Early cytokine signatures of ischemia/reperfusion injury in human orthotopic liver transplantation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND. Orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) is the primary therapy for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. However, ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) can severely compromise allograft survival. To understand the evolution of immune responses underlying OLT-IRI, we evaluated longitudinal cytokine expression profiles from adult OLT recipients before transplant through 1 month after transplant. METHODS. We measured the expression of 38 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in preoperative and postoperative recipient circulating systemic blood (before transplant and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after transplant) and intraoperative portal blood (before and after reperfusion) of 53 OLT patients and analyzed this expression in relation to biopsy-proven IRI (n = 26 IRI+; 27 IRI-), clinical liver function tests early (days 1-7) after transplant, and expression of genes encoding cytokine receptors in biopsies of donor allograft taken before and after reperfusion. RESULTS. Bilirubin and arginine transaminase levels early after transplant correlated with IRI. Fourteen cytokines were significantly increased in the systemic and/or portal blood of IRI+ recipients that shifted from innate to adaptive-immune responses over time. Additionally, expression of cognate receptors for 10 of these cytokines was detected in donor organ biopsies by RNAseq. CONCLUSION. These results provide a mechanistic roadmap of the early immunological events both before and after IRI and suggest several candidates for patient stratification, monitoring, and treatment. FUNDING. Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32CA009120, Keck Foundation award 986722, and a Quantitative & Computational Biosciences Collaboratory Postdoctoral Fellowship.
Project description:Purpose: RNAseq was used to look in donor allografts for genes encoding cytokine receptors specific to the cytokines identified to be upregulated in the blood of Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) receipients with ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) Methods: Liver mRNA cytokine receptor profiles of allografts taken before and after transplant, demultiplexed with Illumina CASAVA, trimmed with Cutadapt, aligned to hg38 with STAR, counted with featureCounts Results: We identified expression of genes encoding 10 cognate receptors for the 14 potential cytokines found to be upregulated in IRI+ patients. Conclusion: Many of the cytokines that are upregulated in the blood of IRI+ OLT recipients have cognate receptors present in donor livers that could allow completed signaling pathways to occur Overall design: Liver allograft mRNA profiles of pre- and post-reperfusion biopsies from IRI+ and IRI- OLT recipients were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 2000
Project description:OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND:Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune and parenchymal cells can detect danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from cells damaged during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), in heart attack or stroke settings, but also as an unavoidable consequence of solid organ transplantation. Despite IRI being a significant clinical problem across all solid organ transplants, there are limited therapeutics and patient-specific diagnostics currently available. METHODS:We screened portal blood samples obtained from 67 human liver transplant recipients both pre- [portal vein (PV) sample] and post-(liver flush; LF) reperfusion for their ability to activate a panel of PRRs, and analyzed this reactivity in relation to biopsy-proven IRI. RESULTS:PV samples from IRI+ orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients (n = 35) decreased activation of hTLR4- and hTLR9-transfected cells, whereas PV from IRI- patients (n = 32) primarily increased hTLR7 and hNOD2 activation. LF samples from OLT-IRI patients significantly increased activation of hTLR4 and hTLR9 over IRI- LF. In addition, the change from baseline reactivity to hTLR4/9/NOD2 was significantly higher in IRI+ than IRI- OLT patients. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that TLR4/7/9 and NOD2 are involved in either promoting or attenuating hepatic IRI, and suggest a diagnostic screening of portal blood for reactivity to these PRRs might prove useful for prediction and/or therapeutic intervention in OLT patients before transplantation.
Project description:Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a risk factor for early graft dysfunction and an obstacle to expanding donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We have reported on the crucial role of macrophage Notch1 signaling in mouse warm hepatic IRI model. However, its clinical relevance or therapeutic potential remain unknown. Here, we used Serelaxin (SER), to verify Notch1 induction and putative hepatoprotective function in ischemia-reperfusion-stressed OLT. C57BL/6 mouse livers subjected to extended (18-hour) cold storage were transplanted to syngeneic recipients. SER treatment at reperfusion ameliorated IRI, improved post-OLT survival, decreased neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine programs, while simultaneously increasing Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) target genes. In bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures, SER suppressed proinflammatory while enhancing antiinflammatory gene expression concomitantly with increased NICD and Hes1. Hepatic biopsies from 21 adult primary liver transplant patients (2 hours postreperfusion) were divided into low-NICD (n = 11) and high-NICD (n = 10) expression groups (western blots). Consistent with our murine findings, human livers characterized by high NICD were relatively IRI resistant, as shown by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at day 1 post-OLT. Our study documents the efficacy of SER-Notch1 signaling in mouse OLT and highlights the protective function of Notch1 in liver transplant patients.
