Functional Brain Activity Changes after 4 Weeks Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Combination: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Exploring Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials during Working Memory.
ABSTRACT: This study explored the neurocognitive effects of 4 weeks daily supplementation with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination (MVM) in healthy adults (aged 18-40 years). Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, participants underwent assessments of brain activity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI; n = 32, 16 females) and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential recordings (SSVEP; n = 39, 20 females) during working memory and continuous performance tasks at baseline and following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment or placebo. There were several treatment-related effects suggestive of changes in functional brain activity associated with MVM administration. SSVEP data showed latency reductions across centro-parietal regions during the encoding period of a spatial working memory task following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment. Complementary results were observed with the fMRI data, in which a subset of those completing fMRI assessment after SSVEP assessment (n = 16) demonstrated increased BOLD response during completion of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) within regions of interest including bilateral parietal lobes. No treatment-related changes in fMRI data were observed in those who had not first undergone SSVEP assessment, suggesting these results may be most evident under conditions of fatigue. Performance on the working memory and continuous performance tasks did not significantly differ between treatment groups at follow-up. In addition, within the fatigued fMRI sample, increased RVIP BOLD response was correlated with the change in number of target detections as part of the RVIP task. This study provides preliminary evidence of changes in functional brain activity during working memory associated with 4 weeks of daily treatment with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination in healthy adults, using two distinct but complementary measures of functional brain activity.
Project description:In this study we investigated effects of the APOE ?4 allele (which confers an enhanced risk of poorer cognitive ageing, and Alzheimer's Disease) on sustained attention (vigilance) performance in young adults using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task and event-related fMRI. Previous fMRI work with this task has used block designs: this study is the first to image an extended (6-minute) RVIP task. Participants were 26 carriers of the APOE ?4 allele, and 26 non carriers (aged 18-28). Pupil diameter was measured throughout, as an index of cognitive effort. We compared activity to RVIP task hits to hits on a control task (with similar visual parameters and response requirements but no working memory load): this contrast showed activity in medial frontal, inferior and superior parietal, temporal and visual cortices, consistent with previous work, demonstrating that meaningful neural data can be extracted from the RVIP task over an extended interval and using an event-related design. Behavioural performance was not affected by genotype; however, a genotype by condition (experimental task/control task) interaction on pupil diameter suggested that ?4 carriers deployed more effort to the experimental compared to the control task. fMRI results showed a condition by genotype interaction in the right hippocampal formation: only ?4 carriers showed downregulation of this region to experimental task hits versus control task hits. Experimental task beta values were correlated against hit rate: parietal correlations were seen in ?4 carriers only, frontal correlations in non-carriers only. The data indicate that, in the absence of behavioural differences, young adult ?4 carriers already show a different linkage between functional brain activity and behaviour, as well as aberrant hippocampal recruitment patterns. This may have relevance for genotype differences in cognitive ageing trajectories.
Project description:Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that repetitive subconcussive head impacts, even after only one sport season, may lead to pre- to post-season structural and functional alterations in male high school football athletes. However, data on female athletes are limited. In the current investigation, we aimed to (1) assess the longitudinal pre- to post-season changes in functional MRI (fMRI) of working memory and working memory performance, (2) quantify the association between the pre- to post-season change in fMRI of working memory and the exposure to head impact and working memory performance, and (3) assess whether wearing a neck collar designed to reduce intracranial slosh via mild compression of the jugular veins can ameliorate the changes in fMRI brain activation observed in the female high school athletes who did not wear collars after a full soccer season. A total of 48 female high school soccer athletes (age range: 14.00-17.97 years) were included in the study. These athletes were assigned to the non-collar group (n?=?21) or to the collar group (n?=?27). All athletes undewent MRI at both pre-season and post-season. In each session, a fMRI verbal N-Back task was used to engage working memory. A significant pre- to post-season increase in fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was demonstrated when performing the N-back working memory task in the non-collar group but not in the collar group, despite the comparable exposure to head impacts during the season between the two groups. The collar group demonstrated significantly smaller pre- to post-season change in fMRI BOLD signal than the non-collar group, suggesting a potential protective effect from the collar device. Significant correlations were also found between the pre- to post-season increase in fMRI brain activation and the decrease in task accuracy in the non-collar group, indicating an association between the compensatory mechanism in underlying neurophysiology and the alteration in the behavioral outcomes.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) commonly produces lytic mucosal lesions. It invariably initiates latent infection in sensory ganglia enabling persistent, lifelong infection. Acute HSV-1 encephalitis is rare and definitive evidence of latent infection in the brain is lacking. However, exposure untraceable to encephalitis has been repeatedly associated with impaired working memory and executive functions, particularly among schizophrenia patients.Patterns of HSV-1 infection and gene expression changes were examined in human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons. Separately, differences in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to working memory challenges using letter n-back tests were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) among schizophrenia cases/controls.HSV-1 induced lytic changes in iPSC-derived glutamatergic neurons and neuroprogenitor cells. In neurons, HSV-1 also entered a quiescent state following coincubation with antiviral drugs, with distinctive changes in gene expression related to functions such as glutamatergic signaling. In the fMRI studies, main effects of schizophrenia (P = .001) and HSV-1 exposure (1-back, P = 1.76 × 10(-4); 2-back, P = 1.39 × 10(-5)) on BOLD responses were observed. We also noted increased BOLD responses in the frontoparietal, thalamus, and midbrain regions among HSV-1 exposed schizophrenia cases and controls, compared with unexposed persons.The lytic/quiescent cycles in iPSC-derived neurons indicate that persistent neuronal infection can occur, altering cellular function. The fMRI studies affirm the associations between nonencephalitic HSV-1 infection and functional brain changes linked with working memory impairment. The fMRI and iPSC studies together provide putative mechanisms for the cognitive impairments linked to HSV-1 exposure.
