Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G) mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose) will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21) than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30), and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver is a target organ in many mitochondrial disorders, especially if the complex III assembly factor BCS1L is mutated. To reveal disease mechanism due to such mutations, we have produced a transgenic mouse model with c.232A>G mutation in Bcs1l, the causative mutation for GRACILE syndrome. The homozygous mice develop mitochondrial hepatopathy with steatosis and fibrosis after weaning. Our aim was to assess cellular mechanisms for disease onset and progression using metabolomics. METHODS: With mass spectrometry we analyzed metabolite patterns in liver samples obtained from homozygotes and littermate controls of three ages. As oxidative stress might be a mechanism for mitochondrial hepatopathy, we also assessed H(2)O(2) production and expression of antioxidants. RESULTS: Homozygotes had a similar metabolic profile at 14 days of age as controls, with the exception of slightly decreased AMP. At 24 days, when hepatocytes display first histopathological signs, increases in succinate, fumarate and AMP were found associated with impaired glucose turnover and beta-oxidation. At end stage disease after 30 days, these changes were pronounced with decreased carbohydrates, high levels of acylcarnitines and amino acids, and elevated biogenic amines, especially putrescine. Signs of oxidative stress were present in end-stage disease. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest an early Krebs cycle defect with increases of its intermediates, which might play a role in disease onset. During disease progression, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism deteriorate leading to a starvation-like condition. The mouse model is valuable for further investigations on mechanisms in mitochondrial hepatopathy and for interventions.
Project description:When fed with a high-fat safflower oil diet for 3 wk, wild-type mice develop hepatic insulin resistance, whereas mice lacking glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 retain insulin sensitivity. We examined early changes in the development of insulin resistance via liver and plasma metabolome analyses that compared wild-type and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-deficient mice fed with either a low-fat or the safflower oil diet for 3 wk. We reasoned that diet-induced changes in metabolites that occurred only in the wild-type mice would reflect those metabolites that were specifically related to hepatic insulin resistance. Of the identifiable metabolites (from 322 metabolites) in liver, wild-type mice fed with the high-fat diet had increases in urea cycle intermediates, consistent with increased deamination of amino acids used for gluconeogenesis. Also increased were stearoylglycerol, gluconate, glucarate, 2-deoxyuridine, and pantothenate. Decreases were observed in S-adenosylhomocysteine, lactate, the bile acid taurocholate, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol, a previously identified marker of short-term glycemic control. Of the identifiable metabolites (from 258 metabolites) in plasma, wild-type mice fed with the high-fat diet had increases in plasma stearate and two pyrimidine-related metabolites, whereas decreases were found in plasma bradykinin, alpha-ketoglutarate, taurocholate, and the tryptophan metabolite, kynurenine. This study identified metabolites previously not known to be associated with insulin resistance and points to the utility of metabolomics analysis in identifying unrecognized biochemical pathways that may be important in understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes.
Project description:PURPOSE:To perform a large-scale gene profiling of the liver in a mouse model of fatty liver induced by high carbohydrate (sucrose) diet (HCD) to gain a deeper insight into potential mechanisms of diet-induced hepatic steatosis. METHODS:C57BL/6 male mice were fed either a purified, control diet or a HCD for 16 weeks. HCD feeding led to marked liver steatosis without inflammation or necrosis. The expression of 42,500 genes/sequences was assessed. RESULTS:A number of genes (471) underwent significant expression changes in HCD- as compared to standard diet-fed mice (n = 5/group; P < 0.01). Of these genes, 211 were down- and 260 up-regulated. The latter group includes 20 genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate conversion to fat. The genes that underwent expression changes perform a large variety of molecular functions, and the vast majority of these have never been tested before in non-alcoholic fatty liver of nutritional origin. They reveal novel aspects of the disease and allow identification of candidate genes that may underlie the initiation of hepatic steatosis and progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. CONCLUSIONS:HCD-fed laboratory animals provide a model of early non-alcoholic fatty liver disease resembling the disease in humans. The genome wide gene profiling of the liver reveals the complexity of the disease, unravels novel aspects of HCD-induced hepatic steatosis, and helps elucidate its nature and mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To determine how diets high in saturated fat could increase polyp formation in the mouse model of intestinal neoplasia, ApcMin/+, we conducted large-scale metabolome analysis and association study of colon and small intestine polyp formation from plasma and liver samples of ApcMin/+ vs. wild-type littermates, kept on low vs. high-fat diet. Label-free mass spectrometry was used to quantify untargeted plasma and acyl-CoA liver compounds, respectively. Differences in contrasts of interest were analyzed statistically by unsupervised and supervised modeling approaches, namely Principal Component Analysis and Linear Model of analysis of variance. Correlation between plasma metabolite concentrations and polyp numbers was analyzed with a zero-inflated Generalized Linear Model. RESULTS:Plasma metabolome in parallel to promotion of tumor development comprises a clearly distinct profile in ApcMin/+ mice vs. wild type littermates, which is further altered by high-fat diet. Further, functional metabolomics pathway and network analyses in ApcMin/+ mice on high-fat diet revealed associations between polyp formation and plasma metabolic compounds including those involved in amino-acids metabolism as well as nicotinamide and hippuric acid metabolic pathways. Finally, we also show changes in liver acyl-CoA profiles, which may result from a combination of ApcMin/+-mediated tumor progression and high fat diet. The biological significance of these findings is discussed in the context of intestinal cancer progression. CONCLUSIONS:These studies show that high-throughput metabolomics combined with appropriate statistical modeling and large scale functional approaches can be used to monitor and infer changes and interactions in the metabolome and genome of the host under controlled experimental conditions. Further these studies demonstrate the impact of diet on metabolic pathways and its relation to intestinal cancer progression. Based on our results, metabolic signatures and metabolic pathways of polyposis and intestinal carcinoma have been identified, which may serve as useful targets for the development of therapeutic interventions.
