Cardiac Specific Overexpression of Mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 Induces Myocardial Apoptosis and Cardiac Dysfunction.
ABSTRACT: Myocardial apoptosis is a significant problem underlying ischemic heart disease. We previously reported significantly elevated expression of cytoplasmic Omi/HtrA2, triggers cardiomyocytes apoptosis. However, whether increased Omi/HtrA2 within mitochondria itself influences myocardial survival in vivo is unknown. We aim to observe the effects of mitochondria-specific, not cytoplasmic, Omi/HtrA2 on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function. Transgenic mice overexpressing cardiac-specific mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 were generated and they had increased myocardial apoptosis, decreased systolic and diastolic function, and decreased left ventricular remodeling. Transiently or stably overexpression of mitochondria Omi/HtrA2 in H9C2 cells enhance apoptosis as evidenced by elevated caspase-3, -9 activity and TUNEL staining, which was completely blocked by Ucf-101, a specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor. Mechanistic studies revealed mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 overexpression degraded the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein HAX-1, an effect attenuated by Ucf-101. Additionally, transfected cells overexpressing mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 were more sensitive to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) induced apoptosis. Cyclosporine A (CsA), a mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor, blocked translocation of Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondrial to cytoplasm, and protected transfected cells incompletely against H/R-induced caspase-3 activation. We report in vitro and in vivo overexpression of mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 induces cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction. Thus, strategies to directly inhibit Omi/HtrA2 or its cytosolic translocation from mitochondria may protect against heart injury.
Project description:Survival after acute myocardial infarction is decreased in elderly patients. The enhanced rates of apoptosis in the aging heart exacerbate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. We have recently demonstrated that the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the most potent endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis, was decreased in aging rats' hearts. XIAP was balanced by two mitochondria proteins, Omi/HtrA2 and Smac/DIABLO. However, the implicative role of XIAP, Omi/HtrA2, and Smac/DIABLO to aging-related MI/R injury has not been previously investigated. In our study, male aging rats (20-24 months) or young adult rats (4-6 months) were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. MI/R-induced cardiac injury was enhanced in aging rats, as evidenced by aggravated cardiac dysfunction, enlarged infarct size, and increased myocardial apoptosis (TUNEL and caspase-3 activity). Then, the XIAP, Omi/HtrA2, and Smac/DIABLO protein and mRNA expression was detected. XIAP protein and mRNA expression was decreased in both aging hearts and aging hearts subjected to MI/R. Meanwhile, myocardial XIAP protein expression was correlated to cardiac function after MI/R. However, Omi/HtrA2, but not Smac/DIABLO, expression was increased in aging hearts. Moreover, the translocation of Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondria to cytosol was increased in both aging hearts and aging hearts subjected to MI/R. Treatment with ucf-101 (a novel and specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor) attenuated XIAP degradation and caspase-3 activity and exerted cardioprotective effects. Taken together, these results demonstrated that increased expression and leakage of Omi/HtrA2 enhanced MI/R injury in aging hearts via degrading XIAP and promoting myocardial apoptosis.
Project description:Viruses encode suppressors of cell death to block intrinsic and extrinsic host-initiated death pathways that reduce viral yield as well as control the termination of infection. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection terminates by a caspase-independent cell fragmentation process after an extended period of continuous virus production. The viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA; a product of the UL37x1 gene) controls this fragmentation process. UL37x1 mutant virus-infected cells fragment three to four days earlier than cells infected with wt virus. Here, we demonstrate that infected cell death is dependent on serine proteases. We identify mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi as the initiator of this caspase-independent death pathway. Infected fibroblasts develop susceptibility to death as levels of mitochondria-resident HtrA2/Omi protease increase. Cell death is suppressed by the serine protease inhibitor TLCK as well as by the HtrA2-specific inhibitor UCF-101. Experimental overexpression of HtrA2/Omi, but not a catalytic site mutant of the enzyme, sensitizes infected cells to death that can be blocked by vMIA or protease inhibitors. Uninfected cells are completely resistant to HtrA2/Omi induced death. Thus, in addition to suppression of apoptosis and autophagy, vMIA naturally controls a novel serine protease-dependent CMV-infected cell-specific programmed cell death (cmvPCD) pathway that terminates the CMV replication cycle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increased cardiac apoptosis is a hallmark of the elderly, which in turn increases the risk for developing cardiac disease. The overexpression of Omi/HtrA2 mRNA and protein contributes to apoptosis in the aged heart. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that binds to the promoter of Omi/HtrA2 in the aging myocardium. However, whether HSF1 participates in cardiomyocyte apoptosis via transcriptional regulation of Omi/HtrA2 remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether HSF1 plays a role in Omi/HtrA2 transcriptional regulation and myocardial apoptosis. METHODS AND RESULTS:Assessment of the hearts of mice of different ages was performed, which indicated a decrease in cardiac function reserve and an increase in mitochondrial apoptosis. Omi/HtrA2 overexpression in the elderly was negatively correlated with left ventricular function after exercise overload and positively correlated with myocardial Caspase-9 apoptosis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of aging hearts and plasmid transfection/RNA interference of H9C2 cells revealed that enhancement of HSF1 expression promotes Omi/HtrA2 expression by inducing the promoter activity of Omi/HtrA2 while also increasing mitochondrial apoptosis by upregulating Omi/HtrA2 expression. CONCLUSIONS:HSF1 acts as a transcriptional factor that induces Omi/HtrA2 expression and Caspase-9 apoptosis in aged cardiomyocytes, while also decreasing cardiac function reserve.
