Characterization of Arginase Expression in Glioma-Associated Microglia and Macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Microglia (MG) and macrophages (MPs) represent a significant component of the inflammatory response to gliomas. When activated, MG/MP release a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines, however, they also secrete anti-inflammatory factors that limit their cytotoxic function. The balance between pro and anti-inflammatory functions dictates their antitumor activity. To evaluate potential variations in MG and MP function in gliomas, we isolated these cells (and other Gr1+ cells) from intracranial GL261 murine gliomas by FACS and evaluated their gene expression profiles by microarray analysis. As expected, arginase 1 (Arg1, M2 marker) was highly expressed by tumor-associated Gr1+, MG and MP. However, in contrast to MP and Gr1+ cells that expressed Arg1 shortly after tumor trafficking, Arg1 expression in MG was delayed and occurred in larger tumors. Interestingly, depletion of MPs in tumors did not prevent MG polarization, suggesting direct influence of tumor-specific factors on MG Arg1 upregulation. Finally, Arg1 expression was confirmed in human GBM samples, but most Arg1+ cells were neutrophils and not MPs. These findings confirm variations in tumor MG and MP polarization states and its dependency on tumor microenvironmental factors.
Project description:Microglia (MG) and macrophages (MPs) represent a significant component of the inflammatory response to gliomas. When activated, MG/MP release a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines, however, they also secrete anti-inflammatory factors that limit their cytotoxic function. The balance between pro and anti-inflammatory functions dictates their antitumor activity. To evaluate potential variations in MG and MP function in gliomas, we isolated these cells (and other Gr1+ cells) from intracranial GL261 murine gliomas by FACS and evaluated their gene expression profiles by microarray analysis. As expected, arginase 1 (Arg1, M2 marker) was highly expressed by tumor-associated Gr1+, MG and MP. However, in contrast to MP and Gr1+ cells that expressed Arg1 shortly after tumor trafficking, Arg1 expression in MG was delayed and occurred in larger tumors. Interestingly, depletion of MPs in tumors did not prevent MG polarization, suggesting direct influence of tumor-specific factors on MG Arg1 upregulation. Finally, Arg1 expression was confirmed in human GBM samples, but most Arg1+ cells were neutrophils and not MPs. These findings confirm variations in tumor MG and MP polarization states and its dependency on tumor microenvironmental factors. Overall design: The Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0-ST array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) was used to define gene expression profiles from the samples. Synthesis and labelling of cDNA targets, hybridization and scanning of GeneChips were carried out by the Microarray Core Facility at the City of Hope. Due to the limited starting material, we used a modified two-cycle amplification protocol. Briefly, cRNA was generated using 10ng total RNA according to the manufacturer's protocol by using Affymetrix's GeneChip Whole Transcript Sense Target Labeling Assay in the first cycle of amplification. The cRNA was subjected to RiboMinus kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) to remove rRNA. The resulted cRNA was used as the template for another round of amplification using the sense target labeling assay kit. Hybridization cocktails containing 5.5 g of fragmented, end-labeled cDNA were prepared and applied to GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays. Hybridization was performed for 16 hours, and the arrays were washed and stained with the GeneChip Fluidics Station 450 using FS450_0007 script. Arrays were scanned at 5-m resolution using the Affymetrix GCS 3000 7G and GeneChip Operating Software v. 1.4 to produce .CEL intensity files.
Project description:Myofiber necrosis and fibrosis are hallmarks of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), leading to lethal weakness of the diaphragm. Macrophages (MPs) are required for successful muscle regeneration, but the role of inflammatory monocyte (MO)-derived MPs in either promoting or mitigating DMD is unclear. We show that DMD (mdx) mouse diaphragms exhibit greatly increased expression of CCR2 and its chemokine ligands, along with inflammatory (Ly6C(high)) MO recruitment and accumulation of CD11b(high) MO-derived MPs. Loss-of-function of CCR2 preferentially reduced this CD11b(high) MP population by impeding the release of Ly6C(high) MOs from the bone marrow but not the splenic reservoir. CCR2 deficiency also helped restore the MP polarization balance by preventing excessive skewing of MPs toward a proinflammatory phenotype. These effects were linked to amelioration of histopathological features and increased muscle strength in the diaphragm. Chronic inhibition of CCR2 signaling by mutated CCL2 secreted from implanted mesenchymal stem cells resulted in similar improvements. These data uncover a previously unrecognized role of inflammatory MOs in DMD pathogenesis and indicate that CCR2 inhibition could offer a novel strategy for DMD management.
