Molecular basis of resistance to macrolides and other antibiotics in commensal viridans group streptococci and Gemella spp. and transfer of resistance genes to Streptococcus pneumoniae.
ABSTRACT: We assessed the mechanisms of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) antibiotics and related antibiotics in erythromycin-resistant viridans group streptococci (n = 164) and Gemella spp. (n = 28). The macrolide resistance phenotype was predominant (59.38%); all isolates with this phenotype carried the mef(A) or mef(E) gene, with mef(E) being predominant (95.36%). The erm(B) gene was always detected in strains with constitutive and inducible MLS(B) resistance and was combined with the mef(A/E) gene in 47.44% of isolates. None of the isolates carried the erm(A) subclass erm(TR), erm(A), or erm(C) genes. The mel gene was detected in all but four strains carrying the mef(A/E) gene. The tet(M) gene was found in 86.90% of tetracycline-resistant isolates and was strongly associated with the presence of the erm(B) gene. The cat(pC194) gene was detected in seven chloramphenicol-resistant Streptococcus mitis isolates, and the aph(3')-III gene was detected in four viridans group streptococcal isolates with high-level kanamycin resistance. The intTn gene was found in all isolates with the erm(B), tet(M), aph(3')-III, and cat(pC194) gene. The mef(E) and mel genes were successfully transferred from both groups of bacteria to Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 by transformation. Viridans group streptococci and Gemella spp. seem to be important reservoirs of resistance genes.
Project description:The epidemiologic relatedness of 29 erythromycin-resistant Gemella sp. strains from normal flora, characterized previously, were evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Three isolates carried the tet(O) gene and the tet(M) gene. The msr(A) gene was found in two Gemella morbillorum strains in combination with the erm(B) or mef(E) gene. The sequences of the mef(A/E), erm(B), and msr(A) genes showed a high similarity to the corresponding sequences of other gram-positive cocci. All the strains harboring the mef(A/E) gene and the msr(D) gene possessed open reading frame 3 (ORF3)/ORF6. The 16 G. morbillorum isolates represented 15 distinct DNA profiles. Four clusters were identified (>or=80% genetic relatedness). The 12 Gemella haemolysans strains belonged to different PFGE types. The clonal diversity found suggests that horizontal transfer may be the main route through which erythromycin resistance is acquired.
Project description:Erythromycin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood cultures and noninvasive sites were studied over a 3-year period. The prevalence of erythromycin resistance was 11.9% (19 of 160) in blood culture isolates but 4.2% (60 of 1,435) in noninvasive-site isolates. Sixty-two of the 79 resistant isolates were available for study. The M phenotype was responsible for 76% (47 of 62) of resistance, largely due to a serotype 14 clone, characterized by multilocus sequence typing as ST9, which accounted for 79% (37 of 47) of M phenotype resistance. The ST9 clone was 4.8 times more common in blood than in noninvasive sites. All M phenotype isolates were PCR positive for mef(A), but sequencing revealed that the ST9 clone possessed the mef(A) sequence commonly associated with Streptococcus pyogenes. All M phenotype isolates with this mef(A) sequence also had sequences consistent with the presence of the Tn1207.1 genetic element inserted in the celB gene. In contrast, isolates with the mef(E) sequence normally associated with S. pneumoniae contained sequences consistent with the presence of the mega insertion element. All MLS(B) isolates carried erm(B), and two isolates carried both erm(B) and mef(E). Fourteen of the 15 MLS(B) isolates were tetracycline resistant and contained tet(M). However, six M phenotype isolates of serotypes 19 (two isolates) and 23 (four isolates) were also tetracycline resistant and contained tet(M). MICs for isolates with the mef(A) sequence were significantly higher than MICs for isolates with the mef(E) sequence (P < 0.001). Thus, the ST9 clone of S. pneumoniae is a significant cause of invasive pneumococcal disease in northeast Scotland and is the single most important contributor to M phenotype erythromycin resistance.
Project description:Characterization of 227 Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs during 2010 to 2013 showed high levels of resistance to clindamycin (95.6%), tilmicosin (94.7%), tylosin (93.8%), oxytetracycline (89.4%), chlortetracycline (86.8%), tiamulin (72.7%), neomycin (70.0%), enrofloxacin (56.4%), penicillin (56.4%), ceftiofur (55.9%), and gentamicin (55.1%). Resistance to tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolone was attributed to the tet gene, erm(B), erm(C), mph(C), and mef(A) and/or mef(E) genes, aph(3')-IIIa and aac(6')-Ie-aph(2?)-Ia genes, and single point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of ParC and GyrA, respectively.