Project description:Pneumonia is one of the commonest causes of death worldwide. High?temperature requirement A2 (HtrA2) is a proapoptotic mitochondrial serine protease involved in caspase?dependent or caspase?independent cell apoptosis. UCF?101 (5?[5?(2?nitrophenyl) furfuryl iodine]?1,3?diphenyl?2?thiobarbituric acid), an inhibitor of HtrA2, has a protective effect on organs in various diseases by inhibiting cell apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to explore whether UCF?101 has a protective effect on lungs in pneumonia. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?induced pneumonia model was established in rats. UCF?101 (2 µmol/kg) was used for treatment. Lung injury was detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Pro?inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress?related factors were detected using corresponding test kits. TUNEL staining was used to measure the amount of cell apoptosis. Apoptosis?associated proteins were detected by western blot assay. The present study indicated pulmonary injury induced by LPS. Treatment with UCF?101 clearly alleviated this pulmonary damage and restored the levels of pro?inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress?related factors. In addition, UCF?101 significantly reduced LPS?induced cell apoptosis, the release of HtrA2 and cytochrome from mitochondria to the cytoplasm and inhibited the expression of pro?apoptotic proteins. UCF?101 also restored the ATP level. The present results demonstrated that UCF?101 acts as a positive regulator of acute pneumonia by inhibiting inflammatory response, oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis. The present study suggests UCF?101 as a potential candidate for pneumonia therapy.
Project description:The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy in patients, but the mechanism by which bortezomib can induce peripheral neuropathy is not fully understood. One study suggested that off-target inhibition of proteases other than the proteasome, particularly HtraA2/Omi, may be the underlying mechanism of the neuropathy. The same study also concluded that carfilzomib, a second proteasome inhibitor that is associated with less peripheral neuropathy in patients than bortezomib, showed no inhibition of HtrA2/Omi. The goal of the work described here was to determine whether either proteasome inhibitors truly affected HtrA2/Omi activity. A variety of methods were used to test the effects of both bortezomib and carfilzomib on HtrA2/Omi activity that included <i>in vitro</i> recombinant enzyme assays, and studies with the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and HtrA2/Omi-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The compound ucf-101 was used to assess the effects of specific HtrA2/Omi inhibition. In contrast to previously published data, our results clearly demonstrated that neither bortezomib nor carfilzomib inhibited HtrA2/Omi activity in recombinant enzyme assays at concentrations up to 100 ?M, while the specific inhibitor ucf-101 did inhibit the enzyme. The proteasome inhibitors did not inhibit HtrA2/Omi activity in either SH-SY5Y cells or mouse embryonic fibroblasts, as determined by expression of the HtrA2/Omi substrates eIF4G1 and UCH-L1. Based on our biochemical and cell-based assays, we conclude that neither bortezomib nor carfilzomib inhibited HtrA2/Omi activity. Therefore, it is unlikely that bortezomib associated peripheral neuropathy is a direct result of off-target inhibition of HtrA2/Omi.
Project description:Necroptosis of intestinal epithelial cells has been indicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The identification of dysregulated proteins that can regulate necroptosis in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis is the key to the rational design of therapeutic strategies for colitis. Through tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics, HtrA2 was found to be downregulated in the colon of DSS-treated mice. UCF-101, a specific serine protease inhibitor of HtrA2, significantly alleviated DSS-induced colitis as indicated by prevention of body weight loss and decreased mortality. UCF-101 decreased DSS-induced colonic inflammation, prevented intestinal barrier function loss and inhibited necroptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. In vitro, UCF-101 or silencing of HtrA2 decreased necroptosis of HT-29 and L929 cells. UCF-101 decreased phosphorylation of RIPK1 and subsequent phosphorylation of RIPK3 and MLKL during necroptosis. Upon necroptotic stimulation, HtrA2 translocated from mitochondria to cytosol. HtrA2 directly interacted with RIPK1 and promoted its degradation during a specific time phase of necroptosis. Our findings highlight the importance of HtrA2 in regulating colitis by modulation of necroptosis and suggest HtrA2 as an attractive target for anti-colitis treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mitochondrial fragmentation drastically regulates the viability of pancreatic cancer through a poorly understood mechanism. The present study used erlotinib to activate mitochondrial fragmentation and then investigated the downstream events that occurred in response to mitochondrial fragmentation.<h4>Methods</h4>Cell viability and apoptosis were determined via MTT assay, TUNEL staining and ELISA. Mitochondrial fragmentation was measured via an immunofluorescence assay and qPCR. siRNA transfection and pathway blockers were used to perform the loss-of-function assays.<h4>Results</h4>The results of our study demonstrated that erlotinib treatment mediated cell apoptosis in the PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell line via evoking mitochondrial fragmentation. Mechanistically, erlotinib application increased mitochondrial fission and reduced mitochondrial fusion, triggering mitochondrial fragmentation. Subsequently, mitochondrial fragmentation caused the overproduction of mitochondrial ROS (mROS). Interestingly, excessive mROS induced cardiolipin oxidation and mPTP opening, finally facilitating HtrA2/Omi liberation from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm, where HtrA2/Omi activated caspase-9-dependent cell apoptosis. Notably, neutralization of mROS or knockdown of HtrA2/Omi attenuated erlotinib-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and favored cancer cell survival.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Together, our results identified the mROS-HtrA2/Omi axis as a novel signaling pathway that is activated by mitochondrial fragmentation and that promotes PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell mitochondrial apoptosis in the presence of erlotinib.
