Neurotrophin Genes and Antidepressant-Worsening Suicidal Ideation: A Prospective Case-Control Study.
ABSTRACT: Antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation is a rare but serious phenomenon. This study aimed to test for association between antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation and polymorphisms of BDNF/NTRK2 neurotrophin pathway genes, known to be involved in depression and suicide.This was a case-control study comparing patients with antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation to patients without. Patients were collected from the GENESE cohort (3771 depressed tianeptine-treated outpatients). Antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation was defined by an increase of at least 2 points on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-item10 during treatment. Controls were matched for age, sex, and baseline Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-item10 score. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms covering 5 BDNF/NTRK2 pathway genes were genotyped.A total 78 cases and 312 controls were included. Two NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated to antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation: rs1439050 (P=.01) and rs1867283 (P=.04). Association with rs1439050 remained significant after adjustment for potentially confounding factors, including previous suicide attempts (P<.01).This naturalistic prospective study is consistent with previous studies on highlighting the potential role of the neurotrophin pathway, and especially of NTRK2, in antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation.
Project description:The prescription of antidepressant drugs is one of the most frequently used strategies to prevent suicide and suicidal behavior. However, some patients develop suicidal ideation at antidepressant treatment onset, a phenomenon known as treatment-emergent suicidal ideation (TESI). Few studies have explored TESI pharmacogenomics. As the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis might be implicated in suicidal behavior, we assessed the relationship between TESI and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HPA axis-implicated NR3C1 (n?=?7 SNPs), FKBP5 (n?=?5 SNPs), AVPR1B (n?=?1 SNPs), CRHR1 (n?=?1 SNPs), and SKA2 (n?=?1 SNPs) genes, in a sample of 3566 adult outpatients with depression for whom an antidepressant treatment was introduced. General practitioners and psychiatrists throughout France followed participants for 6 weeks after the initial prescription of tianeptine, an antidepressant molecule showing mu agonism. Suicidal ideation was assessed with item 10 of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (item dedicated to suicidal ideation) at baseline, and at week 2, 4, and 6 of treatment. Within the informative sample, 112 patients reported TESI and 384 did not. TESI was significantly associated with the TT genotype of the SNP rs6902321 in FKBP5 (OR?=?1.76, 95% CI?=?[1.07; 2.90]; p-value?=?0.03) and the GG/AG genotype of the SNP rs7208505 in SKA2 (OR?=?1.85, 95% CI?=?[1.03;3.33]; p-value?=?0.04). These associations were not significant after multiple test correction. Nevertheless, our results suggest a possible involvement of HPA axis elements in treatment-emergent suicidal ideation (TESI).
Project description:Antidepressants have been the object of an international controversy for about thirty years. Some patients are inclined to develop suicidal ideation (SI) at antidepressant onset; this phenomenon is known as Treatment Emergent Suicidal Ideation (TESI), and it has conducted regulatory bodies to prompt warnings on antidepressants. Since, few studies have explored the pharmacogenomics of TESI. Given the growing body of evidence connecting the opioidergic system with suicidal behavior (particularly mu opioid receptor (MOR)), we decided to examine the relationship between two genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in the opioidergic system and TESI in a sample of 3566 adult depressed outpatients. General practitioners and psychiatrists throughout France followed participants for 6 weeks after an initial prescription of tianeptine, an antidepressant treatment with mu agonism. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the item 10 of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (item dedicated to SI) at baseline, and after 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks. We analysed rs1799971 from the OPRM1 gene and rs105660 from the OPRK1 gene. Within the sample, 112 patients reported TESI while 384 did not. We found a significant association between AA genotype of rs1799971 and TESI even after adjustment for potential cofounders (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = [1.07; 3.49]; p-value = 0.03). On the other hand there were no significant association between rs1799971 and rs105560 with worsening of suicidal ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. Nevertheless, our results suggest a possible involvement of opioidergic system in TESI.
