Junctophilin 3 expresses in pancreatic beta cells and is required for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
ABSTRACT: It is well accepted that junctophilin (JPHs) isoforms act as a physical bridge linking plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for channel crosstalk in excitable cells. Our purpose is to investigate whether JPHs are involved in the proper communication between Ca(2+) influx and subsequent Ca(2+) amplification in pancreatic beta cells, thereby participating in regulating insulin secretion. The expression of JPH isoforms was examined in human and mouse pancreatic tissues, and JPH3 expression was found in both the beta cells. In mice, knockdown of Jph3 (si-Jph3) in islets decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) accompanied by mitochondrial function impairment. Si-Jph3 lowered the insulin secretory response to Ca(2+) signaling in the presence of glucose, and reduced [Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude triggered by caffeine. Si-Jph3 also attenuated mitofusin 2 expression, thereby disturbing the spatial organization of ER-mitochondria contact in islets. These results suggest that the regulation of GSIS by the KATP channel-independent pathways is partly impaired due to decrease of JPH3 expression in mouse islets. JPH3 also binds to type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) in mouse and human pancreatic tissues, which might contribute to Ca(2+) release amplification in GSIS. This study demonstrates some previously unrecognized findings in pancreatic tissues: (1) JPH3 expresses in mouse and human beta cells; (2) si-Jph3 in mouse primary islets impairs GSIS in vitro; (3) impairment in GSIS in si-Jph3 islets is due to changes in RyR2-[Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude and ER-mitochondria contact.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into ?-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in ?-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated ?-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that ?-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of ?-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated ?-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to ?-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS.
Project description:Altered insulin secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This alteration is correlated with altered intracellular Ca(2+)-handling in pancreatic ? cells. Insulin secretion is triggered by elevation in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) of ? cells. This elevation in [Ca(2+)]cyt leads to activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII), which, in turn, controls multiple aspects of insulin secretion. CaMKII is known to phosphorylate ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), an intracellular Ca(2+)-release channel implicated in Ca(2+)-dependent steps of insulin secretion. Our data show that RyR2 is CaMKII phosphorylated in a pancreatic ?-cell line in a glucose-sensitive manner. However, it is not clear whether any change in CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation underlies abnormal RyR2 function in ? cells and whether such a change contributes to alterations in insulin secretion. Therefore, knock-in mice with a mutation in RyR2 that mimics its constitutive CaMKII phosphorylation, RyR2-S2814D, were studied. This mutation led to a gain-of-function defect in RyR2 indicated by increased basal RyR2-mediated Ca(2+) leak in islets of these mice. This chronic in vivo defect in RyR2 resulted in basal hyperinsulinemia. In addition, S2814D mice also developed glucose intolerance, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and lowered [Ca(2+)]cyt transients, which are hallmarks of pre-diabetes. The glucose-sensitive Ca(2+) pool in islets from S2814D mice was also reduced. These observations were supported by immunohistochemical analyses of islets in diabetic human and mouse pancreata that revealed significantly enhanced CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 in type 2 diabetes. Together, these studies implicate that the chronic gain-of-function defect in RyR2 due to CaMKII hyperphosphorylation is a novel mechanism that contributes to pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:It has been suggested that the transcription factor ARNT/HIF1? is critical for maintaining in vivo glucose homeostasis and pancreatic beta cell glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Our goal was to gain more insights into the metabolic defects seen after the loss of ARNT/HIF1? in beta cells. METHODS:The in vivo and in vitro consequences of the loss of ARNT/HIF1? were investigated in beta cell specific Arnt/Hif1? knockout mice (?-Arnt (fl/fl/Cre) mice). RESULTS:The only in vivo defects found in ?-Arnt (fl/fl/Cre) mice were significant increases in the respiratory exchange ratio and in vivo carbohydrate oxidation, and a decrease in lipid oxidation. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was unaltered in mouse ?-Arnt (fl/fl/Cre) islets upon glucose stimulation. ?-Arnt (fl/fl/Cre) islets had an impairment in the glucose-stimulated increase in Ca(2+) signalling and a reduced insulin secretory response to glucose in the presence of KCl and diazoxide. The glucose-stimulated increase in the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio was reduced in ?-Arnt (fl/fl/Cre) islets. The reduced GSIS and NADPH/NADP(+) levels in ?-Arnt (fl/fl/Cre) islets could be rescued by treatment with membrane-permeable tricarboxylic acid intermediates. Small interfering (si)RNA mediated knockdown of ARNT/HIF1? in human islets also inhibited GSIS. These results suggest that the regulation of GSIS by the KATP channel-dependent and -independent pathways is affected by the loss of ARNT/HIF1? in islets. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:This study provides three new insights into the role of ARNT/HIF1? in beta cells: (1) ARNT/HIF1? deletion in mice impairs GSIS ex vivo; (2) ?-Arnt (fl/fl/Cre) mice have an increased respiratory exchange ratio; and (3) ARNT/HIF1? is required for GSIS in human islets.
