Reprogramming the lung microenvironment by inhaled immunotherapy fosters immune destruction of tumor.
ABSTRACT: Due to their constant exposure to inhaled antigens, lungs represent a particularly immunosuppressive environment that limits excessive immune responses; however, cancer cells can exploit this unique environment for their growth. We previously described the ability of aerosolized CpG-ODN combined with Poly(I:C) (TLR9 and TLR3 agonists, respectively) to promote antitumor immunity in a B16 melanoma lung metastasis model. Here, we explored the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of TLR9/TLR3 agonist combinations by including in the inhalant either an antibody directed to both Ly6G and Ly6C markers to locally deplete myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) or IFN? to directly activate the natural killer (NK) and macrophage innate immune cells in the lung. Addition of nebulized anti-MDSC antibody RB6-8C5 to aerosolized CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) resulted in reduced mRNA levels of immunsuppressive molecules (IL10, Arg-1, and Nos2), increased activation of resident NK cells and improved treatment outcome, with a significant reduction in established B16 melanoma lung metastases compared to treatment with CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) alone. Likewise, addition of aerosolized IFN? led to increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL15 and IFN?) in the lung and recruitment of highly activated NK cells, with no evident signs of toxicity and with a significantly improved antitumor effect as compared with aerosolized CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C). Combining both IFN? and RB6-8C5 with CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) did not produce an additive effect compared to IFN? + CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) or RB6-8C5 + CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C). Our results indicate that the inhalation therapy is a feasible and non-invasive strategy to deliver immunodulatory molecules, including antibodies and cytokines that reprogram the lung tumor microenvironment to foster immune destruction of tumors.
Project description:The immunostimulatory ability of synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN), agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), can be harnessed to promote antitumor immunity by their application at the tumor site to stimulate local activation of innate immunity; however, particularly in the lung, tumor-associated immunosuppression can subvert such antitumor innate immune responses. To locally maintain continuous activation of innate subpopulations while inhibiting immunosuppressive cells, we evaluated aerosol delivery CpG-ODN combined with Poly(I:C), a TLR3 agonist able to convert tumor-supporting macrophages to tumoricidal effectors, in the treatment of B16 melanoma lung metastases in C57BL/6 mice. Aerosolization of CpG-ODN with Poly(I:C) into the bronchoalveolar space reduced the presence of M2-associated arginase- and IL-10-secreting macrophages in tumor-bearing lungs and increased the antitumor activity of aerosolized CpG-ODN alone against B16 lung metastases without apparent signs of toxicity or injury of the bronchial-bronchiolar structures and alveolar walls. Moreover, CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) aerosol combined with dacarbazine, a therapeutic agent used in patients with inoperable metastatic melanoma able to exert immunostimulatory effects, led to a significant increase in antitumor activity as compared to treatments with aerosolized CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) or dacarbazine alone. This effect was related to an enhanced recruitment and cytotoxic activity of tumor-infiltrating NK cells in the lung. Our results point to aerosol delivery as a convenient approach for repeated applications of immunostimulants in patients with lung metastases to maintain a continuous local activation of innate immune cells while suppressing polarization of tumor-infiltrating macrophages to an M2 phenotype.
Project description:Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA, acts on myeloid cells and induces potent antitumor immune responses including natural killer (NK) cell activation. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) systemically exist in tumor-bearing hosts and have strong immunosuppressive activity against antitumor effector cells, thereby dampening the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Here we tested what happened in MDSCs in poly I:C-treated mice. NK-sensitive syngenic tumor (B16)-bearing C57BL/6 mice were employed for this study. Intraperitoneal poly I:C treatment induced MDSC activation, driving CD69 expression and interferon (IFN)-? production in NK cells. IFN-? directly inhibited proliferation of B16 cells. This NK cell priming led to growth retardation of B16 tumors, although no direct tumoricidal activity was induced in NK cells. Mechanistic analysis using KO mice and function-blocking monclonal antibody revealed that MDSCs produced IFN-? via the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) pathway after in vivo administration of poly I:C, and activated NK cells through the IFNAR pathway. MDSC-mediated NK cell priming was reconstituted by IFN-? in a coculture system. Either the MAVS or IFNAR signaling pathway was required for activation of MDSCs that led to growth retardation of B16 tumor in vivo. The results infer that MDSC is a target of poly I:C to prime NK cells, which exert antitumor activity to NK-sensitive tumor cells.