Project description:The study was aimed to characterize the probiotic properties of a Pediococcus pentosaceus strain, KID7, by in vitro and in vivo studies. The strain possessed tolerance to oro-gastrointestinal transit, adherence to the Caco-2 cell line, and antimicrobial activity. KID7 exhibited bile salt hydrolase activity and cholesterol-lowering activity, in vitro. In vivo cholesterol-lowering activity of KID7 was studied using atherogenic diet-fed hypercholesterolemic mice. The experimental animals (C57BL/6J mice) were divided into 4 groups viz., normal diet-fed group (NCD), atherogenic diet-fed group (HCD), atherogenic diet- and KID7-fed group (HCD-KID7), and atherogenic diet- and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121-fed group (HCD-L.ac) as positive control. Serum total cholesterol (T-CHO) level was significantly decreased by 19.8% in the HCD-KID7 group (P < 0.05), but not in the HCD-L.ac group compared with the HCD group. LDL cholesterol levels in both HCD-KID7 and HCD-L.ac groups were decreased by 35.5 and 38.7%, respectively, compared with HCD group (both, P < 0.05). Glutamyl pyruvic transaminase (GPT) level was significantly lower in the HCD-KID7 and HCD-L.ac groups compared to HCD group and was equivalent to that of the NCD group. Liver T-CHO levels in the HCD-KID7 group were reduced significantly compared with the HCD group (P < 0.05) but not in the HCD-L.ac group. Analysis of expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism in liver showed that low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) mRNA expression was significantly increase in the HCD-KID7 group compared to the HCD group. Furthermore, KID7 exhibited desired viability under freeze-drying and subsequent storage conditions with a combination of skim milk and galactomannan. P. pentosaceus KID7 could be a potential probiotic strain, which can be used to develop cholesterol-lowering functional food after appropriate human clinical trials.
Project description:Functional oxidative phosphorylation requires appropriately assembled mitochondrial respiratory complexes and their supercomplexes formed mainly of complexes I, III and IV. BCS1L is the chaperone needed to incorporate the catalytic subunit, Rieske iron-sulfur protein, into complex III at the final stage of its assembly. In cell culture studies, this subunit has been considered necessary for supercomplex formation and for maintaining the stability of complex I. Our aim was to assess the importance of fully assembled complex III for supercomplex formation in intact liver tissue. We used our transgenic mouse model with a homozygous c.232A>G mutation in Bcs1l leading to decreased expression of BCS1L and progressive decrease of Rieske iron-sulfur protein in complex III, resulting in hepatopathy. We studied supercomplex formation at different ages using blue native gel electrophoresis and complex activity using high-resolution respirometry. In isolated liver mitochondria of young and healthy homozygous mutant mice, we found similar supercomplexes as in wild type. In homozygotes aged 27-29 days with liver disorder, complex III was predominantly a pre-complex lacking Rieske iron-sulfur protein. However, the main supercomplex was clearly detected and contained complex III mainly in the pre-complex form. Oxygen consumption of complex IV was similar and that of complex I was twofold compared with controls. These complexes in free form were more abundant in homozygotes than in controls, and the mRNA of complex I subunits were upregulated. In conclusion, when complex III assembly is deficient, the pre-complex without Rieske iron-sulfur protein can participate with available fully assembled complex III in supercomplex formation, complex I function is preserved, and respiratory chain stability is maintained.
Project description:The deleterious effects of PCB 126 are complex, and the role of the liver in modifying toxic insult is not well understood. We utilized metabolomics approaches to compare liver metabolites significantly affected by PCB 126 in control mice and a diet induced liver injury mouse model. In this 14-week study, mice were fed either an amino acid supplemented control diet (CD) or a methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD) which promoted nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and were subsequently exposed to PCB 126. The liver metabolome was profiled by a global metabolomic analysis using LC-MS. There were clear differences between PCB 126 exposed and control mice in the hepatic metabolomic profiles (216 and 266 metabolites were altered in CD-fed and MCD-fed mice respectively after PCB 126 exposure). PCB 126 modulated glycerophospholipid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and CoA biosynthesis pathways irrespective of diet; indicating that the disturbance in lipid metabolism and thiol metabolites are general markers of PCB 126 exposure irrespective of liver health. Additionally, metabolites associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were greatly elevated in PCB 126 exposed mice with compromised livers (e.g., 4-hydroxy-nonenal glutathione, oxylipids, uric acid, and acylcarnitines). Moreover, PCB 126 exposure downregulated redox genes, and the effect was more pronounced in liver injury mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PCB 126 could induce oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction, and pre-existing liver injury can markedly modify PCB 126-induced metabolic changes. Using metabolic profiling, this study suggests mechanism of enhanced PCB 126 toxicity under liver injury settings.