Project description:Although modifications of gut microbiota with antibiotics (Abx) influence mouse skin and cardiac allografts, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether and how recipient Abx pretreatment may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. Mice (C57BL/6) with or without Abx treatment (10 days) were transplanted with allogeneic (BALB/c) cold-stored (18 hours) livers, followed by liver and blood sampling (6 hours). We divided 264 human OLT recipients on the basis of duration of pre-OLT Abx treatment into control (Abx-free/Abx <10 days; n = 108) and Abx treatment (Abx ≥10days; n = 156) groups; OLT biopsy (Bx) samples were collected 2 hours after OLT (n = 52). Abx in mice mitigated IRI-stressed OLT (IRI-OLT), decreased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] stress), enhanced LC3B (autophagy), and inhibited inflammation, whereas it increased serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatic PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4) expression. PGE2 increased EP4, suppressed CHOP, and induced autophagosome formation in hepatocyte cultures in an EP4-dependent manner. An EP4 antagonist restored CHOP, suppressed LC3B, and recreated IRI-OLT. Remarkably, human recipients of Abx treatment plus OLT (Abx-OLT), despite severe pretransplantation clinical acuity, had higher EP4 and LC3B levels but lower CHOP levels, which coincided with improved hepatocellular function (serum aspartate aminotransferase/serum aspartate aminotransferase [sALT/sAST]) and a decreased incidence of early allograft dysfunction (EAD). Multivariate analysis identified "Abx-free/Abx <10 days" as a predictive factor of EAD. This study documents the benefits of Abx pretreatment in liver transplant recipients, identifies ER stress and autophagy regulation by the PGE2/EP4 axis as a homeostatic underpinning, and points to the microbiome as a therapeutic target in OLT.
Project description:Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a major risk factor of early graft dysfunction and a key obstacle to expanding the donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although graft autophagy is essential for resistance against hepatic IRI, its significance in clinical OLT remains unknown. Despite recent data identifying heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a putative autophagy inducer, its role in OLT and interactions with sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a key autophagy regulator, have not been studied. We aimed to examine HO-1-mediated autophagy induction in human OLT and in a murine OLT model with extended (20 hours) cold storage, as well as to analyze the requirement for SIRT1 in autophagy regulation by HO-1. Fifty-one hepatic biopsy specimens from OLT patients were collected under an institutional review board protocol 2 hours after portal reperfusion, followed by Western blot analyses. High HO-1 levels correlated with well-preserved hepatocellular function and enhanced SIRT1/LC3B expression. In mice, HO-1 overexpression by genetically modified HO-1 macrophage therapy was accompanied by decreased OLT damage and increased SIRT1/LC3B expression, whereas adjunctive inhibition of SIRT1 signaling diminished HO-1-mediated hepatoprotection and autophagy induction. Our translational study confirms the clinical relevance of HO-1 cytoprotection and identifies SIRT1-mediated autophagy pathway as a new essential regulator of HO-1 function in IR-stressed OLT.
Project description:Although CEACAM1 (CC1) glycoprotein resides at the interface of immune liver injury and metabolic homeostasis, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains elusive. We aimed to determine whether/how CEACAM1 signaling may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. In the mouse, donor liver CC1 null mutation augmented IRI-OLT (CC1-KO?WT) by enhancing ROS expression and HMGB1 translocation during cold storage, data supported by in vitro studies where hepatic flush from CC1-deficient livers enhanced macrophage activation in bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures. Although hepatic CC1 deficiency augmented cold stress-triggered ASK1/p-p38 upregulation, adjunctive ASK1 inhibition alleviated IRI and improved OLT survival by suppressing p-p38 upregulation, ROS induction, and HMGB1 translocation (CC1-KO?WT), whereas ASK1 silencing (siRNA) promoted cytoprotection in cold-stressed and damage-prone CC1-deficient hepatocyte cultures. Consistent with mouse data, CEACAM1 expression in 60 human donor liver biopsies correlated negatively with activation of the ASK1/p-p38 axis, whereas low CC1 levels associated with increased ROS and HMGB1 translocation, enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses, and inferior early OLT function. Notably, reduced donor liver CEACAM1 expression was identified as one of the independent predictors for early allograft dysfunction (EAD) in human OLT patients. Thus, as a checkpoint regulator of IR stress and sterile inflammation, CEACAM1 may be considered as a denominator of donor hepatic tissue quality, and a target for therapeutic modulation in OLT recipients.
