Membrane protein structure determination by SAD, SIR, or SIRAS phasing in serial femtosecond crystallography using an iododetergent.
ABSTRACT: The 3D structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray crystallography suffers from a phase problem: to perform Fourier transformation to calculate real space density maps, both intensities and phases of structure factors are necessary; however, measured diffraction patterns give only intensities. Although serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has been steadily developed since 2009, experimental phasing still remains challenging. Here, using 7.0-keV (1.771 Å) X-ray pulses from the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA), iodine single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD), single isomorphous replacement (SIR), and single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) phasing were performed in an SFX regime for a model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR). The crystals grown in bicelles were derivatized with an iodine-labeled detergent heavy-atom additive 13a (HAD13a), which contains the magic triangle, I3C head group with three iodine atoms. The alkyl tail was essential for binding of the detergent to the surface of bR. Strong anomalous and isomorphous difference signals from HAD13a enabled successful phasing using reflections up to 2.1-Å resolution from only 3,000 and 4,000 indexed images from native and derivative crystals, respectively. When more images were merged, structure solution was possible with data truncated at 3.3-Å resolution, which is the lowest resolution among the reported cases of SFX phasing. Moreover, preliminary SFX experiment showed that HAD13a successfully derivatized the G protein-coupled A2a adenosine receptor crystallized in lipidic cubic phases. These results pave the way for de novo structure determination of membrane proteins, which often diffract poorly, even with the brightest XFEL beams.
Project description:Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offers unprecedented possibilities for macromolecular structure determination of systems that are prone to radiation damage. However, phasing XFEL data de novo is complicated by the inherent inaccuracy of SFX data, and only a few successful examples, mostly based on exceedingly strong anomalous or isomorphous difference signals, have been reported. Here, it is shown that SFX data from thaumatin microcrystals can be successfully phased using only the weak anomalous scattering from the endogenous S atoms. Moreover, a step-by-step investigation is presented of the particular problems of SAD phasing of SFX data, analysing data from a derivative with a strong anomalous signal as well as the weak signal from endogenous S atoms.
Project description:Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) holds great potential for structure determination of challenging proteins that are not amenable to producing large well diffracting crystals. Efficient de novo phasing methods are highly demanding and as such most SFX structures have been determined by molecular replacement methods. Here we employed single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) for phasing and demonstrate successful application to SFX de novo phasing. Only about 20,000 patterns in total were needed for SIRAS phasing while single wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) phasing was unsuccessful with more than 80,000 patterns of derivative crystals. We employed high energy X-rays from SACLA (12.6?keV) to take advantage of the large anomalous enhancement near the LIII absorption edge of Hg, which is one of the most widely used heavy atoms for phasing in conventional protein crystallography. Hard XFEL is of benefit for de novo phasing in the use of routinely used heavy atoms and high resolution data collection.
Project description:Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) holds enormous potential for the structure determination of proteins for which it is difficult to produce large and high-quality crystals. SFX has been applied to various systems, but rarely to proteins that have previously unknown structures. Consequently, the majority of previously obtained SFX structures have been solved by the molecular replacement method. To facilitate protein structure determination by SFX, it is essential to establish phasing methods that work efficiently for SFX. Here, selenomethionine derivatization and mercury soaking have been investigated for SFX experiments using the high-energy XFEL at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser (SACLA), Hyogo, Japan. Three successful cases are reported of single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing using X-rays of less than 1?Å wavelength with reasonable numbers of diffraction patterns (13?000, 60?000 and 11?000). It is demonstrated that the combination of high-energy X-rays from an XFEL and commonly used heavy-atom incorporation techniques will enable routine de novo structural determination of biomacromolecules.
Project description:Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77?Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.
Project description:We provide a detailed description of a gadoteridol-derivatized lysozyme (gadolinium lysozyme) two-colour serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) dataset for multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) structure determination. The data was collected at the Spring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA) facility using a two-colour double-pulse beam to record two diffraction patterns simultaneously in one diffraction image. Gadolinium lysozyme was chosen as a well-established model system that has a very strong anomalous signal. Diffraction patterns from gadolinium lysozyme microcrystals were recorded to a resolution of 1.9?Å in both colours. This dataset is publicly available through the Coherent X-ray Imaging Data Bank (CXIDB) as a resource for algorithm development.