Project description:Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon in which perception spontaneously shifts between two different images that are dichoptically presented to the viewer. By elucidating the cortical networks responsible for these stochastic fluctuations in perception, we can potentially learn much about the neural correlates of visual awareness. We obtained concurrent EEG-fMRI data for a group of 20 healthy human subjects during the continuous presentation of dichoptic visual stimuli. The two eyes' images were tagged with different temporal frequencies so that eye specific steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) signals could be extracted from the EEG data for direct comparison with changes in fMRI BOLD activity associated with binocular rivalry. We additionally included a smooth replay condition that emulated the perceptual transitions experienced during binocular rivalry as a control stimulus. We evaluated a novel SSVEP-informed fMRI analysis in this study in order to delineate the temporal dynamics of rivalry-related BOLD activity from both an electrophysiological and behavioral perspective. In this manner, we assessed BOLD activity during rivalry that was directly correlated with peaks and crosses of the two rivaling, frequency-tagged SSVEP signals, for comparison with BOLD activity associated with subject reported perceptual transitions. Our findings point to a critical role of a right lateralized fronto-parietal network in the processing of bistable stimuli, given that BOLD activity in the right superior/inferior parietal lobules was significantly elevated throughout binocular rivalry and in particular during perceptual transitions, compared with the replay condition. Based on the SSVEP-informed analysis, rivalry was further associated with significantly enhanced BOLD suppression in the posterior mid-cingulate cortex during perceptual transitions, compared with SSVEP crosses. Overall, this work points to a careful interplay between early visual areas, the right posterior parietal cortex and the mid-cingulate cortex in mediating the spontaneous perceptual changes associated with binocular rivalry and has significant implications for future multimodal imaging studies of perception and awareness.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of acute Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) administration on steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) during completion of working memory and continuous performance tasks. METHODS:A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, balanced, cross-over trial was conducted in middle-aged volunteers aged between 40 and 60 years. Participants were administered 200 mg P. quinquefolius and placebo on two separate testing sessions. Six-h post-dose participants completed spatial working memory (SWM) and continuous performance (CP) tasks while SSVEP from a diffuse task-irrelevant 13 Hz flicker was recorded. RESULTS:During SWM retrieval, P.?quinquefolius was associated with significantly reduced prefrontal SSVEP latency. There were no significant treatment effects on CP nor behavioural performance of either task. CONCLUSIONS:These findings provide preliminary evidence of increased recruitment of prefrontal brain regions during working memory processing following a single acute dose of P.?quinquefolius.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been shown to affect working memory, and fMRI studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder report hypoactivation in task-related attentional networks. However, studies with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients addressing this issue as well as the effects of clinically valid methylphenidate treatment are scarce. This study contributes to closing this gap. METHODS:Thirty-five adult patients were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind placebo or methylphenidate treatment. Patients completed an fMRI n-back working memory task both before and after the assigned treatment, and matched healthy controls were tested and compared to the untreated patients. RESULTS:There were no whole-brain differences between any of the groups. However, when specified regions of interest were investigated, the patient group showed enhanced BOLD responses in dorsal and ventral areas before treatment. This increase was correlated with performance across all participants and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the patient group. Furthermore, we found an effect of treatment in the right superior frontal gyrus, with methylphenidate-treated patients exhibiting increased activation, which was absent in the placebo-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate distinct activation differences between untreated adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and matched healthy controls during a working memory task. These differences might reflect compensatory efforts by the patients, who are performing at the same level as the healthy controls. We furthermore found a positive effect of methylphenidate on the activation of a frontal region of interest. These observations contribute to a more thorough understanding of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide impulses for the evaluation of therapy-related changes.