Project description:The genetic predisposition toward suicidal ideation has been explored to identify subgroups at high risk and to prevent suicide. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with an increased risk of suicide, but few studies have explored the genetic predisposition toward suicide in ACS populations. Therefore, this longitudinal study explored the genetic predisposition toward suicidal ideation in ACS patients. In total, of 969 patients within 2 weeks after ACS, 711 were followed at 1 year after ACS. Suicidal ideation was evaluated with the relevant items on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Ten genetic polymorphisms associated with serotonergic systems, neurotrophic factors, carbon metabolism, and inflammatory cytokines were examined. Associations between genetic polymorphisms and suicidal ideation within 2 weeks and 1 year of ACS were investigated using logistic regression models. The 5-HTTLPR s allele was significantly associated with suicidal ideation within 2 weeks of ACS after adjusting for covariates and after the Bonferroni correction. TNF-? -308G/A, IL-1? -511C/T, and IL-1? + 3953C/T were significantly associated with suicidal ideation within 2 weeks after ACS, but these associations did not reach significance after the Bonferroni correction in unadjusted analyses and after adjusting for covariance. However, no significant association between genetic polymorphisms and suicidal ideation was found at 1 year. Genetic predisposition, 5-HTTLPR s allele in particular, may confer susceptibility to suicidal ideation in ACS patients during the acute phase of ACS.
Project description:Suicidal thoughts and behaviours during antidepressant treatment, especially during the first weeks of treatment, have prompted warnings by regulatory bodies. The aim of the present study is to investigate the course and predictors of emergence and worsening of suicidal ideation during tricyclic antidepressant and serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment.In a multicentre part-randomised open-label study, 811 adult patients with moderate to severe unipolar depression were allocated to flexible dosage of escitalopram or nortriptyline for 12 weeks. The suicidality items of three standard measures were integrated in a suicidal ideation score. Increases in this score were classified as treatment emergent suicidal ideation (TESI) or treatment worsening suicidal ideation (TWOSI) according to the absence or presence of suicidal ideation at baseline.Suicidal ideation decreased during antidepressant treatment. Rates of TESI and TWOSI peaked in the fifth week. Severity of depression predicted TESI and TWOSI. In men, nortriptyline was associated with a 9.8-fold and 2.4-fold increase in TESI and TWOSI compared to escitalopram, respectively. Retirement and history of suicide attempts predicted TWOSI.Increases in suicidal ideation were associated with depression severity and decreased during antidepressant treatment. In men, treatment with escitalopram is associated with lower risk of suicidal ideation compared to nortriptyline. Clinicians should remain alert to suicidal ideation beyond the initial weeks of antidepressant treatment.EudraCT (No.2004-001723-38) and ISRCTN (No. 03693000).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Suicidal ideation is a medical emergency, especially when severe. Little research has been done on pharmacologic interventions that could address this problem. Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-asparate antagonist, has been reported to have antidepressant effects within hours. We examined the effects of a single dose of ketamine on suicidal ideation in subjects with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD:Thirty-three subjects with DSM-IV-diagnosed MDD received a single open-label infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) and were rated at baseline and at 40, 80, 120, and 230 minutes postinfusion with the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The study was conducted between October 2006 and January 2009. RESULTS:Suicidal ideation scores decreased significantly on the SSI as well as on the suicide subscales of other rating instruments within 40 minutes; these decreases remained significant through the first 4 hours postinfusion (P < .001). Ten subjects (30%) had an SSI score ? 4 at baseline; all these scores dropped below 4 (9 dropped by 40 minutes and 1 by 80 minutes). For those patients with a starting score below 4 on the SSI, only 1 reached a score of 4. Depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were significantly improved at all time points (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Suicidal ideation in the context of MDD improved within 40 minutes of a ketamine infusion and remained improved for up to 4 hours postinfusion. Future studies with ketamine in suicidal ideation are warranted due to the potential impact on public health. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00088699.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Suicide is a public health crisis with limited treatment options. The authors conducted a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis examining the effects of a single dose of ketamine on suicidal ideation. METHOD:Individual participant data were obtained from 10 of 11 identified comparison intervention studies that used either saline or midazolam as a control treatment. The analysis included only participants who had suicidal ideation at baseline (N=167). A one-stage, individual participant data, meta-analytic procedure was employed using a mixed-effects, multilevel, general linear model. The primary outcome measures were the suicide items from clinician-administered (the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] or the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D]) and self-report scales (the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report [QIDS-SR] or the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), obtained for up to 1 week after ketamine administration. RESULTS:Ketamine rapidly (within 1 day) reduced suicidal ideation significantly on both the clinician-administered and self-report outcome measures. Effect sizes were moderate to large (Cohen's d=0.48-0.85) at all time points after dosing. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that compared with control treatments, ketamine had significant benefits on the individual suicide items of the MADRS, the HAM-D, and the QIDS-SR but not the BDI. Ketamine's effect on suicidal ideation remained significant after adjusting for concurrent changes in severity of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:Ketamine rapidly reduced suicidal thoughts, within 1 day and for up to 1 week in depressed patients with suicidal ideation. Ketamine's effects on suicidal ideation were partially independent of its effects on mood, although subsequent trials in transdiagnostic samples are required to confirm that ketamine exerts a specific effect on suicidal ideation. Additional research on ketamine's long-term safety and its efficacy in reducing suicide risk is needed before clinical implementation.
