non-survival groups. The age, SOFA score, and APACHE II score were independently associated with 28-day mortality in SAE patients. Conclusion In the present retrospective study, nearly half of patients with sepsis developed SAE, which was closely related to poor outcomes. Both the SOFA score and APACHE II score were independent risk factors for predicting the occurrence and adverse outcome of SAE.