Project description:The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during resting-state fMRI reflects the magnitude of local low-frequency BOLD oscillations, rather than interregional connectivity. ALFF is of interest to studies of cognition because fluctuations in spontaneous intrinsic brain activity relate to, and possibly even constrain, task-evoked brain responses in healthy people. Lower ALFF has been reported in schizophrenia, but the cognitive correlates of these reductions remain unknown. Here, we assess relationships between ALFF and attention and working memory in order to establish the functional relevance of intrinsic BOLD oscillatory power alterations with respect to specific cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. As part of the multisite FBIRN study, resting-state fMRI data were collected from schizophrenia subjects (SZ; n=168) and healthy controls (HC; n=166). Voxelwise fractional ALFF (fALFF), a normalized ALFF measure, was regressed on neuropsychological measures of sustained attention and working memory in SZ and HC to identify regions showing either common slopes across groups or slope differences between groups (all findings p<0.01 height, p<0.05 family-wise error cluster corrected). Poorer sustained attention was associated with smaller fALFF in the left superior frontal cortex and bilateral temporoparietal junction in both groups, with additional relationships in bilateral posterior parietal, posterior cingulate, dorsal anterior cingulate (ACC), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) evident only in SZ. Poorer working memory was associated with smaller fALFF in bilateral ACC/mPFC, DLPFC, and posterior parietal cortex in both groups. Our findings indicate that smaller amplitudes of low-frequency BOLD oscillations during rest, measured by fALFF, were significantly associated with poorer cognitive performance, sometimes similarly in both groups and sometimes only in SZ, in regions known to subserve sustained attention and working memory. Taken together, these data suggest that the magnitude of resting-state BOLD oscillations shows promise as a biomarker of cognitive function in health and disease.
Project description:RATIONALE:Phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor TAK-063 has shown effects that suggest efficacy in schizophrenia treatment. OBJECTIVE:This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, incomplete-crossover study investigated effects of single oral administration of TAK-063 on ketamine-induced changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in healthy males. METHODS:Healthy men aged 18 to 45 years with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and electroencephalogram measurements at screening were eligible. Each subject was randomized to one of nine treatment schedules: all subjects received placebo and two of three doses of TAK-063 followed by ketamine. The primary endpoint was ketamine-induced brain activity in select regions of the brain during resting state. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetic parameters of TAK-063, proportion of subjects with treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), and percentage of subjects meeting criteria for abnormal safety laboratory tests and vital sign measurements. RESULTS:The study comprised 27 subjects. Prior to ketamine infusion, TAK-063 exerted region-specific effects on resting state functional MRI (fMRI) BOLD signal. After ketamine administration, TAK-063 reduced the Cohen's effect size for resting-state fMRI BOLD signal in key brain regions examined, and exerted similar effects on BOLD signal during the working memory task across all doses. TAK-063 was safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS:Our results are consistent with non-clinical studies of ketamine and TAK-063 and clinical studies of ketamine and risperidone. It is unknown whether these data are predictive of potential antipsychotic efficacy, and further analyses are required.
Project description:Working memory studies in schizophrenia (SZ), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and univariate analyses, have led to observations of hypo- or hyperactivation of discrete cortical regions and subsequent interpretations (e.g. neural inefficiencies). We employed a data-driven, multivariate analysis to identify the patterns of brain-behavior relationships in SZ during working memory.fMRI scans were collected from 13 SZ and 18 healthy control (HC) participants performing a modified Sternberg item recognition paradigm with three memory loads. We applied partial least squares analysis (PLS) to assess brain activation during the task both alone and with behavioral measures (accuracy and response time, RT) as covariates.While the HC primary pattern was not affected by increasing load demands, SZ participants showed an exaggerated change in the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal from the low to moderate memory load conditions and subsequent decrease in the greatest memory load, in frontal, motor, parietal and subcortical areas. With behavioral covariates, the separate groups identified distinct brain-behavior relationships and circuits. Increased activation of the middle temporal gyrus was associated with greater accuracy and faster RT only in SZ.The inverted U-shaped curves in the SZ BOLD signal in the same areas that show flat activation in the HC data indicate widespread neural inefficiency in working memory in SZ. While both groups performed the task with similar levels of accuracy, participants with schizophrenia show a compensatory network of different sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobule, and the temporal gyri in this working memory task.
Project description:Previous studies of the BOLD response in the injured brain have revealed neural recruitment relative to controls during working memory tasks in several brain regions, most consistently the right prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortices. We previously proposed that the recruitment observed in this literature represents auxiliary support resources, and that recruitment of PFC is not abnormal or injury specific and should reduce as novelty and challenge decrease. The current study directly tests this hypothesis in the context of practice of a working memory task. It was hypothesized that individuals with brain injury would demonstrate recruitment of previously indicated regions, behavioral improvement following task practice, and a reduction in the BOLD signal in recruited regions after practice. Individuals with traumatic brain injury and healthy controls performed the n-back during fMRI acquisition, practiced each task out of the scanner, and returned to the scanner for additional fMRI n-back acquisition. Statistical parametric maps demonstrated a number of regions of recruitment in the 1-back in individuals with brain injury and a number of corresponding regions of reduced activation in individuals with brain injury following practice in both the 1-back and 2-back. Regions of interest demonstrated reduced activation following practice, including the anterior cingulate and right prefrontal cortices. Individuals with brain injury demonstrated modest behavioral improvements following practice. These findings suggest that neural recruitment in brain injury does not represent reorganization but a natural extension of latent mechanisms that engage transiently and are contingent upon cerebral challenge.