Project description:Buprenorphine/samidorphan (BUP/SAM; ALKS 5461) is an investigational opioid system modulator for the adjunctive treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), who did not respond adequately to prior antidepressant therapy (ADT). FORWARD-2, an open-label extension study, assessed long-term safety and tolerability of adjunctive BUP/SAM treatment in these patients. Patients from four short-term trials and de novo patients were enrolled; all had confirmed MDD and a current major depressive episode lasting 2-24 months. Patients were treated with an established ADT for ?8 weeks before receiving sublingual, adjunctive BUP/SAM 2?mg/2?mg for up to 52 weeks. Safety (primary objective) was assessed via adverse events (AEs), the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, and the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS). Exploratory evaluation of efficacy was done using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Of 1485 patients, 50% completed the study and 11% discontinued due to AEs. AEs of nausea, headache, constipation, dizziness, and somnolence, each occurred in ?10% of patients. There was no evidence of increased suicidal ideation or behavior. Euphoria-related AEs were uncommon (1.2%). Following abrupt BUP/SAM discontinuation, "drug withdrawal" AEs were infrequent (0.4%), and the incidence of COWS categorical worsening after abrupt drug discontinuation was low (6.5%). Improvements in mean MADRS scores were maintained until study end, suggesting durability of antidepressant effect in patients continuing treatment. BUP/SAM was generally well tolerated, with a low risk of abuse and an AE profile consistent with those seen in placebo-controlled studies. Withdrawal reports were uncommon and of limited clinical impact.
Project description:Pharmacogenomic studies of antidepressant treatment-emergent suicidal events in depressed patients report associations with polymorphisms in genes involved in transcription (CREB1), neuroprotection (BDNF and NTRK2), glutamatergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission (GRIA3, GRIK2 and ADRA2A), the stress and inflammatory responses (FKBP5 and IL28RA), and the synthesis of glycoproteins (PAPLN). Nearly all of the reported events in these studies were modest one-time increases in suicidal ideation. In 3231 unique subjects across six studies, 424 (13.1%) patients showed increases in suicidal ideation, eight (0.25%) attempted suicide and four (0.12%) completed suicide. Systems related to most of these genes have also been implicated in studies of suicidal behavior irrespective of treatment. Future pharmacogenomic studies should target events that are clinically significant, related clinical phenotypes of response and medication side effects, and biological pathways that are involved in these outcomes in order to improve treatment approaches.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at an increased risk of suicide. It is well known that epigenetic mechanisms may explain the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior including suicidal ideation (SI), but no study has explored these mechanisms in ACS populations. METHODS:In total, 969 patients were initially recruited within 2 weeks of the acute coronary event and, 711 patients were successfully followed up 1 year after ACS. SI was evaluated using the relevant items on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and covariates potentially affecting SI were estimated. RESULTS:Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) hypermethylation was associated with SI in both the acute and chronic phases of ACS, although the association was not statistically significant in the acute phase after applying Bonferroni's correction. CONCLUSION:These results suggested that BDNF hypermethylation may have played a role in an epigenetic predisposition for SI in ACS patients, particularly during the chronic phase.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Currently, no pharmacological treatments for bipolar depression exist that exert rapid (within hours) antidepressant or antisuicidal effects. We previously reported that intravenous administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine produced rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. The present study sought to replicate this finding in an independent sample. METHODS:In this double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study, 15 subjects with DSM-IV bipolar I or II depression maintained on therapeutic levels of lithium or valproate received a single intravenous infusion of either ketamine hydrochloride (.5 mg/kg) or placebo on 2 test days 2 weeks apart. The primary outcome measure was the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, which was used to rate overall depressive symptoms at baseline; at 40, 80, 110, and 230 minutes postinfusion; and on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 14 postinfusion. RESULTS:Within 40 minutes, depressive symptoms, as well as suicidal ideation, significantly improved in subjects receiving ketamine compared with placebo (d = .89, 95% confidence interval = .61-1.16, and .98, 95% confidence interval = .64-1.33, respectively); this improvement remained significant through day 3. Seventy-nine percent of subjects responded to ketamine and 0% responded to placebo at some point during the trial. The most common side effect was dissociative symptoms, which occurred only at the 40-minute time point. CONCLUSIONS:This study replicated our previous finding that patients with bipolar depression who received a single ketamine infusion experienced a rapid and robust antidepressant response. In addition, we found that ketamine rapidly improved suicidal ideation in these patients.