In Silico before In Vivo: how to Predict the Heating Efficiency of Magnetic Nanoparticles within the Intracellular Space.
ABSTRACT: This work aims to demonstrate the need for in silico design via numerical simulation to produce optimal Fe3O4-based magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for magnetic hyperthermia by minimizing the impact of intracellular environments on heating efficiency. By including the relevant magnetic parameters, such as magnetic anisotropy and dipolar interactions, into a numerical model, the heating efficiency of as prepared colloids was preserved in the intracellular environment, providing the largest in vitro specific power absorption (SPA) values yet reported. Dipolar interactions due to intracellular agglomeration, which are included in the simulated SPA, were found to be the main cause of changes in the magnetic relaxation dynamics of MNPs under in vitro conditions. These results pave the way for the magnetism-based design of MNPs that can retain their heating efficiency in vivo, thereby improving the outcome of clinical hyperthermia experiments.
Project description:The Linear Response Theory (LRT) is a widely accepted framework to analyze the power absorption of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Its validity is restricted to low applied fields and/or to highly anisotropic magnetic nanoparticles. Here, we present a systematic experimental analysis and numerical calculations of the specific power absorption for highly anisotropic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticles with different average sizes and in different viscous media. The predominance of Brownian relaxation as the origin of the magnetic losses in these particles is established, and the changes of the Specific Power Absorption (SPA) with the viscosity of the carrier liquid are consistent with the LRT approximation. The impact of viscosity on SPA is relevant for the design of MNPs to heat the intracellular medium during in vitro and in vivo experiments. The combined numerical and experimental analyses presented here shed light on the underlying mechanisms that make highly anisotropic MNPs unsuitable for magnetic hyperthermia.
Project description:A well-established method for treating cancerous tumors is magnetic hyperthermia, which uses localized heat generated by the relaxation mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a high-frequency alternating magnetic field. In this work, we investigate the heating efficiency of cylindrical NiFe MNPs, fabricated by template-assisted pulsed electrodeposition combined with differential chemical etching. The cylindrical geometry of the MNP enables the formation of the triple vortex state, which increases the heat generation efficiency by four times. Using time-dependent calorimetric measurements, the specific absorption rate (SAR) of the MNPs was determined and compared with the numerical calculations from micromagnetic simulations and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The magnetization reversal of high aspect ratios MNPs showed higher remanent magnetization and low-field susceptibility leading to higher hysteresis losses, which was reflected in higher experimental and theoretical SAR values. The SAR dependence on magnetic field strength exhibited small SAR values at low magnetic fields and saturates at high magnetic fields, which is correlated to the coercive field of the MNPs and a characteristic feature of ferromagnetic MNPs. The optimization of cylindrical NiFe MNPs will play a pivotal role in producing high heating performance and biocompatible magnetic hyperthermia agents.
Project description:We present evidence on the effects of exogenous heating by water bath (WB) and magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) on a glial micro-tumor phantom. To this, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of 30-40?nm were designed to obtain particle sizes for maximum heating efficiency. The specific power absorption (SPA) values (f?=?560?kHz, H?=?23.9?kA/m) for as prepared colloids (533-605?W/g) dropped to 98-279?W/g in culture medium. The analysis of the intracellular MNPs distribution showed vesicle-trapped MNPs agglomerates spread along the cytoplasm, as well as large (~0.5-0.9??m) clusters attached to the cell membrane. Immediately after WB and MHT (T?=?46?°C for 30?min) the cell viability was ?70% and, after 4.5?h, decreased to 20-25%, demonstrating that metabolic processes are involved in cell killing. The analysis of the cell structures after MHT revealed a significant damage of the cell membrane that is correlated to the location of MNPs clusters, while local cell damage were less noticeable after WB without MNPs. In spite of the similar thermal effects of WB and MHT on the cell viability, our results suggest that there is an additional mechanism of cell damage related to the presence of MNPs at the intracellular space.