Project description:The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and pancreatic ? cells. In cardiomyocytes, RyR2-dependent Ca2+ release is critical for excitation-contraction coupling; however, a functional role for RyR2 in ? cell insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Here, we took advantage of rare RyR2 mutations that were identified in patients with a genetic form of exercise-induced sudden death (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT]). As these mutations result in a "leaky" RyR2 channel, we exploited them to assess RyR2 channel function in ? cell dynamics. We discovered that CPVT patients with mutant leaky RyR2 present with glucose intolerance, which was heretofore unappreciated. In mice, transgenic expression of CPVT-associated RyR2 resulted in impaired glucose homeostasis, and an in-depth evaluation of pancreatic islets and ? cells from these animals revealed intracellular Ca2+ leak via oxidized and nitrosylated RyR2 channels, activated ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased fuel-stimulated insulin release. Additionally, we verified the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ leak in CPVT-associated RyR2-expressing mice, in human islets from diabetic patients, and in an established murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Taken together, our data indicate that RyR2 channels play a crucial role in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.
Project description:Preserving ?-cell function during the development of obesity and insulin resistance would limit the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) depletion induced by saturated free fatty acids and cytokines causes ?-cell ER stress and apoptosis, but the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that palmitate-induced sorcin downregulation and subsequent increases in glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-2 (G6PC2) levels contribute to lipotoxicity. Sorcin is a calcium sensor protein involved in maintaining ER Ca(2+) by inhibiting ryanodine receptor activity and playing a role in terminating Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. G6PC2, a genome-wide association study gene associated with fasting blood glucose, is a negative regulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). High-fat feeding in mice and chronic exposure of human islets to palmitate decreases endogenous sorcin expression while levels of G6PC2 mRNA increase. Sorcin-null mice are glucose intolerant, with markedly impaired GSIS and increased expression of G6pc2 Under high-fat diet, mice overexpressing sorcin in the ?-cell display improved glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, and GSIS, whereas G6PC2 levels are decreased and cytosolic and ER Ca(2+) are increased in transgenic islets. Sorcin may thus provide a target for intervention in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is an endocrine factor that normalizes glucose homeostasis and reduces insulin resistance in diabetes. Although the pancreas is an FGF21 target organ, its role in pancreatic islets remains obscure. This study aimed to elucidate the physiological role of FGF21 in pancreatic islets using FGF21-knockout (FGF21-KO) mice. Twenty-four-week-old male global FGF21-KO mice were used in this study. Glucose and insulin tolerance were assessed. Expression of genes and proteins related to islet function and underlying mechanisms were also examined. Islet morphology and insulin-secreting capacity were further evaluated. FGF21-KO mice exhibited insulin resistance while being normoglycemic, associated with increases in beta-cell proliferation and insulin synthesis, acting as compensatory responses. This phenotype probably results from enhanced growth hormone (GH) sensitivity in FGF21-KO mouse islets. In addition, ex vivo FGF21 treatment in normal C57BL/6J mouse islets reduced GH signaling, probably via upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) and cytokine-inducible SH-2 containing (CIS) protein, whereas KO mouse islets displayed reduced PPAR? and CIS expression. FGF21 treatment also reversed GH-induced insulin expression, beta-cell proliferation and GH-impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in islets. Furthermore, distorted islet morphology and impaired GSIS were observed in KO mice, suggestive of islet dysfunction, whereas the enhanced insulin expression and impaired GSIS in FGF21-KO mouse islets could be reversed by blockade of GH signaling. Our data indicate that FGF21 is important in the regulation of beta-cell proliferation and insulin synthesis, probably via modulation of GH signaling. These findings provide evidence that FGF21 is an obligatory metabolic regulator in pancreatic islets and shed new light onto the role of endogenous FGF21 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and islet dysfunction.
