Retrospective Analysis of Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer Receiving Outpatient Treatment With Concurrent High-dose Cisplatin and Radiotherapy.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Cisplatin remains the pivotal chemotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), with nephrotoxicity considered the dose-limiting toxicity. The purpose of our study was to propose an outpatient high-dose cisplatin protocol aimed at preventing nephrotoxicity and to analyze the results of its utilization in patients with SCCHN treated with concurrent radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively evaluated 82 SCCHN patients treated with outpatient high-dose cisplatin concurrent with radiotherapy at our institution. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease were defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Associated factors were identified using analysis of covariance models for categorical variables and adjusted Pearson correlations for continuous variables. RESULTS:The incidence of AKI during treatment was 34.2%. With a median follow-up of 25.7 months, the average decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate was 12.57 mL/min/1.73 m (SD=18.58). At 1 year and at last follow-up, 5.4% and 4.4% of patients had estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m. Predictors associated with AKI and chronic kidney disease were: lower baseline weight and creatinine, higher baseline creatinine clearance, smoking, female sex, African American race, hypertension, and increased hydration and magnesium replacement requirements. CONCLUSIONS:We encountered limited early and late nephrotoxicity. Importantly, nephrotoxicity was not the main dose-limiting toxicity. Our results emphasize the importance of close monitoring and additional replacement of water and electrolytes as needed. A consistent method of measuring and reporting chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity would be a valuable contribution to the literature.
Project description:Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent, but its nephrotoxicity, which results in acute kidney injury (AKI), often limits its clinical application. Although many studies have attempted to target the mechanism responsible for its nephrotoxicity, no such method has been demonstrated to be effective in clinical trials. Recently, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor has been reported to have a renoprotective effect in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced AKI. Therefore, we will evaluate whether a DPP4 inhibitor protects the kidney from cisplatin-induced injury in humans.This is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 182 participants who are scheduled for cisplatin treatment will be enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either a DPP4 inhibitor (gemigliptin) or a placebo. Participants will take the study drugs for 8 days starting 1 day before cisplatin treatment. The primary outcome of interest is the incidence of AKI at 7 days after finishing treatment with cisplatin. The secondary outcomes include changes in serum creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rates from baseline to 7 days after cisplatin treatment.This is the first clinical trial to investigate the effect of a DPP4 inhibitor on cisplatin-induced AKI.ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02250872, December 26, 2014.
Project description:Cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity is widely accepted as a model for acute kidney injury (AKI). Although cisplatin-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rodent has been reported, the role of phosphate in the cisplatin-induced CKD progression is not described. In this study, we gave a single peritoneal injection of CP followed by high (2%) phosphate diet for 20 weeks. High dose CP (20 mg/Kg) led to high mortality; whereas a lower dose (10 mg/Kg) resulted in a full spectrum of AKI with tubular necrosis, azotemia, and 0% mortality 7 days after CP injection. After consuming a high phosphate diet, mice developed CKD characterized by low creatinine clearance, interstitial fibrosis, hyperphosphatemia, high plasma PTH and FGF23, low plasma 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3 and αKlotho, and classic uremic cardiovasculopathy. The CP model was robust in demonstrating the effect of aging, sexual dimorphism, and dietary phosphate on AKI and also AKI-to-CKD progression. Finally, we used the CP-high phosphate model to examine previously validated methods of genetically manipulated high αKlotho and therapy using exogenous soluble αKlotho protein supplementation. In this CP CKD model, αKlotho mitigated CKD progression, improved mineral homeostasis, and ameliorated cardiovascular disease. Taken together, CP and high phosphate nephrotoxicity is a reproducible and technically very simple model for the study of AKI, AKI-to-CKD progression, extrarenal complications of CKD, and for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy.