Project description:The two major limitations for nanoparticle based magnetic hyperthermia in theranostics are the delivery of a sufficient number of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with high heating power to specific target cells and the residence time of the MNPs at the target location. Ferromagnetic or Ferrimagnetic single domain nanoparticles (F-MNPs), with a permanent magnetic dipole, produce larger magnetic and thermal responses than superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SP-MNPs) but also agglomerate more. MNP agglomeration degrades their heating potential due to dipolar interaction effects and interferes with specific targeting. Additionally, MNPs bound to cells are often endocytosed by the cells or, in vivo, cleared out by the immune system via uptake in macrophages. Here, we present a versatile approach to engineer inorganic-polymeric microdisks, loaded with biomolecules, fluorophores and Fe3O4 F-MNPs that solves both challenges. These microdisks deliver the F-MNPs efficiently, while controlling any undesirable agglomeration and dipolar interaction, while also rendering the F-MNPs endocytosis resistant. We show that these micro-devices are suitable carriers to transport a flat assembly of F-MNPs to the cell membrane unchanged, preserving the magnetic response of the MNPs in any biological environment. The F-MNPs concentration per microdisk and degree of MNP interaction are tunable. We demonstrate that the local heat generated in microdisks is proportional to the surface density of F-MNPs when attached to the cell membrane. The key innovation in the production of these microdisks is the fabrication of a mushroom-shaped photolithographic template that enables easy assembly of the inorganic film, polymeric multilayers, and MNP cargo while permitting highly efficient lift-off of the completed microdisks. During the harvesting of the flat microdisks, the supporting mushroom-shaped templates are sacrificed. These resulting magnetic hybrid microdisks are tunable and efficient devices for magnetothermal actuation and hyperthermia.
Project description:This work reports important advances in the study of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) related to their application in different research fields such as magnetic hyperthermia. Nanotherapy based on targeted nanoparticles could become an attractive alternative to conventional oncologic treatments as it allows a local heating in tumoral surroundings without damage to healthy tissue. RGD-peptide-conjugated MNPs have been designed to specifically target ?<sub>V</sub>?<sub>3</sub> receptor-expressing cancer cells, being bound the RGD peptides by "click chemistry" due to its selectivity and applicability. The thermal decomposition of iron metallo-organic precursors yield homogeneous Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanoparticles that have been properly functionalized with RGD peptides, and the preparation of magnetic fluids has been achieved. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectroscopy and magnetic hyperthermia. The nanoparticles present superparamagnetic behavior with very high magnetization values, which yield hyperthermia values above 500 W/g for magnetic fluids. These fluids have been administrated to rats, but instead of injecting MNP fluid directly into liver tumors, intravascular administration of MNPs in animals with induced colorectal tumors has been performed. Afterwards the animals were exposed to an alternating magnetic field in order to achieve hyperthermia. The evolution of an in vivo model has been described, resulting in a significant reduction in tumor viability.
Project description:Monodispersed Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) having size of 7?nm have been prepared from iron oleate and made water dispersible by functionalization for biomedical applications. Three different reactions employing thioglycolic acid, aspartic acid and aminophosphonate were performed on oleic acid coated Fe3O4. In order to achieve a control on particle size, the pristine nanoparticles were heated in presence of ferric oleate which led to increase in size from 7 to 11?nm. Reaction parameters such as rate of heating, reaction temperature and duration of heating have been studied. Shape of particles was found to change from spherical to cuboid. The cuboid shape in turn enhances magneto-crystalline anisotropy (Ku). Heating efficacy of these nanoparticles for hyperthermia was also evaluated for different shapes and sizes. We demonstrate heat generation from these MNPs for hyperthermia application under alternating current (AC) magnetic field and optimized heating efficiency by controlling morphology of particles. We have also studied intra-cellular uptake and localization of nanoparticles and cytotoxicity under AC magnetic field in human breast carcinoma cell line.