Project description:Hepatic injury due to cold storage followed by reperfusion remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). CD4 T cell TIM-1 signaling costimulates a variety of immune responses in allograft recipients. This study analyzes mechanisms by which TIM-1 affects liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a murine model of prolonged cold storage followed by OLT. Livers from C57BL/6 mice, preserved at 4°C in the UW solution for 20 h, were transplanted to syngeneic recipients. There was an early (1 h) increased accumulation of TIM-1+ activated CD4 T cells in the ischemic OLTs. Disruption of TIM-1 signaling with a blocking mAb (RMT1-10) ameliorated liver damage, evidenced by reduced sALT levels and well-preserved architecture. Unlike in controls, TIM-1 blockade diminished OLT expression of Tbet/IFN-?, but amplified IL-4/IL-10/IL-22; abolished neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/activation and inhibited NF-?B while enhancing Bcl-2/Bcl-xl. Although adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells triggered liver damage in otherwise IR-resistant RAG(-/-) mice, adjunctive TIM-1 blockade reduced Tbet transcription and abolished macrophage activation, restoring homeostasis in IR-stressed livers. Further, transfer of TIM-1(Hi) CD4+, but not TIM-1(Lo) CD4+ T cells, recreated liver IRI in RAG(-/-) mice. Thus, TIM-1 expressing CD4 T cells are required in the mechanism of innate immune-mediated hepatic IRI in OLTs.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication of hemorrhagic shock, liver resection and transplantation. YAP, a key downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, is essential for determining cell fate and maintaining homeostasis in the liver. We aimed to elucidate its role in IRI. METHODS:The role of YAP/Hippo signaling was systematically studied in biopsy specimens from 60 patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in a mouse model of liver warm IRI. Human biopsy specimens were collected after 2-10?h of cold storage and 3?h post-reperfusion, before being screened by western blot. In the mouse model, the role of YAP was probed by activating or inhibiting YAP prior to ischemia-reperfusion. RESULTS:In human biopsies, high post-OLT YAP expression was correlated with well-preserved histology and improved hepatocellular function at postoperative day 1-7. In mice, the ischemia insult (90?min) triggered intrinsic hepatic YAP expression, which peaked at 1-6?h of reperfusion. Activation of YAP protected the liver against IR-stress, by promoting regenerative and anti-oxidative gene induction, while diminishing oxidative stress, necrosis/apoptosis and the innate inflammatory response. Inhibition of YAP aggravated hepatic IRI and suppressed repair/anti-oxidative genes. In mouse hepatocyte cultures, activating YAP prevented hypoxia-reoxygenation induced stress. Interestingly, YAP activation suppressed extracellular matrix synthesis and diminished hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, whereas YAP inhibition significantly delayed hepatic repair, potentiated HSC activation, and enhanced liver fibrosis at 7?days post-IRI. Notably, YAP activation failed to protect Nrf2-deficient livers against IR-mediated damage, leading to extensive fibrosis. CONCLUSION:Our novel findings document the crucial role of YAP in IR-mediated hepatocellular damage and liver fibrogenesis, providing evidence of a potential therapeutic target for the management of sterile liver inflammation in transplant recipients. LAY SUMMARY:In the clinical arm, graft YAP expression negatively correlated with liver function and tissue damage after human liver transplantation. YAP activation attenuated hepatocellular oxidative stress and diminished the innate immune response in mouse livers following ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the mouse model, YAP inhibited hepatic stellate cell activation, and abolished injury-mediated fibrogenesis up to 7?days after the ischemic insult.
Project description:Liver endothelial cell (LEC) damage is essential in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in transplant recipients. We analyzed the mechanism of LEC resistance against IRI by using a novel recombinant soluble form of P selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, tandem P selectin glycoprotein ligand immunoglobulin (TSGL-Ig), in a mouse model of hepatic cold preservation (4°C in University of Wisconsin solution for 20 h) and syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Unlike controls, TSGL-Ig protected orthotopic liver transplants against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) stress, shown by depressed serum alanine aminotransferase levels, well-preserved hepatic architecture, and improved survival (42% vs. 92%). TSGL-Ig suppressed neutrophil/macrophage sequestration and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine programs in OLT. Treatment with TSGL-Ig mitigated LEC activation (P and E selectin, VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression). In parallel in vitro studies, TSGL-Ig diminished cellular damage in H2 O2 -stressed LEC cultures (lactic acid dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase levels). Increased thioredoxin, glutamate-cysteine ligase, NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1? expression, along with transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), implied that TSGL-Ig exerts antioxidant functions in IR-stressed OLT and H2 O2 -stressed LECs. Indeed, Nrf2-deficient livers suffered fulminant IRI compared with WT despite concomitant TSGL-Ig therapy. Thus, TSGL-Ig is not only acting as a competitive antagonist blocking leukocyte migration into IR-stressed liver, but it may also act directly as an agonist stimulating Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection in LECs. This study supports the role of P selectin signaling in hepatic homeostasis in OLT, with broad implications for tissue damage conditions.
Project description:Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) constitutes a significant source of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The allograft is metabolically impaired during warm and cold ischemia and is further damaged by a paradox reperfusion injury after revascularization and reoxygenation. Short-term and long-term complications including post-reperfusion syndrome, delayed graft function, and immune activation have been associated with IRI. Due to the current critical organ shortage, extended criteria grafts are increasingly considered for transplantation, however, with an elevated risk to develop significant features of IRI. In recent years, ex vivo machine perfusion (MP) of the donor liver has witnessed significant advancements. Here, we describe the concept of hypothermic (oxygenated) machine perfusion (HMP/HOPE) approaches and highlight which allografts may benefit from this technology. This review also summarizes clinical applications and the main aspects of ongoing randomized controlled trials on hypothermic perfusion. The mechanistic aspects of IRI and hypothermic MP-which include tissue energy replenishment, optimization of mitochondrial function, and the reduction of oxidative and inflammatory damage following reperfusion-will be comprehensively discussed within the context of current preclinical and clinical evidence. Finally, we highlight novel trends and future perspectives in the field of hypothermic MP in the context of recent findings of basic and translational research.