Project description:Gliomas are highly aggressive and accompanied by numerous microglia/macrophages (MG/MP) in and about the tumor. Little is known about what MG/MP do in this setting, or whether modulating MG/MP activation might affect glioma progression. Here, we used a glioma-microglia in culture system to establish the effects the tumor and microglia have on each other. We assessed glioma progression in vivo after MG/MP ablation or in the setting of exaggerated MG/MP activation. We show that glioma cells activate microglia but inhibit their phagocytic activities. Local ablation of MG/MP in vivo decreased tumor size and improved survival curves. Conversely, pharmacological activation of MG/MP increased glioma size through stimulating tumor proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. In agreement with recent reports, expression of the chemokine CCL21 is enhanced after MG/MP activation and correlates with tumor growth. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inhibition of MG/MP activation may constitute a new and effective contribution towards suppressing glioma proliferation.
Project description:Inflammatory cells are major players in the onset of cancer. The degree of inflammation and type of inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) are responsible for tilting the balance between tumor progression and regression. Cancer-related inflammation has also been shown to influence the efficacy of conventional therapy. Mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) represent a major component of the inflammatory circuit that promotes tumor progression. Despite their potential to activate immunosurveillance and exert anti-tumor responses, MPs are subverted by the tumor to support its growth, immune evasion, and spread. MP responses in the TME are dictated by a network of stimuli integrated through the cross-talk between activatory and inhibitory receptors. Alterations in receptor expression/signaling can create excessive inflammation and, when chronic, promote tumorigenesis. Research advances have led to the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed at receptor targeting to induce a tumor-infiltrating MP switch from a cancer-supportive toward an anti-tumor phenotype, demonstrating efficacy in different human cancers. This review provides an overview of the role of MP receptors in inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis and discusses the most recent updates regarding their targeting for immunotherapeutic purposes. We focus in particular on the TREM-1 receptor, a major amplifier of MP inflammatory responses, highlighting its relevance in the development and progression of several types of inflammation-associated malignancies and the promises of its inhibition for cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:The interaction between alveolar epithelial cells (EpCs) and macrophages (MPs) serves an important role in initiating and maintaining inflammation in chronic pulmonary diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the inflammatory response in co-cultured EpCs and MPs. Briefly, a co-culture system of A549 (EpCs) and THP-1 (monocyte/MPs) cells was established in a filter-separated Transwell plate to evaluate the inflammatory response. Following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, cytokine levels were measured using ELISAs, NF-?B transcription factor activity was detected using EMSA and protein expression levels were analyzed using Western blot assays subsequently in EpCs and MPs. Co-cultured EpCs/MPs were found to secrete increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? following LPS exposure for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h compared with either EpC or MP monocultures. Concurrently, NF-?B was revealed to be activated in MPs at 6 and 12 h, and in EpCs at 24 h. NF-?B DNA binding, Toll-like receptor 4 expression levels and the p65 phosphorylation status were also increased, which may contribute to the inflammatory response in the EpC/MP co-cultures. Notably, cytokine levels decreased following the inhibition of NF-?B expression with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. In conclusion, the present study successfully established an EpC/MP co-culture system using LPS, which may be a useful model for studying chronic inflammation in vitro.
Project description:Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin are promising materials for growth factor delivery due to their ability to efficiently bind positively charged growth factors including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) through their negatively charged sulfate groups. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine BMP-2 release from heparin-based microparticles (MPs) after first, incorporating a hydrolytically degradable crosslinker and varying heparin content within MPs to alter MP degradation and second, altering the sulfation pattern of heparin within MPs to vary BMP-2 binding and release. Using varied MP formulations, it was found that the time course of MP degradation for 1 wt% heparin MPs was ~4 days slower than 10 wt% heparin MPs, indicating that MP degradation was dependent on heparin content. After incubating 100 ng BMP-2 with 0.1 mg MPs, most MP formulations loaded BMP-2 with ~50% efficiency and significantly more BMP-2 release (60% of loaded BMP-2) was observed from more sulfated heparin MPs (MPs with ~100% and 80% of native sulfation). Similarly, BMP-2 bioactivity in more sulfated heparin MP groups was at least four-fold higher than soluble BMP-2 and less sulfated heparin MP groups, as determined by an established C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay. Ultimately, the two most sulfated 10 wt% heparin MP formulations were able to efficiently load and release BMP-2 while enhancing BMP-2 bioactivity, making them promising candidates for future growth factor delivery applications.