Project description:Nephrotoxicity remains the dose-limiting side effect of cisplatin, an effective chemotherapeutic agent with applications across diverse tumor types. This study presents data on renal outcomes across multiple tumor types in 821 adults. We report on incidence of AKI, initial and long-term changes in eGFR after cisplatin, and relationships between cumulative dose, initial eGFR, age, sex, and long-term renal function.This was a retrospective study of adult patients treated with cisplatin from January 1, 2000 to September 21, 2011 who had survived ?5 years after initial dose. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was used to calculate eGFR. AKI was defined as an increase from the baseline creatinine of >25% within 30 days after the first cycle of cisplatin. Chi-squared tests were done to evaluate the relationships between categorical or ordinal variables; ANOVAs or t tests were used to evaluate continuous or categorical variables. Changes in eGFR over time were evaluated in a growth curve model.Mean follow-up was 6 years (25th and 75th percentiles, 4 and 9 years). AKI occurred in 31.5% of patients, with a median initial decline in eGFR of 10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (25th and 75th percentiles, -41.5 and -23.3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). At any time point after the first cycle of cisplatin, <3% of patients progressed to eGFR<29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and none were known to be on dialysis. Age was associated with a higher risk for AKI after cisplatin. Compared with age <25 years old, the odds ratios for AKI versus no AKI are 1.22 for >26-44 years old (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.60 to 2.4), 1.54 for >45-65 years old (95% CI, 0.78 to 3), and 2.96 for >66 years old (95% CI, 1.4 to 6.1). The lowest dose categories of cisplatin (?100 and 101-250 mg/m(2)) are associated with increases in eGFR (P=0.06 and P=0.02, respectively) compared with the highest dose category (>701 mg/m(2)).This is the largest study of adult patients with cancer who received cisplatin for treatment across multiple tumor types. Most patients experience small but permanent declines in eGFR, but none progressed to ESRD requiring hemodialysis.
Project description:Although previous research identified candidate genetic polymorphisms associated with cisplatin nephrotoxicity, varying outcome definitions potentially contributed to the variability in the effect size and direction of this relationship. We selected genetic variants that have been significantly associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in more than one published study (SLC22A2 rs316019; ERCC1 rs11615 and rs3212986; ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181) and performed a replication analysis to confirm associations between these genetic polymorphisms and cisplatin nephrotoxicity using various outcome definitions. We included 282 germ cell testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin from 2009-2014, aged >17 years recruited by the Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety. Nephrotoxicity was defined using four grading tools: (1) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.03 for acute kidney injury (AKI) or CTCAE-AKI; (2) adjusted cisplatin-induced AKI; (3) elevation of serum creatinine; and (4) reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Significant associations were only found when using the CTCAE v4.03 definition: genotype CA of the ERCC1 rs3212986 was associated with decreased risk of cisplatin nephrotoxicity (ORadj = 0.24; 95% CI:0.08-0.70; p = 0.009) compared to genotype CC. In contrast, addition of allele A at SLC22A2 rs316019 was associated with increased risk (ORadj = 4.41; 95% CI:1.96-9.88; p < 0.001) while genotype AC was associated with a higher risk of cisplatin nephrotoxicity (ORadj = 5.06; 95% CI:1.69-15.16; p = 0.004) compared to genotype CC. Our study showed that different case definitions led to variability in the genetic risk ascertainment of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Therefore, consensus on a set of clinically relevant outcome definitions that all such studies should follow is needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM:Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in large proportion of patients. The aim of this work is to clarify the effect of combination of sildenafil and gemfibrozil on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity either before or after cisplatin treatment and determination of nephrotoxicity predictors among the measured tissue markers. METHODS:Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups (G) GI control, GII received cisplatin, GIII received sildenafil and gemfibrozil before cisplatin, GIV received sildenafil and gemfibrozil after cisplatin. Creatinine and urea were measured and animals were sacrificed and kidney was taken for histopathology. The following tissue markers were measured, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, reduced glutathione, quantitative (real-time polymerase chain reaction) RT-PCR for gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ENOS) level. RESULTS:GII developed AKI demonstrated by significantly high urea and creatinine and severe diffuse (80-90%) tubular necrosis. TNF-? was highly and significantly elevated while the rest of tissue markers were significantly reduced in GI1 compared to other groups. GIV showed better results compared to GIII. There was a significant positive correlation between creatinine and TNF-? when combining GI and GII while there were significant negative correlation between creatinine and other tissue markers in same groups. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that HO-1 was the independent predictor of AKI demonstrated by elevated creatinine among GI and GII. CONCLUSIONS:Combination of sildenafil and gemfibrozil can be used in treatment of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. HO-1 is a promising target for prevention and/or treatment of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
Project description:LESSONS LEARNED:Using a randomized crossover design and continuous variables such as change in hearing threshold and biomarkers of acute renal injury as short-term endpoints, it was determined that pantoprazole, an organic cation transporter 2 inhibitor, did not ameliorate cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity.Cystatin C is a robust method to estimate glomerular filtration rate in patients with cancer. Using a patient-reported outcome survey, all patients identified tinnitus and subjective hearing loss occurring "at least rarely" after cycle 1, prior to objective high-frequency hearing loss measured by audiograms.New therapies that improve outcome with less acute and long-term toxicity are needed. BACKGROUND:Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), which is a cisplatin uptake transporter expressed on renal tubules and cochlear hair cells but not on osteosarcoma cells, mediates cisplatin uptake. Pantoprazole inhibits OCT2 and could ameliorate cisplatin ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Using a randomized crossover design, we evaluated audiograms, urinary acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from cystatin C (GFRcysC) in patients receiving cisplatin with and without pantoprazole. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cisplatin (60 mg/m2 × 2 days per cycle) was administered concurrently with pantoprazole (intravenous [IV], 1.6 mg/kg over 4 hours) on cycles 1 and 2 or cycles 3 and 4 in 12 patients with osteosarcoma (OS) with a median (range) age of 12.8 (5.6-19) years. Audiograms, urinary AKI biomarkers, and serum cystatin C were monitored during each cycle. RESULTS:Pantoprazole had no impact on decrements in hearing threshold at 4-8 kHz, post-treatment elevation of urinary AKI biomarkers, or GFRcysC (Fig. 1, Table 1). Histological response (percent necrosis) after two cycles was similar with or without pantoprazole. All eight patients with localized OS at diagnosis are alive and in remission; three of four patients with metastases at diagnosis have died. CONCLUSION:Pantoprazole did not ameliorate cisplatin ototoxicity or nephrotoxicity. The decrease in GFRcysC and increase in N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase (NAG) and creatinine demonstrate that these biomarkers can quantify cisplatin glomerular and proximal tubular toxicity. OCT2 inhibition by pantoprazole did not appear to alter antitumor response or survival.
Project description:Background:Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug whose nephrotoxic effect is a major complication and a dose-limiting factor for antitumoral therapy. There is much evidence that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We found that cilastatin, a renal dehydropeptidase-I inhibitor, has protective effects in vitro and in vivo against cisplatin-induced renal damage by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidation. Here, we investigated the potential use of cilastatin to protect against cisplatin-induced kidney injury and inflammation in rats. Methods:Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, cilastatin-control, cisplatin and cilastatin-cisplatin. Nephrotoxicity was assessed 5 days after administration of cisplatin based on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and renal morphology. Inflammation was measured using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, immunohistochemical studies and evaluation of inflammatory mediators. Results:Compared with the control rats, cisplatin-administered rats were affected by significant proximal tubule damage, decreased GFR, increased production of inflammatory mediators and elevations in urea, creatinine and tissue KIM-1 levels. Cilastatin prevented these changes in renal function and ameliorated histological damage in cisplatin-administered animals. Cilastatin also reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, activation of nuclear factor-?B and CD68-positive cell concentrations. Conclusions:Cilastatin reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which is associated with decreased inflammation in vivo. Although the exact role of decreased inflammation in nephroprotection has not been fully elucidated, treatment with cilastatin could be a novel strategy for the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.
