Noninvasive markers for staging fibrosis in chronic delta hepatitis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Serum fibrosis markers are useful in staging chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus but have not been evaluated in chronic hepatitis D virus (HDV). AIM:To evaluate the utility of serum fibrosis markers [fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio, aspartate aminotransferase ratio (AAR), age-platelet index (API), AST-to-platelet-ratio-index (APRI) and Hui score] in HDV infection. METHODS:Clinical and histologic laboratory data from HBV, HCV and HDV patients were evaluated and serum fibrosis markers were calculated. The ability of fibrosis markers to detect advanced fibrosis (Ishak ?4) and cirrhosis (Ishak = 6) were evaluated and compared between viral infections. RESULTS:A total of 1003 subjects (HCV = 701, HBV = 240 and HDV = 62) with mean age of 46 ± 11 and 66% male were evaluated. HDV subjects had higher ALT and AST than HCV and lower platelets than both HBV and HCV. Histologically, HDV had the greatest percentage of Ishak ?4 and necroinflammation. FIB-4 performed best in detecting advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in all viral cohorts. In HDV, area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) 95% confidence intervals for detecting advanced fibrosis were: FIB-4 = 0.70 (0.55-0.84), API = 0.69 (0.55-0.82), APRI = 0.68 (0.54-0.82), Hui score = 0.63 (0.49-0.78), AAR = 0.63 (0.48-0.77). The AUROC for detecting cirrhosis in HDV were: FIB-4 = 0.83 (0.69-0.97), API = 0.80 (0.66-0.95), APRI = 0.75 (0.61-0.89), Hui score = 0.70 (0.49-0.91) and AAR = 0.70 (0.48-0.93). Adjustment of published cut-offs led to marginal improvements in FIB4 for advanced fibrosis and of APRI for cirrhosis in HDV. CONCLUSIONS:Serum fibrosis markers have lower performance accuracy in chronic HDV infected patients compared to HBV and HCV patients. Other noninvasive fibrosis markers should be explored to assist in the management of these patients.
Project description:To investigate the association between serum complement 5a (C5a) concentration and liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in a large cohort of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV).Five hundred and eight patients with chronic HBV infection undergoing liver biopsy were included. Serum concentrations of C5a was measured by Luminex screening system. Ishak histological system was obtained.C5a levels were negatively associated with liver fibrosis stages and significantly declined in patients with severe fibrosis and cirrhosis (P < 0.001). Multiple analysis showed C5a, AST, laminin, Co-IV, platelet count, albumin, HBsAg associated with liver fibrosis independently. Based on the markers above, we created two scores, Fib-model for significant fibrosis and Cirrh-model for earlier cirrhosis. Fib-model was performing better to differentiate from significant fibrosis, with an AUROC of 0.82 (95 % CI 0.78, 0.86), in comparison to existed models APRI, FIB-4 and Forns' index with AUROCs of 0.71 (95 % CI 0.66, 0.76), 0.72 (95 % CI 0.67, 0.77), 0.77 (95 % CI 0.72, 0.81), respectively. Although, Cirrh-model showed AUROC of 0.85 (95 % CI 0.80, 0.91) for evaluation of earlier cirrhosis, superior to APRI, and Forns' index, C5a + FIB-4 performed best with an AUROC of 0.94 (95 % CI 0.90, 0.97).In patients with chronic HBV infection, serum C5a concentration significantly decreased in severe fibrosis stages and earlier cirrhosis. Fib-model and C5a + FIB-4 performed better than existed models for assessment of significant fibrosis and earlier cirrhosis, respectively.