Project description:Native single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) is an attractive experimental phasing technique as it exploits weak anomalous signals from intrinsic light scatterers (Z < 20). The anomalous signal of sulfur in particular, is enhanced at long wavelengths, however the absorption of diffracted X-rays owing to the crystal, the sample support and air affects the recorded intensities. Thereby, the optimal measurable anomalous signals primarily depend on the counterplay of the absorption and the anomalous scattering factor at a given X-ray wavelength. Here, the benefit of using a wavelength of 2.7 over 1.9?Å is demonstrated for native-SAD phasing on a 266?kDa multiprotein-ligand tubulin complex (T2R-TTL) and is applied in the structure determination of an 86?kDa helicase Sen1 protein at beamline BL-1A of the KEK Photon Factory, Japan. Furthermore, X-ray absorption at long wavelengths was controlled by shaping a lysozyme crystal into spheres of defined thicknesses using a deep-UV laser, and a systematic comparison between wavelengths of 2.7 and 3.3?Å is reported for native SAD. The potential of laser-shaping technology and other challenges for an optimized native-SAD experiment at wavelengths >3?Å are discussed.
Project description:In this article, a new approach to experimental phasing for macromolecular crystallography (MX) at synchrotrons is introduced and described for the first time. It makes use of automated robotics applied to a multi-crystal framework in which human intervention is reduced to a minimum. Hundreds of samples are automatically soaked in heavy-atom solutions, using a Labcyte Inc. Echo 550 Liquid Handler, in a highly controlled and optimized fashion in order to generate derivatized and isomorphous crystals. Partial data sets obtained on MX beamlines using an in situ setup for data collection are processed with the aim of producing good-quality anomalous signal leading to successful experimental phasing.
Project description:The CsgC protein is a component of the curli system in Escherichia coli. Reported here is the successful incorporation of selenocysteine (SeCys) and selenomethionine (SeMet) into recombinant CsgC, yielding derivatized crystals suitable for structural determination. Unlike in previous reports, a standard autotrophic expression strain was used and only single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) data were required for successful phasing. The level of SeCys/SeMet incorporation was estimated by mass spectrometry to be about 80%. The native protein crystallized in two different crystal forms (form 1 belonging to space group C222(1) and form 2 belonging to space group C2), which diffracted to 2.4 and 2.0?Å resolution, respectively, whilst Se-derivatized protein crystallized in space group C2 and diffracted to 1.7?Å resolution. The Se-derivatized crystals are suitable for SAD structure determination using only the anomalous signal derived from the SeCys residues. These results extend the usability of SeCys labelling to more general and less favourable cases, rendering it a suitable alternative to traditional phasing approaches.
Project description:Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) takes advantage of extremely bright and ultrashort pulses produced by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), allowing for the collection of high-resolution diffraction intensities from micrometer-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal radiation damage, using the principle of "diffraction-before-destruction." However, de novo structure factor phase determination using XFELs has been difficult so far. We demonstrate the ability to solve the crystallographic phase problem for SFX data collected with an XFEL using the anomalous signal from native sulfur atoms, leading to a bias-free room temperature structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor at 1.9 Å resolution. The advancement was made possible by recent improvements in SFX data analysis and the design of injectors and delivery media for streaming hydrated microcrystals. This general method should accelerate structural studies of novel difficult-to-crystallize macromolecules and their complexes.
Project description:Currently, selenium is the most widely used phasing vehicle for experimental phasing, either by single anomalous scattering or multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) procedures. The use of the single isomorphous replacement anomalous scattering (SIRAS) phasing procedure with selenomethionine containing proteins is not so commonly used, as it requires isomorphous native data. Here it is demonstrated that isomorphous differences can be measured from intensity changes measured from a selenium labelled protein crystal before and after UV exposure. These can be coupled with the anomalous signal from the dataset collected at the selenium absorption edge to obtain SIRAS phases in a UV-RIPAS phasing experiment. The phasing procedure for two selenomethionine proteins, the feruloyl esterase module of xylanase 10B from Clostridium thermocellum and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis chorismate synthase, have been investigated using datasets collected near the absorption edge of selenium before and after UV radiation. The utility of UV radiation in measuring radiation damage data for isomorphous differences is highlighted and it is shown that, after such measurements, the UV-RIPAS procedure yields comparable phase sets with those obtained from the conventional MAD procedure. The results presented are encouraging for the development of alternative phasing approaches for selenomethionine proteins in difficult cases.