Project description:To compare the prevalence of nephrotoxicity between patients with a solitary-functioning kidney versus those with bilateral-functioning kidneys during the administration of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma.We retrospectively analyzed 244 advanced urothelial carcinoma patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy between 2004 and 2010 at 17 institutes in Japan. The 24 h creatinine clearance, Cockcroft-Gault formula, and estimated glomerular filtration rate equation (eGFR), were compared before all chemotherapies. The urinary tract function status was determined based on the data of nephroureterectomy, hydronephrosis, and relief of upper urinary tract obstruction. A total of 244 patients were divided into four groups according to their urinary tract functioning status and eGFR results, including bilateral-functioning kidneys with pretreatment eGFR ?60 mL/min/1.73 m2 group (n?=?83, 34.0%); a solitary-functioning kidney with pretreatment eGFR ?60 mL/min/1.73 m2 group (n?=?36, 14.8%); bilateral-functioning kidneys with pretreatment eGFR <?60 mL/min/1.73 m2 group (n?=?45, 18.4%); and a solitary-functioning kidney with pretreatment eGFR <?60 mL/min/1.73 m2 group (n?=?80, 32.8%).The prevalence of nephrotoxicity with impaired eGFR of >?10% and 30% from baseline in the post-third-course of chemotherapy was significantly higher in patients with bilateral-functioning kidneys than in those with a solitary-functioning kidney, among patients with pretreatment eGFR <?60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p?=?0.023 and p?=?0.026). During all courses of chemotherapy, the prevalence of nephrotoxicity with impaired eGFR of >?20% from baseline were significantly higher in patients with bilateral-functioning kidneys than those with a solitary-functioning kidney among patients with pretreatment eGFR <?60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p?=?0.034), whereas no significant difference was observed among patients with pretreatment eGFR ?60 mL/min/1.73 m2.The results suggest that cisplatin-based chemotherapy may have more nephrotoxicity in patients with bilateral-functioning kidneys than in those with a solitary-functioning kidney.
Project description:Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect associated with the use of cisplatin in the treatment of solid tumors. The degree of nephrotoxicity is dictated by the selective accumulation of cisplatin in renal tubule cells due to: (1) uptake by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and copper transporter 1 (CTR1); (2) metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1); and (3) efflux by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1). The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms that regulate the expression and function of transporters and metabolism genes implicated in development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cisplatin treated patients. Changes in the kidney function were assessed using novel urinary protein biomarkers and traditional markers. Genotyping was conducted by the QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System using a custom open array chip with metabolism, transport, and transcription factor polymorphisms of interest to cisplatin disposition and toxicity. Traditional and novel biomarker assays for kidney toxicity were assessed for differences according to genotype by ANOVA. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined based on Caucasian population frequencies. The polymorphisms rs596881 (SLC22A2/OCT2), and rs12686377 and rs7851395 (SLC31A1/CTR1) were associated with renoprotection and maintenance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Polymorphisms in SLC22A2/OCT2, SLC31A1/CTRI, SLC47A1/MATE1, ABCC2/MRP2, and GSTP1 were significantly associated with increases in the urinary excretion of novel AKI biomarkers: KIM-1, TFF3, MCP1, NGAL, clusterin, cystatin C, and calbindin. Knowledge concerning which genotypes in drug transporters are associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity may help to identify at-risk patients and initiate strategies, such as using lower or fractionated cisplatin doses or avoiding cisplatin altogether, in order to prevent AKI.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in cancer patients. Kidney function is closely related to patients' quality of life and tumor prognosis. Cisplatin is a highly effective anti-tumor drug. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its nephrotoxicity. It has been reported that FGF21 has a renal-protective function, but the mechanisms by which it does so remain unclear. In this study, we show that the expression of FGF21 is significantly upregulated in both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> cisplatin-induced AKI models. Administration of recombinant FGF21 to cisplatin-induced AKI mice resulted in significantly decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels, as well as significantly reduced protein levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (TIM-1), C-caspase 3, and Bax. H&E-stained kidney sections from cisplatin-induced AKI mice treated with recombinant FGF21 showed a relatively normal renal tissue structure, a reduced number of necrotic sites and vacuolar changes, and decreased casts, suggesting alleviated renal tubular injury. Experiments with an AKI cell model (cisplatin-treated HK-2 cells) yielded similar results as the mouse model; recombinant FGF21 significantly downregulated protein expression levels of TIM-1, C-caspase 3, and Bax. Furthermore, administration of recombinant FGF21 to cisplatin-treated AKI models significantly increased SIRT1 expression, and the beneficial effects of FGF21 on kidney injury were reversed by <i>SIRT1</i> knockdown. Collectively, our results suggest that SIRT1 mediates the protective effect of FGF21 on cisplatin-induced kidney injury.