Project description:We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), AST/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR), and age-platelet index (API) for significant fibrosis (Metavir F2-4) in low-replicative (HBV DNA <20,000 IU/mL) chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients.The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of HBeAg-negative, low-replicative (n = 213) and high-replicative (HBV DNA ?20,000 IU/mL, n = 153) patients was assessed.Overall, 113 patients (30.9%) had F2-4 fibrosis. Of the low and high-replicative patients, 40 (18.8%) and 73 (47.7%) had F2-4, respectively (P < 0.0001). APRI ?0.5 less frequently identified F2-4 fibrosis in low vs. high-replicative patients (48.7% vs. 69.6%, P = 0.032) and AAR identified it more frequently in low-replicative patients (37.5% vs. 19.4%, P = 0.037). FIB-4 and API were not different (P > 0.05) for identifying F2-4 fibrosis in low and high-replicative patients. Higher specificities were seen at the lowest cut-offs in low vs. high-replicative states for APRI (?0.5, 98% vs. 68.9%), AAR (84.3% vs. 76.6%), FIB-4 (?1.45, 97.5% vs. 87.8%) and API (>4, 94.8% vs. 93.8%). At ROC-defined thresholds, APRI (?0.33), AAR (?0.93), FIB-4 (?0.70) and API (>2) showed greater AUROCs for F2-4 diagnosis in low replicative (0.80, 0.62, 0.81 and 0.71, respectively) vs. high-replicative patients (0.73, 0.52, 0.67 and 0.69, respectively).All 4 biomarkers in both, low and high-replicative HBV demonstrate modest accuracy for fibrosis diagnosis at conventional cut-offs. Lowering the cut-offs may increase the diagnostic relevance of these biomarkers, particularly for APRI and FIB-4 in low-replicative disease.
Project description:Noninvasive biomarkers have been developed to predict hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related fibrosis owing to the significant limitations of liver biopsy. Those biomarkers were initially derived from evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related fibrosis, and their accuracy among HBV-infected patients was under constant debate. A systematic review was conducted on records in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library electronic databases, up until April 1st, 2013, in order to systematically assess the effectiveness and accuracy of these biomarkers for predicting HBV-related fibrosis. The questionnaire for quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) was used. Out of 115 articles evaluated for eligibility, 79 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Eventually, our final data set for the meta-analysis contained 30 studies. The areas under the SROC curve for APRI, FIB-4, and FibroTest of significant fibrosis were 0.77, 0.75, and 0.84, respectively. For cirrhosis, the areas under the SROC curve for APRI, FIB-4 and FibroTest were 0.75, 0.87, and 0.90, respectively. The heterogeneity of FIB-4 and FibroTest were not statistically significant. The heterogeneity of APRI for detecting significant fibrosis was affected by median age (P?=?0.0211), and for cirrhosis was affected by etiology (P?=?0.0159). Based on the analysis we claim that FibroTest has excellent diagnostic accuracy for identification of HBV-related significant fibrosis and cirrhosis. FIB-4 has modest benefits and may be suitable for wider scope implementation.
Project description:The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a novel index to estimate liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Few studies compared diagnostic accuracy of GPR with other non-invasive fibrosis tests based on blood parameters. We analyzed diagnostic values of GPR for detecting liver fibrosis and compared diagnostic performances of GPR with APRI (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index), FIB-4 (fibrosis index based on the four factors), NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio), AAR (aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio) and RPR (red cell distribution width-to-platelet ratio) in HBeAg positive CHB and HBeAg negative CHB. We found AUROCs of GPR in predicting significant liver fibrosis, advanced liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis were 0.732 (95% CI 0.663 to 0.801), 0.788 (95% CI 0.729 to 0.847) and 0.753 (95% CI 0.692 to 0.814), respectively. Further comparisons showed the diagnostic performance of GPR was not significantly different with APRI, FIB-4 and RPR in identifying significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, but it was significantly superior to AAR and NLR in both HBeAg positive CHB and HBeAg negative CHB. In conclusion, GPR does not show advantages than APRI, FIB-4 and RPR in identifying significant liver fibrosis, advanced liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis in both HBeAg positive CHB and HBeAg negative CHB in China.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the accuracy of noninvasive inflammatory markers in predicting liver fibrosis stage in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). PATIENTS AND METHODS:We enrolled 55 patients with AIH and 60 healthy controls in this study, and divided them into three groups: F0 (control); F1-F3 (noncirrhotic fibrosis); and F4 (cirrhosis). The following markers were analyzed for all participants: lymphocyte-to-neutrophil ratio (LNR); lymphocyte-to-platelet ratio (LPR); lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR); immunoglobulin-to-platelet ratio (IGPR); aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI); aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR); and fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4). The predictive accuracy of these noninvasive markers was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between the noninvasive markers and liver fibrosis stage. RESULTS:AAR, LPR, LMR, IGPR, APRI, and FIB-4 were linked to liver fibrosis-stage (P < 0.05), with correlation indices of - 0.219, 0.258, - 0.149, 0.647, 0.841, and 0.704, respectively, but not LNR (P = 0.093). area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of LPR, IGPR, AAR, LMR, APRI, and FIB-4 for detecting cirrhosis (F4 vs. F0-F3) were 0.936 (95% confidence interval: 0.870-1.000, P < 0.001), 0.939 (0.875-1.000, P < 0.001), 0.528 (0.319-0.738, P = 0.768), 0.555 (0.409-0.700, P = 0.568), 0.798 (0.694-0.902, P = 0.002), and 0.881 (0.796-0.967, P < 0.001). Our multivariate ordinal regression analysis showed that LPR and IGPR were associated independently with liver fibrosis stage, with a coefficient of 0.385 (95% confidence interval: 0.103-0.667, P = 0.007) and 14.903 (2.091-27.786, P = 0.023), respectively. CONCLUSION:LPR and IGPR were associated independently with liver fibrosis stage in treatment-naive AIH, and were superior to APRI and FIB-4 in detecting cirrhosis.
