Cyclin D1, cancer progression, and opportunities in cancer treatment.
ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells encode three D cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) that coordinately function as allosteric regulators of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 to regulate cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. Cyclin expression, accumulation, and degradation, as well as assembly and activation of CDK4/CDK6 are governed by growth factor stimulation. Cyclin D1 is more frequently dysregulated than cyclin D2 or D3 in human cancers, and as such, it has been more extensively characterized. Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. This review discusses cyclin D1 transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulations and its biological function with a particular focus on the mechanisms that result in its dysregulation in human cancers.
Project description:D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) and their associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6) are components of the core cell cycle machinery that drives cell proliferation. Inhibitors of CDK4 and CDK6 are currently being tested in clinical trials for patients with several cancer types, with promising results. Here, using human cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts in mice, we show that the cyclin D3-CDK6 kinase phosphorylates and inhibits the catalytic activity of two key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, 6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase M2. This re-directs the glycolytic intermediates into the pentose phosphate (PPP) and serine pathways. Inhibition of cyclin D3-CDK6 in tumour cells reduces flow through the PPP and serine pathways, thereby depleting the antioxidants NADPH and glutathione. This, in turn, increases the levels of reactive oxygen species and causes apoptosis of tumour cells. The pro-survival function of cyclin D-associated kinase operates in tumours expressing high levels of cyclin D3-CDK6 complexes. We propose that measuring the levels of cyclin D3-CDK6 in human cancers might help to identify tumour subsets that undergo cell death and tumour regression upon inhibition of CDK4 and CDK6. Cyclin D3-CDK6, through its ability to link cell cycle and cell metabolism, represents a particularly powerful oncoprotein that affects cancer cells at several levels, and this property can be exploited for anti-cancer therapy.
Project description:Rearrangement and amplification of the D-type cyclin genes have been reported in human cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that Ras-mediated skin tumorigenesis depends on pathways that act through cyclin D1 and D2; however, the role of cyclin D3 remains unknown. The present study demonstrates that cyclin D3 ablation does not affect keratinocyte proliferation, but instead increases apoptosis levels in the bulge region of the hair follicle. Consequently, cyclin D3 ablation reduces skin papilloma development in a Ras-dependent carcinogenesis model. Previous results revealed that cyclin D3 preferentially binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) in mouse keratinocytes and transgenic expression of CDK6 (K5CDK6 mice) inhibits skin tumor development. Thus, we hypothesized that the inhibitory effect of CDK6 is dependent on cyclin D3 expression. To test this hypothesis, a mouse model that overexpresses CDK6 and does not express cyclin D3 (K5CDK6/cyclin D3-/- compound mouse) was developed. Biochemical analysis of the epidermis of K5CDK6/cyclin D3-/- mice revealed that cyclin D3 ablation resulted in increased expression of cyclin D1 protein, with a consequent elevation in the level of CDK6/cyclin D1 and CDK4/cyclin D1 complexes. These findings were concurrent with the increase skin papilloma malignant progression observed in K5CDK6/cyclin D3-/- mice. In summary the absence of cyclin D3 led to fewer number of papillomas in cyclin D3-ablated mice than in the wild-type owing to increased apoptosis, suggesting that alterations in cell survival are a crucial mechanism for crippling cellular defense against neoplasia. The results of the current study also suggest that although cyclin D3 expression does not alter the tumor suppressive role of CDK6 in skin carcinogenesis, the compensatory increase in cyclin D1 can shift the balance towards malignant progression.