Project description:A combinatory approach using metabolomics and gut microbiome analysis techniques was performed to unravel the nature and specificity of metabolic profiles related to gut ecology in obesity. This study focused on gut and liver metabolomics of two different mouse strains, the C57BL/6J (C57J) and the C57BL/6N (C57N) fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks, causing diet-induced obesity in C57N, but not in C57J mice. Furthermore, a 16S-ribosomal RNA comparative sequence analysis using 454 pyrosequencing detected significant differences between the microbiome of the two strains on phylum level for Firmicutes, Deferribacteres and Proteobacteria that propose an essential role of the microbiome in obesity susceptibility. Gut microbial and liver metabolomics were followed by a combinatory approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography time of tlight MS/MS with subsequent multivariate statistical analysis, revealing distinctive host and microbial metabolome patterns between the C57J and the C57N strain. Many taurine-conjugated bile acids (TBAs) were significantly elevated in the cecum and decreased in liver samples from the C57J phenotype likely displaying different energy utilization behavior by the bacterial community and the host. Furthermore, several metabolite groups could specifically be associated with the C57N phenotype involving fatty acids, eicosanoids and urobilinoids. The mass differences based metabolite network approach enabled to extend the range of known metabolites to important bile acids (BAs) and novel taurine conjugates specific for both strains. In summary, our study showed clear alterations of the metabolome in the gastrointestinal tract and liver within a HFD-induced obesity mouse model in relation to the host-microbial nutritional adaptation.
Project description:Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obese mice fed a semi-purified high-fat diet (HFD) had greater liver tumorigenesis than mice fed a non-semi-purified diet. Because ingredients present in standard unpurified diets may elicit potential chemopreventive properties that are not present in semi-purified diets, the present study evaluated hepatic tumorigenic effects of dietary fat by replacing it with refined carbohydrates [digestible saccharides; high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)] in a semi-purified diet without altering other components. Two-wk-old C57Bl/6J male mice were randomly injected i.p. with either the liver-specific carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (25 mg/kg body weight) to induce liver cancer or saline as the nontumor control. At age 6 wk, mice with or without cancer initiation were further randomly assigned to an HFD (26% and 60% energy from carbohydrates and fat, respectively) or an HCD (66% and 12% energy from carbohydrates and fat, respectively) and consumed food ad libitum for 24 wk. Results showed that HCD-fed mice had a comparable degree of hepatic tumorigenesis (tumor number and volume) as HFD-fed mice, despite having significantly reduced body weights. HCD feeding induced greater hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated protein kinase RNA-activated-like kinase (PERK) activation and oncogenic interleukin-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling than HFD feeding. HCD-stimulated PERK signaling was associated with elevated expression of prosurvival markers in tumors, including induced protein kinase B activation, increased extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation, and elevated cyclin D1 protein expression. However, HCD-mediated PERK activation in tumors was also positively associated with markers of proapoptosis, which included elevated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homology protein expression and increased cleaved caspase-3. HCD-fed mice had greater severity in hepatic steatosis than HFD-fed mice. HCD-induced steatosis exacerbation was associated with increased expression in hepatic de novo lipogenic markers that can promote ER stress. Together, these data indicated that chronic HCD consumption by mice can produce comparable severity of hepatic tumorigenesis as HFD consumption, potentially through upregulating PERK-mediated ER stress.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and senescence-like features are observed in adipose depots in aging and obesity. Herein, we evaluated how maternal high calorie diet (HCD) may impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) of the newborn mice. Adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided in three groups: normal calorie diet (NCD), HCD and HCD supplemented with niacin 8 weeks before mating. Mothers and pups were then sacrificed and metabolic and molecular analyses were carried out on sAT. HCD induced mitochondria dysfunction in mothers without inflammation and senescence, whereas in pups we also revealed the occurrence of senescent phenotype. The mitochondrial dysfunction-associated senescence in pups was accompanied by a drop in NAD+/NADH ratio and alteration in the NAD+-dependent enzymes PARP1 and SIRT1. Importantly, maternal dietary supplementation with niacin during gestation and lactation restrained NAD+/NADH decrease imposed by HCD limiting inflammatory cytokine production and senescence phenotype in newborn sAT. Given the fundamental role of sAT in buffering nutrient overload and avoiding pathogenic ectopic fat accumulation, we suggest that NAD+ boosting strategies during maternal HCD could be helpful in limiting sAT dysfunction in newborn.