Project description:Agonists for TLR9 and Stimulator of IFN Gene (STING) act as vaccine adjuvants that induce type-1 immune responses. However, currently available CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) (K-type) induces IFNs only weakly and STING ligands rather induce type-2 immune responses, limiting their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we show a potent synergism between TLR9 and STING agonists. Together, they make an effective type-1 adjuvant and an anticancer agent. The synergistic effect between CpG ODN (K3) and STING-ligand cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), culminating in NK cell IFN-? (type-II IFN) production, is due to the concurrent effects of IL-12 and type-I IFNs, which are differentially regulated by IRF3/7, STING, and MyD88. The combination of CpG ODN with cGAMP is a potent type-1 adjuvant, capable of inducing strong Th 1-type responses, as demonstrated by enhanced antigen-specific IgG2c and IFN-? production, as well as cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell responses. In our murine tumor models, intratumoral injection of CpG ODN and cGAMP together reduced tumor size significantly compared with the singular treatments, acting as an antigen-free anticancer agent. Thus, the combination of CpG ODN and a STING ligand may offer therapeutic application as a potent type-II IFN inducer.
Project description:Polymorphoneutrophils (PMNs) are important effector cells in host defense against pneumonia. However, PMNs can also induce inflammation and tissue damage. To investigate the contribution of PMNs to host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia, we determined the effect of the PMN-depleting rat monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 (RB6) on survival and inflammatory and cellular response in the lungs to a lethal intranasal infection with a serotype 8 pneumococcus in BALB/c mice. Control mice received rat immunoglobulin G (rIgG). Strikingly, the survival of RB6-treated mice was significantly prolonged compared to that of rIgG-treated mice. Although the numbers of CFU in the lungs were statistically similar in both groups 4, 24, and 32 h after infection, rIgG-treated mice developed higher levels of bacteremia, and histopathological examination of the lungs of infected mice revealed marked differences between RB6- and rIgG-treated mice. RB6-treated mice had focal, perivascular lesions without accompanying parenchymal inflammation, and rIgG-treated mice had diffuse, interstitial parenchymal inflammation. Lung homogenates from the rIgG-treated mice had more leukocytes and significantly more total and apoptotic PMNs as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis with Annexin V and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining of lung tissue samples. Studies with a pneumolysin-deficient mutant of the serotype 8 strain we used also demonstrated the prolonged survival of RB6- compared to rIgG-treated mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that PMNs enhance the likelihood of early death and alter the pathological response to pneumococcal lung infection in BALB/c mice with serotype 8 pneumonia without significantly affecting bacterial clearance or the cytokine response.
Project description:To determine if deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosine oligonucleotides (CpG ODN) can be used effectively as nonspecific inducers of innate immune defenses for preventative or therapeutic interventions in infectious disease models for nonhuman primates, the present study evaluated the response of rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells to three different synthetic CpG ODN classes by defining the cytokine gene expression patterns and by characterizing IFN-alpha/beta responses. Depending on the type and dose of CpG ODN used for stimulation, distinct gene expression patterns were induced. CpG ODN class A (CpG-A ODN) and CpG-C ODN, but not CpG-B ODN, were potent inducers of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), and this response was due to IFN-alpha production by TLR9-positive plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Importantly, there was a dose-dependent increase in IFN-alpha responses to CpG-A ODN but a dose-dependent decrease in IFN-alpha responses by CpG-B ODN. The most sustained IFN-alpha response was induced by CpG-A ODN and was associated with a stronger induction of interferon regulatory factor 7 and the induction of several interferon-stimulated genes. In contrast, and independent of the dose, CpG-B ODN were the weakest inducers of IFN-alpha but the most potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokines. CpG-C ODN induced cytokine gene expression patterns that were intermediate between those of CpG-A and CpG-B ODN. Thus, the different types of CpG ODN induce different post-TLR9 signaling pathways that result in distinct cytokine gene expression patterns. Based on these findings, A and C class CpG ODN, but not B class CpG ODN, may be particularly suited for use as therapeutic or prophylactic antiviral interventions.
Project description:Stimulation of toll-like receptor-9 by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) has been shown to counteract the immunosuppressive microenvironment and to inhibit tumor growth in glioma models. These studies, however, have used high doses of CpG-ODN, which can induce toxicity in a clinical setting. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of multiple low-dose intratumoral CpG-ODN in a glioma model.Mice bearing 4-day-old intracranial GL261 gliomas received a single or multiple (two or four) intratumoral injections of CpG-ODN (3 microg) every 4 days. Tumor growth was measured by bioluminescent imaging, brain histology, and animal survival. Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays were used to assess anti-glioma immune response.Two and four intracranial injections of low-dose CpG-ODN, but not a single injection, eradicated gliomas in 70% of mice. Moreover, surviving animals exhibited durable tumor-free remission (> 3 months) and were protected from intracranial rechallenge with GL261 gliomas, showing the capacity for long-term antitumor immunity. Although most inflammatory cells seemed to increase, activated natural killer (NK) cells (i.e., NK(+)CD107a(+)) were more frequent than CD8(+)CD107a(+) in the brains of rechallenged CpG-ODN-treated animals and showed a stronger in vitro cytotoxicity against GL261 target cells. Leukocyte depletion studies confirmed that NK cells played an important role in the initial CpG-ODN antitumor response, but both CD8 and NK cells were equally important in long-term immunity against gliomas.These findings suggest that multiple low-dose intratumoral injections of CpG-ODN can eradicate intracranial gliomas possibly through mechanisms involving NK-mediated effector function.
Project description:The transition to antibiotic-free poultry production in the face of pathogenic threats is a very challenging task. We recently demonstrated that mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN alone by the intrapulmonary route (IPL) has potential as an effective alternative to antibiotics in neonatal chicks against Escherichia coli septicemia. How exactly mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN elicits, protective antibacterial immunity remained poorly understood. In this study, CpG-ODN or saline was delivered via the intrapulmonary route to day-old chicks (n?=?80/group) using a compressor nebulizer in an acrylic chamber (1?mg/mL CpG-ODN for 15?minutes). In the first part of the study, two days after mucosal CpG-ODN delivery, 40 chicks from each group were challenged subcutaneously with 1?×?105 cfu (n?=?20) or 1?×?106 cfu (n?=?20) of E. coli and the mortality pattern was monitored for seven days. We found significantly higher survival, better clinical conditions and lower bacterial loads in chicks that received mucosal CpG-ODN. To explore the mechanisms behind this protective immunity, we first looked at the kinetics of the cytokine gene expression (three birds/ group/ time for 10 time-points) in the lungs and spleens. Multiplex gene analysis demonstrated a significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes mRNA in the CpG-ODN group. Interleukin (IL)-1? robustly upregulated many folds in the lung after CpG-ODN delivery. Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF) and IL-18 showed expression for an extended period in the lungs. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was upregulated in both lungs and spleen, whereas IL-4 showed upregulation in the lungs. To investigate the kinetics of immune enrichment in the lungs and spleens, we performed flow cytometry, histology, and immunohistochemistry at 24, 48 and 72 hrs after CpG-ODN delivery. CpG-ODN treated lungs showed a significant enrichment with monocytes/macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets. Macrophages in CpG-ODN treated group demonstrated mature phenotypes (higher CD40 and MHCII expression). Importantly, mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN via the intrapulmonary route significantly enriched immune compartment in the spleen as well, suggesting a systemic effect in neonatal chicks. Altogether, intrapulmonary delivery of aerosolized CpG-ODN orchestrates protective immunity against E. coli septicemia by not only enhancing mucosal immunity but also the systemic immune responses.
Project description:Topical microbicides represent a promising new approach to preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. TLR agonists are ideal candidates for microbicides, as they trigger a multitude of antiviral genes effective against a broad range of viruses. Although vaginal application of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and poly I:C has been shown to protect mice from genital herpes infection, the mechanism by which these agents provide protection remains unclear. Here, we show that plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are required for CpG ODN-mediated protection against lethal vaginal challenge with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Moreover, we demonstrate that cells of both the hematopoietic and stromal compartments must respond to CpG ODN via TLR9 and to type I IFNs through IFN-alphabeta receptor (IFN-alphabetaR) for protection. Thus, crosstalk between pDCs and vaginal stromal cells provides for optimal microbicide efficacy. Our results imply that temporally and spatially controlled targeting of CpG ODN to pDCs and epithelial cells can potentially maximize their effectiveness as microbicides while minimizing the associated inflammatory responses.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands on the expression of cytokines in chicken follicular theca and to investigate whether nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) was involved in their expression. The follicular theca was collected from the largest follicle of laying hens. In experiment 1, the expression of TLRs in the theca interna and externa was confirmed using RT-PCR. The theca tissues were then incubated with or without Pam3CSK4 (TLR2 ligand), poly I:C (TLR3 ligand), LPS (TLR4 ligand), flagellin (TLR5 ligand), R837 (TLR7 ligand), and CpG-ODN (TLR21 ligand) for 3 h, after which cytokine expression (IL-1?, IL-6, TNFSF15, CXCLi2, IFN-?, and IFN-?) was analyzed by real-time PCR. In experiment 2, the theca tissues were incubated in a medium containing Pam3CSK4, poly I:C, LPS, or CpG-ODN with or without BAY 11-7085 (an inhibitor of NF?B) for 3 h. The results of experiment 1 revealed that all TLRs, namely TLR1 (type 1 and 2), TLR2 (type 1 and 2), 3-5, 7, 15, and 21, were expressed in the follicular theca, although the PCR products of TLR1 (type 2) and TLR21 were faint. Moreover, Pam3CSK4 and LPS upregulated the expression of all detected cytokines, except for IFN-?, whose expression was not upregulated by LPS. Poly I:C upregulated the expression of IL-6, CXCLi2, and IFN-?, while CpG-ODN upregulated IL-1?. Flagellin and R837 did not significantly affect cytokine expression. In experiment 2, the expression of IL-1?, IL-6, CXCLi2 and IFN-? in tissues incubated with LPS was downregulated by BAY 11-7085. These results suggest that the innate immune system, including pattern recognition by TLRs and cytokine synthesis, occur in the theca; whereas, functions for recognition of bacterial patterns is more developed than that of viral ones.
Project description:Numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting tumor antigens have recently been developed. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) via effector cells such as tumor-infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages are often involved in mediating the antitumor activity of mAb. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) have a potent antitumor activity and are considered to increase tumor infiltration of NK cells and macrophages. Our group previously reported significant antitumor activity of anti-bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2) mAb against BST2-positive endometrial cancer cells through ADCC. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic antitumor activity of combination therapy with anti-BST-2 mAb and CpG ODN using SCID mice and elucidated the mechanisms underlying this activity. Anti-BST2 mAb and CpG ODN monotherapy had a significant dose-dependent antitumor activity (P = 0.0135 and P = 0.0196, respectively). Combination therapy with anti-BST2 mAb and CpG ODN had a significant antitumor activity in SCID mice (P < 0.01), but not in NOG mice. FACS analysis revealed significantly increased numbers of NK cells and macrophages in tumors treated with a combination of anti-BST2 mAb and CpG ODN and with CpG ODN alone in SCID mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). These results suggested that the combination therapy with anti-BST2 mAb and CpG ODN has a significant antitumor activity and induces tumor infiltration of NK cells and macrophages. Combination therapy with CpG ODN and anti-BST2 mAb or other antitumor mAb depending on ADCC may represent a new treatment option for cancer.