Project description:Most knowledge on human beta-cell cycle control derives from immunoblots of whole human islets, mixtures of beta-cells and non-beta-cells. We explored the presence, subcellular localization, and function of five early G1/S phase molecules-cyclins D1-3 and cdk 4 and 6-in the adult human beta-cell.Immunocytochemistry for the five molecules and their relative abilities to drive human beta-cell replication were examined. Human beta-cell replication, cell death, and islet function in vivo were studied in the diabetic NOD-SCID mouse.Human beta-cells contain easily detectable cdks 4 and 6 and cyclin D3 but variable cyclin D1. Cyclin D2 was only marginally detectable. All five were principally cytoplasmic, not nuclear. Overexpression of the five, alone or in combination, led to variable increases in human beta-cell replication, with the cdk6/cyclin D3 combination being the most robust (15% versus 0.3% in control beta-cells). A single molecule, cdk6, proved to be capable of driving human beta-cell replication in vitro and enhancing human islet engraftment/proliferation in vivo, superior to normal islets and as effectively as the combination of cdk6 plus a D-cyclin.Human beta-cells contain abundant cdk4, cdk6, and cyclin D3, but variable amounts of cyclin D1. In contrast to rodent beta-cells, they contain little or no detectable cyclin D2. They are primarily cytoplasmic and likely ineffective in basal beta-cell replication. Unexpectedly, cyclin D3 and cdk6 overexpression drives human beta-cell replication most effectively. Most importantly, a single molecule, cdk6, supports robust human beta-cell proliferation and function in vivo.
Project description:D cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) and their catalytic subunits (cyclin-dependent kinases cdk4 and cdk6) have a facilitating, but nonessential, role in cell cycle entry. Tissue-specific functions for D-type cyclins and cdks have been reported; however, the biochemical properties of these kinases are indistinguishable. We report that an F box protein, Fbxo7, interacted with cellular and viral D cyclins and distinguished among the cdks that bind D-type cyclins, specifically binding cdk6, in vitro and in vivo. Fbxo7 specifically regulated D cyclin/cdk6 complexes: Fbxo7 knockdown decreased cdk6 association with cyclin and its overexpression increased D cyclin/cdk6 activity and E2F activity. Fbxo7 interacted with p27, but its enhancement of cyclin D/cdk6 activity was p21/p27 independent. Fbxo7 overexpression transformed murine fibroblasts, rendering them tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Transformed phenotypes were dependent on cdk6, as knockdown of cdk6 reversed them. Fbxo7 was highly expressed in epithelial tumors, but not in normal tissues, suggesting that it may have a proto-oncogenic role in human cancers.
Project description:Cyclin D-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6) are positive regulators of cell cycle entry and they are overactive in the majority of human cancers. However, it is currently not completely understood by which cellular mechanisms CDK4/6 promote tumorigenesis, largely due to the limited number of identified substrates. Here we performed a systematic screen for substrates of cyclin D1-CDK4 and cyclin D3-CDK6. We identified the Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1) transcription factor as a common critical phosphorylation target. CDK4/6 stabilize and activate FOXM1, thereby maintain expression of G1/S phase genes, suppress the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and protect cancer cells from senescence. Melanoma cells, unlike melanocytes, are highly reliant on CDK4/6-mediated senescence suppression, which makes them particularly susceptible to CDK4/6 inhibition.
Project description:G1-phase cell cycle defects, such as alterations in cyclin D1 or cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) levels, are seen in most tumors. For example, increased cyclin D1 and decreased cdk6 levels are seen in many human breast tumors. Overexpression of cdk6 in breast tumor cells in culture has been shown to suppress proliferation, unlike the growth stimulating effects of its close homolog, cdk4. In addition to directly affecting proliferation, alterations in cdk6 or cdk4 levels in breast tumor cells also differentially influence levels of numerous steroid metabolic enzymes (SMEs), including those involved in estrogen metabolism. Overexpression of cdk6 in tumor cell lines having low cdk6 resulted in decreased levels of mRNAs encoding aldo-keto reductase (AKR)1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3, which are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) involved in steroid hormone metabolism. In contrast, increasing cdk4 dramatically increased these transcript levels, especially those encoding AKR1C3, an enzyme that converts estrone to 17?-estradiol, a change that could result in a pro-estrogenic state favoring tumor growth. Effects on other estrogen metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 aromatase, 17?-HSD2, and CYP1B1 transcripts, were also observed. Interactions of cdk6 and cdk4, but not cyclin D1, with the promoter region of a cdk-regulated gene, 17?-HSD2, were detected. The results uncover a previously unsuspected link between the cell cycle and hormone metabolism and differential roles for cdk6 and cdk4 in a novel mechanism for pre-receptor control of steroid hormone action, with important implications for the origin and treatment of steroid hormone-dependent cancers.