Project description:The loss of mitochondrial function impairs intracellular energy production and potentially results in chronic liver disease. Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes contributes to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), thereby resulting in hepatic fibrogenesis. High-temperature requirement protein A2 (HtrA2/Omi), a mitochondrial serine protease with various functions, is responsible for quality control in mitochondrial homeostasis. However, little information is available regarding its role in mitochondrial damage during the development of liver fibrosis. This study examined whether HtrA2/Omi regulates mitochondrial homeostasis in hepatocyte during the development of hepatic fibrogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that HtrA2/Omi expression considerably decreased in liver tissues from the CCl4-induced liver fibrotic mice model and from patients with liver cirrhosis. Knockdown of HtrA2/Omi in hepatocytes induced the accumulation of damaged mitochondria and provoked mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) stress. We further show that the damaged mtDNA isolated from HtrA2/Omi-deficient hepatocytes as a form of damage-associated molecular patterns can induce HSCs activation. Moreover, we found that motor neuron degeneration 2-mutant mice harboring the missense mutation Ser276Cys in the protease domain of HtrA2/Omi displayed altered mitochondrial morphology and function, which increased oxidative stress and promoted liver fibrosis. Conversely, the overexpression of HtrA2/Omi via hydrodynamics-based gene transfer led to the antifibrotic effects in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mice model through decreasing collagen accumulation and enhancing anti-oxidative activity by modulating mitochondrial homeostasis in the liver. These results suggest that suppressing HtrA2/Omi expression promotes hepatic fibrogenesis via modulating mtROS generation, and these novel mechanistic insights involving the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis by HtrA2/Omi may be of importance for developing new therapeutic strategies for hepatic fibrosis.
Project description:OMI/HTRA2 (high-temperature requirement serine protease A2) is a mitochondrial serine protease involved in several cellular processes, including autophagy, chaperone activity, and apoptosis. Few studies on the role of OMI/HTRA2 in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are available, but none on its relationship with the cholinergic system and neurotrophic factors as well as other AD-related proteins. In this study, immunohistochemical analyses revealed that AD patients had a higher cytosolic distribution of OMI/HTRA2 protein compared to controls. Quantitative analyses on brain extracts indicated a significant increase in the active form of OMI/HTRA2 in the AD brain. Activated OMI/HTRA2 protein positively correlated with stress-associated read-through acetylcholinesterase activity. In addition, ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene expression, a receptor also known to be localized on the outer membrane of mitochondria, showed a strong correlation with OMI/HTRA2 gene expression in three different brain regions. Interestingly, the activated OMI/HTRA2 levels also correlated with the activity of the acetylcholine-biosynthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT); with levels of the neurotrophic factors, NGF and BDNF; with levels of the soluble fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP); and with gene expression of the microtubule-associated protein tau in the examined brain regions. Overall, the results demonstrate increased levels of the mitochondrial serine protease OMI/HTRA2, and a coherent pattern of association between the activated form of OMI/HTRA2 and several key proteins involved in AD pathology. In this paper, we propose a new hypothetical model to highlight the importance and needs of further investigation on the role of OMI/HTRA2 in the mitochondrial function and AD.
Project description:Omi/HtrA2 is a mitochondrial serine protease that is released into the cytosol during apoptosis to antagonize inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) and contribute to caspase-independent cell death. Here, we demonstrate that Omi/HtrA2 directly cleaves various IAPs in vitro, and the cleavage efficiency is determined by its IAP-binding motif, AVPS. Cleavage of IAPs such as c-IAP1 substantially reduces its ability to inhibit and ubiquitylate caspases. In contrast to the stoichiometric anti-IAP activity by Smac/DIABLO, Omi/HtrA2 cleavage of c-IAP1 is catalytic and irreversible, thereby more efficiently inactivating IAPs and promoting caspase activity. Elimination of endogenous Omi by RNA interference abolishes c-IAP1 cleavage and desensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by TRAIL. In addition, overexpression of cleavage-site mutant c-IAP1 makes cells more resistant to TRAIL-induced caspase activation. This IAP cleavage by Omi is independent of caspase. Taken together, these results indicate that unlike Smac/DIABLO, Omi/HtrA2's catalytic cleavage of IAPs is a key mechanism for it to irreversibly inactivate IAPs and promote apoptosis.