Project description:Strategies aimed at mimicking or enhancing the action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) therapeutically improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, it is not clear whether GLP-1 directly drives insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion in mouse and human islets. We found that GLP-1 enhances GSIS at a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.4 pM. Moreover, we determined that GLP-1 activates PLC, which increases submembrane diacylglycerol and thereby activates PKC, resulting in membrane depolarization and increased action potential firing and subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion. The depolarizing effect of GLP-1 on electrical activity was mimicked by the PKC activator PMA, occurred without activation of PKA, and persisted in the presence of PKA inhibitors, the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide, and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker isradipine; however, depolarization was abolished by lowering extracellular Na(+). The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na(+)-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores. Concordantly, GLP-1 effects were negligible in Trpm4 or Trpm5 KO islets. These data provide important insight into the therapeutic action of GLP-1 and suggest that circulating levels of this hormone directly stimulate insulin secretion by ? cells.
Project description:In preparation for the metabolic demands of pregnancy, ? cells in the maternal pancreatic islets increase both in number and in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) per cell. Mechanisms have been proposed for the increased ? cell mass, but not for the increased GSIS. Because serotonin production increases dramatically during pregnancy, we tested whether flux through the ionotropic 5-HT3 receptor (Htr3) affects GSIS during pregnancy. Pregnant Htr3a(-/-) mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance despite normally increased ? cell mass, and their islets lacked the increase in GSIS seen in islets from pregnant wild-type mice. Electrophysiological studies showed that activation of Htr3 decreased the resting membrane potential in ? cells, which increased Ca(2+) uptake and insulin exocytosis in response to glucose. Thus, our data indicate that serotonin, acting in a paracrine/autocrine manner through Htr3, lowers the ? cell threshold for glucose and plays an essential role in the increased GSIS of pregnancy.
Project description:Heterogeneity of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic islets is physiologically important but poorly understood. Here, we utilize mouse islets to determine how microtubules (MTs) affect secretion toward the vascular extracellular matrix at single cell and subcellular levels. Our data indicate that MT stability in the β-cell population is heterogenous, and that GSIS is suppressed in cells with highly stable MTs. Consistently, MT hyper-stabilization prevents, and MT depolymerization promotes the capacity of single β-cell for GSIS. Analysis of spatiotemporal patterns of secretion events shows that MT depolymerization activates otherwise dormant β-cells via initiation of secretion clusters (hot spots). MT depolymerization also enhances secretion from individual cells, introducing both additional clusters and scattered events. Interestingly, without MTs, the timing of clustered secretion is dysregulated, extending the first phase of GSIS and causing oversecretion. In contrast, glucose-induced Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx was not affected by MT depolymerization yet required for secretion under these conditions, indicating that MT-dependent regulation of secretion hot spots acts in parallel with Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling. Our findings uncover a novel MT function in tuning insulin secretion hot spots, which leads to accurately measured and timed response to glucose stimuli and promotes functional β-cell heterogeneity.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that sphingolipid metabolism is altered during type 2 diabetes. Increased levels of the sphingolipid ceramide are associated with insulin resistance. However, a role for sphingolipids in pancreatic beta cell function, or insulin production, and release remains to be established. Our studies in MIN6 cells and mouse pancreatic islets demonstrate that glucose stimulates an intracellular rise in the sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), whereas the levels of ceramide and sphingomyelin remain unchanged. The increase in S1P levels by glucose is due to activation of sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2). Interestingly, rises in S1P correlate with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Decreasing S1P levels by treatment of MIN6 cells or primary islets with the sphingosine kinase inhibitor reduces GSIS. Moreover, knockdown of SphK2 alone results in decreased GSIS, whereas knockdown of the S1P phosphatase, Sgpp1, leads to a rise in GSIS. Treatment of mice with the sphingosine kinase inhibitor impairs glucose disposal due to decreased plasma insulin levels. Altogether, our data suggest that glucose activates SphK2 in pancreatic beta cells leading to a rise in S1P levels, which is important for GSIS.