Project description:The mitogen-induced D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 that drive progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In skeletal muscle, cyclin D3 plays a unique function in controlling the proliferation/differentiation balance of myogenic progenitor cells. Here, we show that cyclin D3 also performs a novel function, regulating muscle fiber type-specific gene expression. Mice lacking cyclin D3 display an increased number of myofibers with higher oxidative capacity in fast-twitch muscle groups, primarily composed of myofibers that utilize glycolytic metabolism. The remodeling of myofibers toward a slower, more oxidative phenotype is accompanied by enhanced running endurance and increased energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, gene expression profiling of cyclin D3-/- muscle reveals the upregulation of genes encoding proteins involved in the regulation of contractile function and metabolic markers specifically expressed in slow-twitch and fast-oxidative myofibers, many of which are targets of MEF2 and/or NFAT transcription factors. Furthermore, cyclin D3 can repress the calcineurin- or MEF2-dependent activation of a slow fiber-specific promoter in cultured muscle cells. These data suggest that cyclin D3 regulates muscle fiber type phenotype, and consequently whole body metabolism, by antagonizing the activity of MEF2 and/or NFAT.
Project description:D-type cyclins regulate G1 cell cycle progression by enhancing the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their expression is frequently altered in malignant cells. We and others have previously shown that cyclin D1 is up-regulated in melanoma cells through adhesion-independent MEK-ERK1/2 signaling initiated by mutant B-RAF. Here, we describe the regulation and role of cyclin D3 in human melanoma cells. Cyclin D3 expression was enhanced in a cell panel of human melanoma cell lines compared with melanocytes and was regulated by fibronectin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling but not MEK activity. RNA interference experiments demonstrated that cyclin D3 contributed to G1-S cell cycle progression and proliferation in melanoma cells. Overexpression of cyclin D1 did not recover the effects of cyclin D3 knockdown. Finally, immunoprecipitation studies showed that CDK6 is a major binding partner for cyclin D3, whereas CDK4 preferentially associated with cyclin D1. Together, these findings demonstrate that cyclin D3 is an important regulator of melanoma G1-S cell cycle progression and that D-type cyclins are differentially regulated in melanoma cells.
Project description:Cyclins play a central role in cell-cycle regulation; in mammals, the D family of cyclins consists of cyclin D1, D2, and D3. In Xenopus, only homologs of cyclins D1 and D2 have been reported, while a novel cyclin, cyclin Dx (ccndx), was found to be required for the maintenance of motor neuron progenitors during embryogenesis. It remains unknown whether zebrafish possess cyclin D3 or cyclin Dx. In this study, we identified a zebrafish ccndx gene encoding a protein which can form a complex with Cdk4. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we observed that zccndx mRNA is expressed in the motor neurons of hindbrain and spinal cord during development. Analysis of a 4-kb promoter sequence of the zccndx gene revealed the presence of HRE sites, which can be regulated by HIF2?. Morpholino knockdown of zebrafish Hif2? and cyclin Dx resulted in the abolishment of isl1 and oligo2 expression in the precursors of motor neurons, and also disrupted axon growth. Overexpression of cyclin Dx mRNA in Hif2? morphants partially rescued zccndx expression. Taken together, our data indicate that zebrafish cyclin Dx plays a role in maintaining the precursors of motor neurons.
Project description:Loss of normal growth control is a hallmark of cancer progression. Therefore, understanding the early mechanisms of normal growth regulation and the changes that occur during preneoplasia may provide insights of both diagnostic and therapeutic importance. Models of dysplasia that help elucidate the mechanisms responsible for disease progression are useful in highlighting potential targets for prevention. An important strategy in cancer prevention treatment programs is to reduce hyperplasia and dysplasia. This study identified abnormal upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4, CDK6, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) as mechanisms responsible for maintenance of hyperplasia and dysplasia following downregulation of the initiating viral oncoprotein Simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen. Significantly, p53 was not required for successful reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. Ligand-induced activation of retinoid X receptor and PPAR? agonists attenuated cyclin D1 and CDK6 but not CDK4 or phosphorylated pRb upregulation with limited reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. PD0332991, an orally available CDK4/6 inhibitor, was able to prevent upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK6 as well as CDK4 and phosphorylated pRb and this correlated with a more profound reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. In summary, the study distinguished CDK4 and phosphorylated pRb as targets for chemoprevention regimens targeting reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia.