Replicatively senescent human fibroblasts reveal a distinct intracellular metabolic profile with alterations in NAD+ and nicotinamide metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence occurs by proliferative exhaustion (PEsen) or following multiple cellular stresses but had not previously been subject to detailed metabolomic analysis. Therefore, we compared PEsen fibroblasts with proliferating and transiently growth arrested controls using a combination of different mass spectroscopy techniques. PEsen cells showed many specific alterations in both the NAD+ de novo and salvage pathways including striking accumulations of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinamide riboside (NR) in the amidated salvage pathway despite no increase in nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase or in the NR transport protein, CD73. Extracellular nicotinate was depleted and metabolites of the deamidated salvage pathway were reduced but intracellular NAD+ and nicotinamide were nevertheless maintained. However, sirtuin 1 was downregulated and so the accumulation of NMN and NR was best explained by reduced flux through the amidated arm of the NAD+ salvage pathway due to reduced sirtuin activity. PEsen cells also showed evidence of increased redox homeostasis and upregulated pathways used to generate energy and cellular membranes; these included nucleotide catabolism, membrane lipid breakdown and increased creatine metabolism. Thus PEsen cells upregulate several different pathways to sustain their survival which may serve as pharmacological targets for the elimination of senescent cells in age-related disease.
Project description:Augmenting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) availability may protect skeletal muscle from age-related metabolic decline. Dietary supplementation of NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinamide riboside (NR) appear efficacious in elevating muscle NAD+. Here we sought to identify the pathways skeletal muscle cells utilize to synthesize NAD+ from NMN and NR and provide insight into mechanisms of muscle metabolic homeostasis.We exploited expression profiling of muscle NAD+ biosynthetic pathways, single and double nicotinamide riboside kinase 1/2 (NRK1/2) loss-of-function mice, and pharmacological inhibition of muscle NAD+ recycling to evaluate NMN and NR utilization.Skeletal muscle cells primarily rely on nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), NRK1, and NRK2 for salvage biosynthesis of NAD+. NAMPT inhibition depletes muscle NAD+ availability and can be rescued by NR and NMN as the preferred precursors for elevating muscle cell NAD+ in a pathway that depends on NRK1 and NRK2. Nrk2 knockout mice develop normally and show subtle alterations to their NAD+ metabolome and expression of related genes. NRK1, NRK2, and double KO myotubes revealed redundancy in the NRK dependent metabolism of NR to NAD+. Significantly, these models revealed that NMN supplementation is also dependent upon NRK activity to enhance NAD+ availability.These results identify skeletal muscle cells as requiring NAMPT to maintain NAD+ availability and reveal that NRK1 and 2 display overlapping function in salvage of exogenous NR and NMN to augment intracellular NAD+ availability.
Project description:NAD and its reduced form NADH function as essential redox cofactors and have major roles in determining cellular metabolic features. NAD can be synthesized through the deamidated and amidated pathways, for which the key reaction involves adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively. In Escherichia coli, NAD de novo biosynthesis depends on the protein NadD-catalyzed adenylylation of NaMN to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD), followed by NAD synthase-catalyzed amidation. In this study, we engineered NadD to favor NMN for improved amidated pathway activity. We designed NadD mutant libraries, screened by a malic enzyme-coupled colorimetric assay, and identified two variants, 11B4 (Y84V/Y118D) and 16D8 (A86W/Y118N), with a high preference for NMN. Whereas in the presence of NMN both variants were capable of enabling the viability of cells of E. coli BW25113-derived NAD-auxotrophic strain YJE003, for which the last step of the deamidated pathway is blocked, the 16D8 expression strain could grow without exogenous NMN and accumulated a higher cellular NAD(H) level than BW25113 in the stationary phase. These mutants established fully active amidated NAD biosynthesis and offered a new opportunity to manipulate NAD metabolism for biocatalysis and metabolic engineering.IMPORTANCE Adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and adenylylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively, are the key steps in the deamidated and amidated pathways for NAD biosynthesis. In most organisms, canonical NAD biosynthesis follows the deamidated pathway. Here we engineered Escherichia coli NaMN adenylyltransferase to favor NMN and expressed the mutant enzyme in an NAD-auxotrophic E. coli strain that has the last step of the deamidated pathway blocked. The engineered strain survived in M9 medium, which indicated the implementation of a functional amidated pathway for NAD biosynthesis. These results enrich our understanding of NAD biosynthesis and are valuable for manipulation of NAD homeostasis for metabolic engineering.
Project description:Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a nucleotide that is most recognized for its role as an intermediate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis. Although the biosynthetic pathway of NMN varies between eukaryote and prokaryote, two pathways are mainly followed in case of eukaryotic human-one is through the salvage pathway using nicotinamide while the other follows phosphorylation of nicotinamide riboside. Due to the unavailability of a suitable transporter, NMN enters inside the mammalian cell in the form of nicotinamide riboside followed by its subsequent conversion to NMN and NAD+. This particular molecule has demonstrated several beneficial pharmacological activities in preclinical studies, which suggest its potential therapeutic use. Mostly mediated by its involvement in NAD+ biosynthesis, the pharmacological activities of NMN include its role in cellular biochemical functions, cardioprotection, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and complications associated with obesity. The recent groundbreaking discovery of anti-ageing activities of this chemical moiety has added a valuable essence in the research involving this molecule. This review focuses on the biosynthesis of NMN in mammalian and prokaryotic cells and mechanism of absorption along with the reported pharmacological activities in murine model.
Project description:NAD+ is a vital redox cofactor and a substrate required for activity of various enzyme families, including sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Supplementation with NAD+ precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR), protects against metabolic disease, neurodegenerative disorders and age-related physiological decline in mammals. Here we show that nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 (NRK1) is necessary and rate-limiting for the use of exogenous NR and NMN for NAD+ synthesis. Using genetic gain- and loss-of-function models, we further demonstrate that the role of NRK1 in driving NAD+ synthesis from other NAD+ precursors, such as nicotinamide or nicotinic acid, is dispensable. Using stable isotope-labelled compounds, we confirm NMN is metabolized extracellularly to NR that is then taken up by the cell and converted into NAD+. Our results indicate that mammalian cells require conversion of extracellular NMN to NR for cellular uptake and NAD+ synthesis, explaining the overlapping metabolic effects observed with the two compounds.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential pyridine nucleotide that serves as an essential cofactor and substrate for a number of critical cellular processes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, DNA repair, epigenetically modulated gene expression, intracellular calcium signaling, and immunological functions. NAD+ depletion may occur in response to either excessive DNA damage due to free radical or ultraviolet attack, resulting in significant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and a high turnover and subsequent depletion of NAD+, and/or chronic immune activation and inflammatory cytokine production resulting in accelerated CD38 activity and decline in NAD+ levels. Recent studies have shown that enhancing NAD+ levels can profoundly reduce oxidative cell damage in catabolic tissue, including the brain. Therefore, promotion of intracellular NAD+ anabolism represents a promising therapeutic strategy for age-associated degenerative diseases in general, and is essential to the effective realization of multiple benefits of healthy sirtuin activity. The kynurenine pathway represents the de novo NAD+ synthesis pathway in mammalian cells. NAD+ can also be produced by the NAD+ salvage pathway. Recent Advances: In this review, we describe and discuss recent insights regarding the efficacy and benefits of the NAD+ precursors, nicotinamide (NAM), nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), in attenuating NAD+ decline in degenerative disease states and physiological aging.Results obtained in recent years have shown that NAD+ precursors can play important protective roles in several diseases. However, in some cases, these precursors may vary in their ability to enhance NAD+ synthesis via their location in the NAD+ anabolic pathway. Increased synthesis of NAD+ promotes protective cell responses, further demonstrating that NAD+ is a regulatory molecule associated with several biochemical pathways.In the next few years, the refinement of personalized therapy for the use of NAD+ precursors and improved detection methodologies allowing the administration of specific NAD+ precursors in the context of patients' NAD+ levels will lead to a better understanding of the therapeutic role of NAD+ precursors in human diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
Project description:Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor and one of the few systemic treatment options for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Resistance to sorafenib develops frequently and could be mediated by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT)1. We aimed to test whether sorafenib efficacy is influenced by cellular NAD levels and NAD-dependent SIRT1 function. We analyzed sorafenib effects on apoptosis induction, NAD salvage, mitochondrial function, and related signaling pathways in HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, und HUH7) overexpressing SIRT1 or supplemented with the NAD metabolite nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) compared to controls. Treatment of HCC cell lines with sorafenib dose-dependently induced apoptosis and a significant decrease in cellular NAD concentrations. The SIRT1 protein was downregulated in HUH7 cells but not in Hep3B cells. After sorafenib treatment, mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cells was lower, citrate synthase activity was attenuated, and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were decreased. Concomitant to increased phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sorafenib treatment led to decreased activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), indicative of energy deprivation. Transient overexpression of SIRT1, as well as NAD repletion by NMN, decreased sorafenib-induced apoptosis. We can, therefore, conclude that sorafenib influences the NAD/SIRT1/AMPK axis. Overexpression of SIRT1 could be an underlying mechanism of resistance to sorafenib treatment in HCC.
Project description:Interest in pharmacological agents capable of increasing cellular NAD+ concentrations has stimulated investigations of nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NR and NMN require large dosages for effect. Herein, we describe synthesis of dihydronicotinamide riboside (NRH) and the discovery that NRH is a potent NAD+ concentration-enhancing agent, which acts within as little as 1 h after administration to mammalian cells to increase NAD+ concentrations by 2.5-10-fold over control values. Comparisons with NR and NMN show that in every instance, NRH provides greater NAD+ increases at equivalent concentrations. NRH also provides substantial NAD+ increases in tissues when administered by intraperitoneal injection to C57BL/6J mice. NRH substantially increases NAD+/NADH ratio in cultured cells and in liver and no induction of apoptotic markers or significant increases in lactate levels in cells. Cells treated with NRH are resistant to cell death caused by NAD+-depleting genotoxins such as hydrogen peroxide and methylmethane sulfonate. Studies to identify its biochemical mechanism of action showed that it does not inhibit NAD+ consumption, suggesting that it acts as a biochemical precursor to NAD+ Cell lysates possess an ATP-dependent kinase activity that efficiently converts NRH to the compound NMNH, but independent of Nrk1 or Nrk2. These studies identify a putative new metabolic pathway to NAD+ and a potent pharmacologic agent for NAD+ concentration enhancement in cells and tissues.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form, NADP, are the major coenzymes of redox reactions in central metabolic pathways. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is also used to generate second messengers, such as cyclic ADP-ribose, and serves as substrate for protein modifications including ADP-ribosylation and protein deacetylation by sirtuins. The regulation of these metabolic and signaling processes depends on NAD availability. Generally, human cells accomplish their NAD supply through biosynthesis using different forms of vitamin B3: Nicotinamide (Nam) and nicotinic acid as well as nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR). These precursors are converted to the corresponding mononucleotides NMN and NAMN, which are adenylylated to the dinucleotides NAD and NAAD, respectively. Here, we have developed an NMR-based experimental approach to detect and quantify NAD(P) and its biosynthetic intermediates in human cell extracts. Using this method, we have determined NAD, NADP, NMN and Nam pools in HEK293 cells cultivated in standard culture medium containing Nam as the only NAD precursor. When cells were grown in the additional presence of both NAR and NR, intracellular pools of deamidated NAD intermediates (NAR, NAMN and NAAD) were also detectable. We have also tested this method to quantify NAD+ in human platelets and erythrocytes. Our results demonstrate that ¹H NMR spectroscopy provides a powerful method for the assessment of the cellular NAD metabolome.
Project description:Increasing NAD+ levels by supplementing with the precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) improves cardiac function in multiple mouse models of disease. While NMN influences several aspects of mitochondrial metabolism, the molecular mechanisms by which increased NAD+ enhances cardiac function are poorly understood. A putative mechanism of NAD+ therapeutic action exists via activation of the mitochondrial NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). We assessed the therapeutic efficacy of NMN and the role of SIRT3 in the Friedreich's ataxia cardiomyopathy mouse model (FXN-KO). At baseline, the FXN-KO heart has mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation, reduced Sirt3 mRNA expression, and evidence of increased NAD+ salvage. Remarkably, NMN administered to FXN-KO mice restores cardiac function to near-normal levels. To determine whether SIRT3 is required for NMN therapeutic efficacy, we generated SIRT3-KO and SIRT3-KO/FXN-KO (double KO [dKO]) models. The improvement in cardiac function upon NMN treatment in the FXN-KO is lost in the dKO model, demonstrating that the effects of NMN are dependent upon cardiac SIRT3. Coupled with cardio-protection, SIRT3 mediates NMN-induced improvements in both cardiac and extracardiac metabolic function and energy metabolism. Taken together, these results serve as important preclinical data for NMN supplementation or SIRT3 activator therapy in Friedreich's ataxia patients.
Project description:NadR is a bifunctional enzyme that converts nicotinamide riboside (NR) into nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which is then converted into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Although a crystal structure of the enzyme from the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus influenzae is known, structural understanding of its catalytic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we purified the NadR enzyme from Lactococcus lactis and established an assay to determine the combined activity of this bifunctional enzyme. The conversion of NR into NAD showed hyperbolic dependence on the NR concentration, but sigmoidal dependence on the ATP concentration. The apparent cooperativity for ATP may be explained because both reactions catalyzed by the bifunctional enzyme (phosphorylation of NR and adenylation of NMN) require ATP. The conversion of NMN into NAD followed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NMN, but again with the sigmoidal dependence on the ATP concentration. In this case, the apparent cooperativity is unexpected since only a single ATP is used in the NMN adenylyltransferase catalyzed reaction. To determine the possible structural determinants of such cooperativity, we solved the crystal structure of NadR from L. lactis (NadRLl). Co-crystallization with NAD, NR, NMN, ATP, and AMP-PNP revealed a 'sink' for adenine nucleotides in a location between two domains. This sink could be a regulatory site, or it may facilitate the channeling of substrates between the two domains.