Project description:Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has emerged as an important clinical problem worldwide over the past decade. The aim of this study was to analyze the phenotypes (serotype and antibiotic susceptibility), genotypes (multilocus sequence type [MLST] and antibiotic resistance gene/transposon profiles) among the 31% (102/328) of invasive isolates from children in New South Wales, Australia, in 2005 that were resistant to erythromycin. Three serotypes--19F (47 isolates [46%]), 14 (27 isolates [26%]), and 6B (12 isolates [12%])--accounted for 86 (84%) of these 102 isolates. Seventy four (73%) isolates had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) resistance phenotype and carried Tn916 transposons (most commonly Tn6002); of these, 73 (99%) contained the erythromycin ribosomal methylase gene [erm(B)], 34 (47%) also carried the macrolide efflux gene [mef(E)], and 41 (55%) belonged to serotype 19F. Of 28 (27%) isolates with the M phenotype, 22 (79%) carried mef(A), including 16 (57%) belonging to serotype 14, and only six (19%) carried Tn916 transposons. Most (84%) isolates which contained mef also contained one of the msr(A) homologues, mel or msr(D); 38 of 40 (95%) isolates with mef(E) (on mega) carried mel, and of 28 (39%) isolates with mef(A), 10 (39%) carried mel and another 11(39%) carried msr(D), on Tn1207.1. Two predominant macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae clonal clusters (CCs) were identified in this population. CC-271 contained 44% of isolates, most of which belonged to serotype 19F, had the MLS(B) phenotype, were multidrug resistant, and carried transposons of the Tn916 family; CC-15 contained 23% of isolates, most of which were serotype 14, had the M phenotype, and carried mef(A) on Tn1207.1. Erythromycin resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in New South Wales is mainly due to the dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae strains or horizontal spread of the Tn916 family of transposons.
Project description:The diversity of clinical (n = 92) and oral and digestive commensal (n = 120) isolates of Streptococcus salivarius was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). No clustering of clinical or commensal strains can be observed in the phylogenetic tree. Selected strains (92 clinical and 46 commensal strains) were then examined for their susceptibilities to tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides, aminoglycosides, and phenicol antibiotics. The presence of resistance genes tet(M), tet(O), erm(A), erm(B), mef(A/E), and catQ and associated genetic elements was investigated by PCR, as was the genetic linkage of resistance genes. High rates of erythromycin and tetracycline resistance were observed among the strains. Clinical strains displayed either the erm(B) (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B [MLSB] phenotype) or mef(A/E) (M phenotype) resistance determinant, whereas almost all the commensal strains harbored the mef(A/E) resistance gene, carried by a macrolide efflux genetic assembly (MEGA) element. A genetic linkage between a macrolide resistance gene and genes of Tn916 was detected in 23 clinical strains and 5 commensal strains, with a predominance of Tn3872 elements (n = 13), followed by Tn6002 (n = 11) and Tn2009 (n = 4) elements. Four strains harboring a mef(A/E) gene were also resistant to chloramphenicol and carried a catQ gene. Sequencing of the genome of one of these strains revealed that these genes colocalized on an IQ-like element, as already described for other viridans group streptococci. ICESt3-related elements were also detected in half of the isolates. This work highlights the potential role of S. salivarius in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes both in the oral sphere and in the gut.
Project description:The macrolide resistance determinants and genetic elements carrying the mef(A) and mef(E) subclasses of the mef gene were studied with Streptococcus agalactiae isolated in 2003 and 2004 from 7,084 vaginorectal cultures performed to detect carrier pregnant women. The prevalence of carriage was 18% (1,276 isolates), and that of erythromycin resistance 11.0% (129 of the 1,171 isolates studied). erm(B), erm(A) subclass erm(TR), and the mef gene, either subclass mef(A) or mef(E), were found in 72 (55.8%), 41 (31.8%), and 12 (9.3%) erythromycin-resistant isolates, while 4 isolates had more than 1 erythromycin resistance gene. Of the 13 M-phenotype mef-containing erythromycin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates, 11 had the mef(E) subclass gene alone, one had both the mef(E) and the erm(TR) subclass genes, and one had the mef(A) subclass gene. mef(E) subclass genes were associated with the carrying element mega in 10 of the 12 mef(E)-containing strains, while the single mef(A) subclass gene found was associated with the genetic element Tn1207.3. The nonconjugative nature of the mega element and the clonal diversity of mef(E)-containing strains determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggest that transformation is the main mechanism through which this resistance gene is acquired.
Project description:Pneumococcal macrolide resistance is usually expressed as one of two phenotypes: the M phenotype conferred by the mef gene or the MLSB phenotype caused by modification of ribosomal targets, most commonly mediated by an erm methylase. Target-site modification leading to antibiotic resistance can also occur due to sequence mutations within the 23S rRNA or the L4 and L22 riboproteins. We screened 4,535 invasive isolates resistant to erythromycin and 18 invasive isolates nonsusceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D) to deduce the potential mechanisms involved. Of 4,535 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 66.2% were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for mef alone, 17.8% for ermB alone, and 15.1% for both mef and ermB. Thirty-seven isolates (0.9%) were PCR negative for both determinants. Of these, 3 were positive for ermA (subclass ermTR) and 25 had chromosomal mutations. No chromosomal mutations (in 23S rRNA, rplD, or rplV) nor any of the macrolides/lincosamides/streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes screened for (ermT, ermA, cfr, lsaC, and vgaA) were found in the remaining nine isolates. Of 18 Q-D nonsusceptible isolates, 14 had chromosomal mutations and one carried both mef and ermB; no chromosomal mutations or other resistance genes were found in 3 isolates. Overall, we found 28 mutations, 13 of which have not been previously described in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The role of these mutations remains to be confirmed by transformation assays.