Project description:An important goal for improving vaccine and immunotherapy technologies is the ability to provide further control over the specific phenotypes of T cells arising from these agents. Along these lines, frequent administration of rapamycin (Rapa), a small molecule inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), exhibits a striking ability to polarize T cells toward central memory phenotypes (TCM), or to suppress immune function, depending on the concentrations and other signals present during administration. TCM exhibit greater plasticity and proliferative capacity than effector memory T cells (TEFF) and, therefore, polarizing vaccine-induced T cells toward TCM is an intriguing strategy to enhance T cell expansion and function against pathogens or tumors. Here we combined biodegradable microparticles encapsulating Rapa (Rapa MPs) with vaccines composed of soluble peptide antigens and molecular adjuvants to test if this approach allows polarization of differentiating T cells toward TCM. We show Rapa MPs modulate DC function, enhancing secretion of inflammatory cytokines at very low doses, and suppressing function at high doses. While Rapa MP treatment reduced - but did not stop - T cell proliferation in both CD4+ and CD8+ transgenic T cell co-cultures, the expanding CD8+ T cells differentiated to higher frequencies of TCM at low doses of MP Rapa MPs. Lastly, we show in mice that local delivery of Rapa MPs to lymph nodes during vaccination either suppresses or enhances T cell function in response to melanoma antigens, depending on the dose of drug in the depots. In particular, at low Rapa MP doses, vaccines increased antigen-specific TCM, resulting in enhanced T cell expansion measured during subsequent booster injections over at least 100days.
Project description:Aggressive neurosurgical resection to achieve sustained local control is essential for prolonging survival in patients with lower-grade glioma. However, progression in many of these patients is characterized by local regrowth. Most lower-grade gliomas harbor isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or IDH2 mutations, which sensitize to metabolism-altering agents. To improve local control of IDH mutant gliomas while avoiding systemic toxicity associated with metabolic therapies, we developed a precision intraoperative treatment that couples a rapid multiplexed genotyping tool with a sustained release microparticle (MP) drug delivery system containing an IDH-directed nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibitor (GMX-1778). We validated our genetic diagnostic tool on clinically annotated tumor specimens. GMX-1778 MPs showed mutant IDH genotype-specific toxicity in vitro and in vivo, inducing regression of orthotopic IDH mutant glioma murine models. Our strategy enables immediate intraoperative genotyping and local application of a genotype-specific treatment in surgical scenarios where local tumor control is paramount and systemic toxicity is therapeutically limiting.
Project description:The risk of thrombotic complications such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) during tumor development is well known. Tumors release into the circulation procoagulant microparticles (MPs) that can participate in thrombus formation following vessel injury. The importance of this MP tissue factor (TF) in the initiation of cancer-associated DVT remains uncertain.To investigate how pancreatic cancer MPs promote DVT in vivo.We combined a DVT mouse model in which thrombosis is induced by flow restriction in the inferior vena cava with one of subcutaneous pancreatic cancer in C57BL/6J mice. We infused high-TF and low-TF tumor MPs to determine the importance of TF in experimental cancer-associated DVT.Both tumor-bearing mice and mice infused with tumor MPs subjected to 3 h of partial flow restriction developed an occlusive thrombus; fewer than one-third of the control mice did. We observed that MPs adhered to neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are functionally important players during DVT, whereas neither P-selectin nor glycoprotein Ib were required for MP recruitment in DVT. The thrombotic phenotype induced by MP infusion was suppressed by hirudin, suggesting the importance of thrombin generation. TF carried by tumor MPs was essential to promote DVT, as mice infused with low-TF tumor MPs had less thrombosis than mice infused with high-TF tumor MPs.TF expressed on tumor MPs contributes to the increased incidence of cancer-associated venous thrombosis in mice in vivo. These MPs may adhere to NETs formed at the site of thrombosis.