Project description:Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) employs heat dissipation from magnetic nanoparticles to elicit a therapeutic outcome in tumor sites, which results in either cell death (>42 °C) or damage (<42 °C) depending on the localized rise in temperature. We investigated the therapeutic effect of MFH in immortalized T lymphocyte (Jurkat) cells using monodisperse magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (MNPs) synthesized in organic solvents and subsequently transferred to aqueous phase using a biocompatible amphiphilic polymer. Monodisperse MNPs, ∼16 nm diameter, show maximum heating efficiency, or specific loss power (watts/g Fe(3)O(4)) in a 373 kHz alternating magnetic field. Our in vitro results, for 15 min of heating, show that only 40% of cells survive for a relatively low dose (490 μg Fe/ml) of these size-optimized MNPs, compared to 80% and 90% survival fraction for 12 and 13 nm MNPs at 600 μg Fe/ml. The significant decrease in cell viability due to MNP-induced hyperthermia from only size-optimized nanoparticles demonstrates the central idea of tailoring size for a specific frequency in order to intrinsically improve the therapeutic potency of MFH by optimizing both dose and time of application.
Project description:Magnetic hyperthermia (MH) based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is a promising adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment. Particle clustering leading to complex magnetic interactions affects the heat generated by MNPs during MH. The heat efficiencies, theoretically predicted, are still poorly understood because of a lack of control of the fabrication of such clusters with defined geometries and thus their functionality. This study aims to correlate the heating efficiency under MH of individually coated iron oxide nanocubes (IONCs) versus soft colloidal nanoclusters made of small groupings of nanocubes arranged in different geometries. The controlled clustering of alkyl-stabilized IONCs is achieved here during the water transfer procedure by tuning the fraction of the amphiphilic copolymer, poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) cumene-terminated, to the nanoparticle surface. It is found that increasing the polymer-to-nanoparticle surface ratio leads to the formation of increasingly large nanoclusters with defined geometries. When compared to the individual nanocubes, we show here that controlled grouping of nanoparticles-so-called "dimers" and "trimers" composed of two and three nanocubes, respectively-increases specific absorption rate (SAR) values, while conversely, forming centrosymmetric clusters having more than four nanocubes leads to lower SAR values. Magnetization measurements and Monte Carlo-based simulations support the observed SAR trend and reveal the importance of the dipolar interaction effect and its dependence on the details of the particle arrangements within the different clusters.
Project description:The performance of magnetic nanoparticles is intimately entwined with their structure, mean size and magnetic anisotropy. Besides, ensembles offer a unique way of engineering the magnetic response by modifying the strength of the dipolar interactions between particles. Here we report on an experimental and theoretical analysis of magnetic hyperthermia, a rapidly developing technique in medical research and oncology. Experimentally, we demonstrate that single-domain cubic iron oxide particles resembling bacterial magnetosomes have superior magnetic heating efficiency compared to spherical particles of similar sizes. Monte Carlo simulations at the atomic level corroborate the larger anisotropy of the cubic particles in comparison with the spherical ones, thus evidencing the beneficial role of surface anisotropy in the improved heating power. Moreover we establish a quantitative link between the particle assembling, the interactions and the heating properties. This knowledge opens new perspectives for improved hyperthermia, an alternative to conventional cancer therapies.
Project description:In this work, we present the arrangement of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into 3D linear chains and its effect on magnetic particle hyperthermia efficiency. The alignment has been performed under a 40 mT magnetic field in an agarose gel matrix. Two different sizes of magnetite nanoparticles, 10 and 40?nm, have been examined, exhibiting room temperature superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior, in terms of DC magnetic field, respectively. The chain formation is experimentally visualized by scanning electron microscopy images. A molecular Dynamics anisotropic diffusion model that outlines the role of intrinsic particle properties and inter-particle distances on dipolar interactions has been used to simulate the chain formation process. The anisotropic character of the aligned samples is also reflected to ferromagnetic resonance and static magnetometry measurements. Compared to the non-aligned samples, magnetically aligned ones present enhanced heating efficiency increasing specific loss power value by a factor of two. Dipolar interactions are responsible for the chain formation of controllable density and thickness inducing shape anisotropy, which in turn enhances magnetic particle hyperthermia efficiency.