Project description:For hepatitis B patients who do not meet the treatment criteria recommended by guidelines, therapy decisions depend on hepatic histology. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) is a mediator of chronic inflammation that contributes to extracellular matrix remodeling. The aim of this study was to explore the predictive value of Angptl2 as a novel biomarker of liver histology.Hepatitis B patients with normal to minimally raised ALT were recruited. Serum Angptl2 concentrations were detected using commercial ELISA kit. The fibrosis score were assessed according to Ishak criteria. Significant fibrosis was defined as ISHAK score ≥ 3.Of 460 patients, 223 cases served as training cohort and 237 ones as validation cohort. Serum Angptl2 concentration was significantly associated with fibrosis scores in both training and validation group. Angptl2 combined index (ACI) for assessing significant fibrosis was developed from training cohort, based on Angptl2 and conventional variables. ACI showed areas under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.835 for predicting significant fibrosis, which was superior to APRI (AUC = 0.776, P = 0.049), FIB-4 (AUC = 0.750, P = 0.010), Hui model (AUC = 0.756, P = 0.028), and had a better trend than Forn's index (AUC = 0.796, P = 0.083) in training cohort. Finally, validation cohort revealed its robustness and reliability.Higher Angptl2 level represents as a potential biomarker independently associated with fibrosis stages. Compared with APRI, Hui model, FIB-4, Forn's index, ACI did better in diagnosing significant fibrosis in hepatitis B patients.The complete clinical trials protocol is available by request at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01962155 ) and chictr.org ( ChiCTR-DDT-13003724 ).
Project description:HIV increases the risk of liver disease as do two common coinfections, hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV). However, whether combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reverses or exacerbates hepatic fibrosis remains unclear.This was an observational retrospective study. cART-naïve HIV-infected subjects without a history of substance abuse (including alcohol) had liver disease stage determined by aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio indices (APRIs) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) before and 24 and 48 weeks after cART. All the data were retrieved from previously established cohorts. Values before and after cART were compared using Wilcoxon test for paired samples. Regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with moderate-to-severe liver disease.Of the 1105 HIV-infected subjects, 120 were HBV coinfected and 64 were HCV coinfected. About 20% of HIV monoinfected participants had APRI and FIB-4 scores consistent with moderate-to-significant fibrosis compared to ?36% of HIV-HBV coinfected and 67% to 77% of HIV-HCV coinfected participants. In adjusted analyses compared with HIV monoinfection, HBV coinfection was associated with 1.18-fold higher APRI (P?<?0.001) and a 1.12-fold higher FIB-4 (P?=?0.007) prior to cART; while HCV coinfection was associated with 1.94-fold higher APRI (P?<?0.001) and a 1.43-fold higher FIB-4 (P?<?0.001). After 48 weeks of cART, both fibrosis scores decreased in all subjects; however, HCV coinfection was still associated with higher fibrosis scores at week 48 compared to HIV monoinfection.cART was associated with improvement in hepatic fibrosis scores in the majority of HIV-hepatitis coinfected and HIV-monoinfected Chinese participants.