Project description:Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS) resistance genes are responsible for resistance to these antibiotics in <i>Staphylococcus</i> infections. The purpose of the study was to analyze the distribution of the MLS resistance genes in community- and hospital-acquired <i>Staphylococcus</i> isolates. The MLS resistance phenotypes [constitutive resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSb), inducible resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSb), resistance to macrolide/macrolide-streptogramin B (M/MSb), and resistance to lincosamide-streptogramin A/streptogramin B (LSa/b)] were determined by double-disc diffusion method. The presence of the MLS resistance genes (<i>erm</i>A, <i>erm</i>B, <i>erm</i>C, <i>msr</i>A/B, <i>lnu</i>A, <i>lnu</i>B, and <i>lsa</i>A) were determined by end-point polymerase chain reaction in 179 isolates of staphylococci collected during 1-year period at the Center for Microbiology of Public Health Institute in Vranje. The most frequent MLS phenotype among staphylococcal isolates, both community-acquired and hospital-acquired, was iMLSb (33.4%). The second most frequent was M/MSb (17.6%) with statistically significantly higher number of hospital-acquired staphylococcal isolates (<i>p</i>?<?0.05). MLS resistance was mostly determined by the presence of <i>msr</i>A/B (35.0%) and <i>erm</i>C (20.8%) genes. Examined phenotypes were mostly determined by the presence of one gene, especially by <i>msr</i>A/B (26.3%) and <i>erm</i>C (14.5%), but 15.6% was determined by a combination of two or more genes. M/MSb phenotype was the most frequently encoded by <i>msr</i>A/B (95.6%) gene, LSa/b phenotype by <i>lnu</i>A (56.3%) gene, and iMLSb phenotype by <i>erm</i>C (29.4%) and <i>erm</i>A (25.5%) genes. Although cMLSb phenotype was mostly determined by the presence of <i>erm</i>C (28.9%), combinations of two or more genes have been present too. This pattern was particularly recorded in methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) (58.3%) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) (90.9%) isolates with cMLSB phenotype. The <i>msr</i>A/B gene and M/MSb phenotype were statistically significantly higher in hospital-acquired than community-acquired staphylococci strains (<i>p</i>?<?0.05). There are no statistically significant differences between staphylococci harboring the rest of MLS resistance genes acquired in community and hospital settings (<i>p</i>?>?0.05). The prevalence of iMLSb phenotypes may change over time, so it is necessary to perform periodic survey of MLS resistance phenotypes, particularly where the D-test is not performed routinely.
Project description:Among 76 macrolide-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected between 2003 and 2005 from Central Russia, the resistance mechanisms detected in the isolates included erm(B) alone (50%), mef alone [mef(E), mef(I), or a different mef subclass; 19.7%], or both erm(B) and mef(E) (30.3%). Isolates with dual resistance genes [erm(B) and mef(E)] belonged to clonal complex CC81 or CC271.
Project description:Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal sepsis. Penicillin is recommended for intrapartum prophylaxis, but erythromycin or clindamycin is used for penicillin-allergic carriers. Antibiotic resistance (AR) has increased recently and needs to be monitored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) hybridization assay to detect, simultaneously, seven genes encoding AR--erm(A/TR), erm(B), mef(A/E), tet(M), tet(O), aphA-3, and aad-6--and two AR-related genes, int-Tn and mreA. We tested 512 GBS isolates from Asia and Australasia and compared mPCR/RLB with antibiotic susceptibility phenotype or single-gene PCR. Phenotypic resistance to tetracycline was identified in 450 (88%) isolates, of which 442 had tet(M) (93%) and/or tet(O) (6%). Of 67 (13%) erythromycin-resistant isolates, 18 were susceptible to clindamycin, i.e., had the M phenotype, encoded by mef(A/E); 39 had constitutive (cMLS(B)) and 10 inducible clindamycin resistance, and of these, 34 contained erm(B) and 12 erm(A/TR). Of four additional isolates with mef(A/E), three contained erm(B) with cMLS(B) and one was erythromycin susceptible. Of 61 (12%) clindamycin-resistant isolates, 20 were susceptible to erythromycin and two had intermediate resistance. Based on sequencing, 21 of 22 isolates with mef had mef(E), and 8 of 353 with int-Tn had an atypical sequence. Several AR genes, erm(B), tet(O), aphA-3, aad-6, and mef(A/E), were significantly more common among Asian than Australasian isolates, and there were significant differences in distribution of AR genes between GBS serotypes. Our mPCR/RLB assay is simple, rapid, and suitable for surveillance of antibiotic resistance in GBS.