Intra-patient Variability of FDG Standardized Uptake Values in Mediastinal Blood Pool, Liver, and Myocardium during R-CHOP Chemotherapy in Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is useful for staging and evaluating treatment response in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A five-point scale model using the mediastinal blood pool (MBP) and liver as references is a recommended method for interpreting treatment response. We evaluated the variability in standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the MBP, liver, and myocardium during chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL.We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) treatment and underwent baseline, interim, and final FDG PET/CT scans. The FDG uptakes of lymphoma lesions, MBP, liver, and myocardium were assessed, and changes in the MBP and liver SUV and possible associated factors were evaluated.The SUV of the liver did not change significantly during the chemotherapy. However, the SUVmean of MBP showed a significant change though the difference was small (p?=?0.019). SUVmean of MBP and liver at baseline and interim scans was significantly lower in patients with advanced Ann Arbor stage on diagnosis. The SUVmean of the MBP and liver was negatively correlated with the volumetric index of lymphoma lesions in baseline scans (r?=?-0.547, p?
Project description:OBJECTIVE::To examine the prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and fluorothymidine (FLT) interim positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS::44 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL underwent both fluorine 18 FDG (18F-FDG) and 18F-FLT PET/CT scans at baseline and after two cycles of a rituximab-containing chemotherapy regimen. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) and changes in SUV (?SUV) were calculated for both tracers for the predominant lesion of each patient, for prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS::The median follow-up period was 71 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the best ?SUV cut-off values for FDG (?SUVFDG) and FLT (?SUVFLT) were 79 and 76%, respectively. A ?SUVFLT cut-off of 76% had the highest significance for prediction of PFS (p = 0.003) and OS (p = 0009), with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 80.0, 85.7, and 81.8% respectively in response assessment. CONCLUSION::Interim FLT PET/CT had higher specificity and accuracy than standard FDG PET/CT-based interpretation. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE::This study demonstrated that interim FLT PET/CT had higher accuracy than standardized FDG-based interpretation for therapeutic response assessment in DLBCL. FLT had the advantage of potentially reducing false positive of interim FDG PET/CT.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of baseline <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT quantitative parameters and interim treatment response, and to assess whether the combination of these could improve the predictive efficacy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving R-CHOP chemotherapy. PET/CT images and clinical data of 64 patients with DLBCL who had undergone <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT scan before and after 3 or 4 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The quantitative parameters including standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum diameter of the maximum lesion (Dmax) were measured on baseline PET/CT images. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the influence of baseline PET/CT parameters, clinical indicators and interim treatment response on prognosis. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to estimate the predictive efficacy of the combination of baseline PET/CT parameters and interim treatment response. Ann Arbor stage, International Prognostic Index (IPI), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), necrosis, MTVmax, TLGmax, Dmax and interim treatment response showed association with 2-year progression-free survival (PFS, P<0.05). LDH, necrosis, MTVmax, MTVsum, TLGmax, TLGsum, Dmax and interim treatment response showed association with 2-year overall survival (OS, P<0.05). Ann Arbor stage, Dmax and interim treatment response were found to be independent predictors of 2-year PFS (P<0.05), while Dmax and interim treatment response were found to be independent predictors of 2-year OS (P<0.05). The PFS and OS curves of Dmax <5.7 cm group and Dmax ?5.7 cm group, complete response (CR) group and non-CR group were significantly different, respectively (P<0.05). The baseline <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT parameters and interim treatment response have important prognostic values in DLBCL patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy. Combined application of Dmax and interim treatment response improved the predictive efficacy of 2-year PFS. It may be helpful to identify patients who are at high-risk of relapse and to guide early clinical intervention of these patients.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To determine whether interim 3'-deoxy-3'-[<sup>18</sup>F]fluorothymidine (iFLT) PET/CT is a superior predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) compared with interim <sup>18</sup>F-fluorodeoxyglucose (iFDG) PET/CT in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) or rituximab, etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (R-EPOCH).<h4>Methods</h4>Ninety-two prospectively enrolled patients with DLBCL underwent both FLT-PET/CT and FDG-PET/CT 18-24 days after two cycles of R-CHOP/R-EPOCH. Deauville-criteria, PERCIST1.0, standardized uptake value (SUV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and metabolic tumor volume were used to interpret iFDG-PET/CT while dichotomous visual interpretation was used to interpret iFLT-PET/CT and the results were compared with the 3- and 5-year PFS.<h4>Results</h4>iFLT-PET/CT was negative in 67 (73%) and positive in 25 (27%) patients. iFDG-PET/CT by Deauville criteria was negative (Deauville scores [DS] of 1-3) in 53 (58%) and positive (DS = 4-5) in 39 (42%) patients. Of the 67 iFLT-PET/CT-negative patients, 7 (10.4%) progressed at a median of 14.1 months whereas 14/25 (56.0%) iFLT-PET/CT-positive patients progressed at a median of 7.8 months (P < .0001). Of the 53 Deauville-negative patients, 9 (17.0%) progressed at a median of 14.1 months whereas 12/39 (30.8%) Deauville-positive patients progressed at a median of 5.6 months (P = .11). In multivariate analysis, including iFLT-PET/CT, PERCIST, interim TLG, and interim SUV<sub>max</sub>, only iFLT-PET/CT was an independent predictor for 3- and 5-year PFS (P < .0001 and P = .001, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with DLBCL given R-CHOP/R-EPOCH, iFLT-PET/CT is a superior independent predictor of outcome compared with iFDG-PET/CT.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine the relevance of standardized uptake value (SUV) on [F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), focusing on tumor and bone marrow, to disease outcomes based on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy.We reviewed the records of patients with DLBCL who were diagnosed between September 2009 and January 2013 and underwent pretreatment whole-body FDG PET/CT scans. All patients received rituximab-containing chemotherapy. The maximal SUV of tumor (SUVt) and maximal SUV of sternum (SUVst) were measured. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the prognostic significance of SUVt, SUVst, gender, age, clinical stage, international prognostic index (IPI), and laboratory tests.There were total 70 patients enrolled in this study. The median follow-up time was 36 months. An SUVt cut-off value of ?19 had the best discriminative yield for PFS (P?=?.04). An SUVst cut-off value of ?1.6 had the best discriminative yield for OS. The 3-year OS rates for patients with maximal SUVst?<?1.6 and for those with maximal SUVst ?1.6 were 74.8% and 57.1%, respectively (P?=?.04). Further forward, multivariate Cox proportional hazards model revealed that maximal SUVst (hazard ratio: 2.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-6.28; P?=?.03) and IPI were significant factors affecting OS.In patients with DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, elevated maximal SUVt ?19 was an independent predictor for shorter PFS, and maximal SUVst ?1.6 was an independent predictor for shorter OS. It adds the value of pretreatment FDG PET/CT scans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolism of the spleen, bone marrow (BM), and liver from preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT scans for the prediction of recurrence in breast cancer. METHODS:We retrospectively included 153 patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast who underwent preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and a curative operation. The mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of the spleen, liver, and BM and maximum SUV (SUVmax) of primary tumors were measured. The relationships between spleen, BM, and liver metabolism and clinicopathologic parameters were evaluated, and possible prognostic parameters predicting recurrence were assessed using disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS:Spleen SUVmean was significantly correlated with primary tumor SUVmax, pathologic T (pT) stage, and histologic grade of primary tumor. BM SUVmean also showed a positive correlation with primary tumor SUVmax. Spleen SUVmean were significantly associated with recurrence from binary logistic regression analysis (P = 0.004). Spleen, BM, liver, and primary tumor SUVs were all significant prognostic factors for DFS in univariate Cox regression analysis (all P<0.024). Among all PET parameters analyzed, spleen SUVmean ? 2.21 (P = 0.032) was in the multivariable analysis the powerful poor prognostic factor predicting DFS that was independent of other clinicopathological features like T stage (pT >2; P = 0.009) and estrogen receptor (ER) status (ER negativity; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION:Splenic metabolism together with pT stage and ER status was an independent prognostic factor for predicting recurrence in breast cancer. Metabolic activity of reticuloendothelial system such as spleen, liver or BM on preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT can be a meritorious imaging factor for discriminating patients with IDC that require adjunctive therapy to prevent recurrence.
Project description:We measured the repeatability of FDG PET/CT uptake metrics when acquiring scans in free breathing (FB) conditions compared with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for locally advanced lung cancer. Twenty patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Two FDG PET/CT scans per patient were conducted few days apart and in two breathing conditions (FB and DIBH). This resulted in four scans per patient. Up to four FDG PET avid lesions per patient were contoured. The following FDG metrics were measured in all lesions and in all four scans: Standardized uptake value (SUV)peak, SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), based on an isocontur of 50% of SUVmax. FDG PET avid volumes were delineated by a nuclear medicine physician. The gross tumor volumes (GTV) were contoured on the corresponding CT scans. Nineteen patients were available for analysis. Test-retest standard deviations of FDG uptake metrics in FB and DIBH were: SUVpeak FB/DIBH: 16.2%/16.5%; SUVmax: 18.2%/22.1%; SUVmean: 18.3%/22.1%; TLG: 32.4%/40.5%. DIBH compared to FB resulted in higher values with mean differences in SUVmax of 12.6%, SUVpeak 4.4% and SUVmean 11.9%. MTV, TLG and GTV were all significantly smaller on day 1 in DIBH compared to FB. However, the differences between metrics under FB and DIBH were in all cases smaller than 1 SD of the day to day repeatability. FDG acquisition in DIBH does not have a clinically relevant impact on the uptake metrics and does not improve the test-retest repeatability of FDG uptake metrics in lung cancer patients.
Project description:PURPOSE In studies of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) performed after two to four cycles of chemotherapy has demonstrated prognostic significance. However, some patients treated with immunochemotherapy experience a favorable long-term outcome despite a positive interim FDG-PET scan. To clarify the significance of interim FDG-PET scans, we prospectively studied interim FDG-positive disease within a risk-adapted sequential immunochemotherapy program. PATIENTS AND METHODS From March 2002 to November 2006, 98 patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center received induction therapy with four cycles of accelerated R-CHOP (rituximab + cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) followed by an interim FDG-PET scan. If the FDG-PET scan was negative, patients received three cycles of ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide) consolidation therapy. If residual FDG-positive disease was seen, patients underwent biopsy; if the biopsy was negative, they also received three cycles of ICE. Patients with a positive biopsy received ICE followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. RESULTS At a median follow-up of 44 months, overall and progression-free survival were 90% and 79%, respectively. Ninety-seven patients underwent interim FDG-PET scans; 59 had a negative scan, 51 of whom are progression free. Thirty-eight patients with FDG-PET-positive disease underwent repeat biopsy; 33 were negative, and 26 remain progression free after ICE consolidation therapy. Progression-free survival of interim FDG-PET-positive/biopsy-negative patients was identical to that in patients with a negative interim FDG-PET scan (P = .27). CONCLUSION Interim or post-treatment FDG-PET evaluation did not predict outcome with this dose-dense, sequential immunochemotherapy program. Outside of a clinical trial, we recommend biopsy confirmation of an abnormal interim FDG-PET scan before changing therapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Several parameters are useful for assessing disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); however, the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is not well-defined. We aimed to evaluate the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for assessing disease severity and prognosis in IPF patients. <h4>Methods</h4> Clinical data of 89 IPF patients (mean age: 68.1 years, male: 94%) who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of lung nodules or cancer staging were retrospectively reviewed. Mean and maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmean, SUVmax, respectively) were measured in the fibrotic area. Adjusted SUV, including SUV ratio (SUVR, defined as SUVmax-to-liver SUVmean ratio), tissue fraction-corrected SUVmean (SUVmeanTF), and SUVR (SUVRTF), and tissue-to-blood ratio (SUVmax/SUVmean venous; TBRblood) were obtained. Death was defined as the primary outcome, and associations between other clinical parameters (lung function, exercise capacity, C-reactive protein [CRP] level) were also investigated. <h4>Results</h4> All SUV parameters were inversely correlated with the forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and positively correlated with CRP level and the gender-age-physiology index. The SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVmeanTF were associated with changes in lung function at six months. The SUVR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.011–2.991), SUVRTF (HR, 1.441; 95% CI, 1.000–2.098), and TBRblood (HR, 1.377; 95% CI, 1.038–1.827) were significant predictors for mortality in patients with IPF in the univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate analysis. <h4>Conclusion</h4> 18F-FDG PET/CT may provide additional information on the disease severity and prognosis in IPF patients, and the SUVR may be superior to other SUV parameters. Graphical Abstract
Project description:BACKGROUND:A high SUV-reproducibility is crucial when different PET scanners are in use. We evaluated the SUV variability in whole-body FDG-PET scans of patients with suspected or proven cancer using an EARL-accredited conventional and digital PET scanner. In a head-to-head comparison we studied images of 50 patients acquired on a conventional scanner (cPET, Ingenuity TF PET/CT, Philips) and compared them with images acquired on a digital scanner (dPET, Vereos PET/CT, Philips). The PET scanning order was randomised and EARL-compatible reconstructions were applied. We measured SUVmean, SUVpeak, SUVmax and lesion diameter in up to 5 FDG-positive lesions per patient. The relative difference ?SUV between cPET and dPET was calculated for each SUV-parameter. Furthermore, we calculated repeatability coefficients, reflecting the 95% confidence interval of ?SUV. RESULTS:We included 128 lesions with an average size of 19 ± 14?mm. Average ?SUVs were 6-8% with dPET values being higher for all three SUV-parameters (p < 0.001). ?SUVmax was significantly higher than ?SUVmean (8% vs. 6%, p = 0.002) and than ?SUVpeak (8% vs. 7%, p = 0.03). Repeatability coefficients across individual lesions were 27% (?SUVmean and ?SUVpeak) and 33% (?SUVmax) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:With EARL-accredited conventional and digital PET, we found a limited SUV variability with average differences up to 8%. Furthermore, only a limited number of lesions showed a SUV difference of more than 30%. These findings indicate that EARL standardisation works. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This prospective study was registered on the 31th of October 2017 at ClinicalTrials.cov. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03457506?id=03457506&rank=1.
Project description:In the era of rituximab, the International Prognostic Index (IPI) has been inefficient in initial risk stratification for patients with R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To estimate the predictive values of PET/CT quantitative parameters and three prognostic models consisting of baseline and interim parameters for three-year progression-free survival (PFS), we conducted an analysis of 85 patients in China with DLBCL underwent baseline and interim PET/CT scans and treated at the Department of Hematology of Peking University Third Hospital from November 2012 to November 2017. The PET/CT parameters, viz. the baseline and interim values of standardized uptake value (SUV<sub>max</sub> ), total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and their rates of change, were analyzed by a receiver operating characteristics curve, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and log-rank test. Besides, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) was also included in the multivariate Cox hazards model. Owing to the strong correlation between TMTV and TLG at baseline and interim (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.823, P-value = 0.000, and 0.988, P-value = 0.000, respectively), only TLG was included in the multivariate Cox hazards model, where TLG<sub>0</sub> > 1036.61 g and %?SUV<sub>max</sub> < 86.02% showed predictive value independently (HR = 10.42, 95% CI 2.35-46.30, P = 0.002, and HR = 4.86, 95% CI 1.27-18.54, P = 0.021, respectively). Replacing TLG in the equation, TMTV<sub>0</sub> and TMTV<sub>1</sub> both showed significantly predictive abilities like TLG (HR = 8.22, 95% CI 1.86-32.24, P = 0.005, and HR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.16-7.54, P = 0.023, respectively). After dichotomy, NCCN-IPI also gave a significant performance (P = 0.035 and P = 0.010, respectively, in TLG and TMTV models). The baseline variables, that is, TMTV<sub>0</sub> , TLG<sub>0</sub> and dichotomized NCCN-IPI, and the interim variables TMTV<sub>1</sub> and %?SUV<sub>max</sub> , presented independent prognostic value for PFS. In prognostic model 2 (TLG<sub>0</sub> + %?SUV<sub>max</sub> ), the group with TLG<sub>0</sub> > 1036.61 g and %?SUV<sub>max</sub> < 86.02% recognized 19 (82.6%) of the relapse or progression events, which showed the best screening ability among three models consisting of baseline and interim PET/CT parameters.