Project description:To evaluate the diagnostic performance of seven non-invasive tests (NITs) of liver fibrosis and to assess fibrosis progression over time in HIV/HCV co-infected patients.Transient elastography (TE) and six blood tests were compared to histopathological fibrosis stage (METAVIR). Participants were followed over three years with NITs at yearly intervals.Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for significant fibrosis (> = F2) in 105 participants was highest for TE (0.85), followed by FIB-4 (0.77), ELF-Test (0.77), APRI (0.76), Fibrotest (0.75), hyaluronic acid (0.70), and Hepascore (0.68). AUROC for cirrhosis (F4) was 0.97 for TE followed by FIB-4 (0.91), APRI (0.89), Fibrotest (0.84), Hepascore (0.82), ELF-Test (0.82), and hyaluronic acid (0.79). A three year follow-up was completed by 87 participants, all on antiretroviral therapy and in 20 patients who completed HCV treatment (9 with sustained virologic response). TE, APRI and Fibrotest did not significantly change during follow-up. There was weak evidence for an increase of FIB-4 (mean increase: 0.22, p = 0.07). 42 participants had a second liver biopsy: Among 38 participants with F0-F3 at baseline, 10 were progessors (1-stage increase in fibrosis, 8 participants; 2-stage, 1; 3-stage, 1). Among progressors, mean increase in TE was 3.35 kPa, in APRI 0.36, and in FIB-4 0.75. Fibrotest results did not change over 3 years.TE was the best NIT for liver fibrosis staging in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. APRI-Score, FIB-4 Index, Fibrotest, and ELF-Test were less reliable. Routinely available APRI and FIB-4 performed as good as more expensive tests. NITs did not change significantly during a follow-up of three years, suggesting slow liver disease progression in a majority of HIV/HCV co-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy.
Project description:Cirrhosis from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. We determine the prevalence of cirrhosis among HCV-infected American adults including those unaware of their infection.Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, we identified participants aged ?20 years with detectable serum HCV RNA. The prevalence of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined for eras 1 (1988-94), 2 (1999-2006) and 3 (2007-2012) by using FIB-4 >3.25 and APRI >2.0, respectively.Out of 52,644 NHANES examinees, 49,429 were tested for HCV, of whom 725 met the inclusion criteria (positive HCV RNA with available data for FIB-4 and APRI). Based on APRI, 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-11.0) of HCV-infected adults in era 1, 7.6% (95% CI: 3.4-11.8) in era 2 and 17.0% (95% CI: 8.0-26.0) in era 3 had cirrhosis. In the multivariable regression analysis, this era effect was attributable to increasing age (odds ratio [OR]:1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07), diabetes (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.01-5.40) and obesity (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.15-7.57). Cirrhosis was as common among respondents who were unaware of their infection as those who were aware (both 11%). Results were identical when FIB-4 was used.Among HCV-infected American adults, the proportion with cirrhosis has increased rapidly. Cirrhosis prevalence remains high in individuals unaware of their HCV infection. These data highlight the urgency for HCV screening regardless of symptoms, systematic assessment for liver fibrosis in those with HCV infection and institution of antivirals to prevent advanced liver disease.Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis, creating a large public health burden. Based on the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample, we found the proportion of patients with cirrhosis among Americans with HCV infection increased from 6.6% to 17.0% over the past two decades. Patients who were unaware of their infection were just as likely to have cirrhosis as those who knew about their infection, which highlights the need for screening and treatment for HCV at the population level.
Project description:YKL-40 is a chitinase-like protein expressed in multiple tissues including liver and is reported as a fibrosis marker. This study aimed to determine whether YKL-40 could serve as a diagnostic marker for the assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients with normal and mildly elevated ALT.Six hundred and eighty-five patients with chronic hepatitis B infection were enrolled in this study from October 2013 to March 2016. All patients underwent liver biopsy and then staged based on Ishak histological system. Serum YKL-40 levels were measured by Human Magnetic Luminex Assays.Among chronic hepatitis B patients with normal and mildly elevated ALT, almost more than 30% of patients have significant liver fibrosis. Serum YKL-40 levels increased significantly in parallel with the progression of fibrosis in patients with ALT less than two times the upper limit of normal range (P?<?0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that serum YKL-40, hyaluronic acid, PLT, and AST were independently associated with significant fibrosis. We established a novel YKL-40-based fibrosis model for patients with ALT less than two times the upper limit of normal range (ULN). YKL-40 model was superior to APRI, FIB-4, Forns' index, and Hui model for diagnosis of significant fibrosis in patients with ALT?<?2ULN, with AUROCs of 0.786 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.726-0.846] in the training group, 0.831 (95%CI 0.752-0.910) in the validation group and 0.801 (95%CI 0.753-0.849) in the entire cohort.Serum YKL-40 is a feasible biomarker of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients. YKL-40 model was superior to APRI, FIB-4, Forns' index and Hui model for diagnosis of significant fibrosis in patients with normal and mildly elevated ALT.