Impact of Reclassification on Thyroid Nodules with Architectural Atypia: From Non-Invasive Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), especially the encapsulated non-invasive subtype, is a controversial entity. Recent study suggested using 'non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)' for these indolent carcinomas. We evaluated the impact of reclassification from non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (EFVPTCs) to NIFTPs in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia. METHODS:We reviewed 1301 thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens obtained from March 2012 to February 2013. Nodules were classified into atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (AUS-A, 984, 76%) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN, 317, 24%). Among them, diagnostic surgery was performed in 384 nodules (30%). RESULTS:In total, 160 nodules (42%) presented final malignant diagnoses including 39 non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (10%). The malignancy rate was estimated to be 7-35% in AUS-A nodules and 28-49% in FN/SFN nodules. After reclassification, the malignancy rate was much decreased and estimated to be 5-24% in AUS-A nodules, and 23-39% in FN/SFN nodules. Thyroid nodules with final malignant diagnoses were significantly more likely to have a FN/SFN CNB diagnosis, malignant US features and concomitant nuclear atypia in CNB specimens. However, these factors could not differentiate NIFTPs from other malignancies. CONCLUSIONS:After reclassification of non-invasive EFVPTCs to NIFTPs, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in CNB specimens was decreased. However, there were no preoperative factors differentiating other malignancies from NIFTPs. The presence of malignant US features or concomitant nuclear atypia might help clinicians deciding diagnostic surgery but, these features also might indicate NIFTPs.
Project description:The aim was to compare the usefulness of selected thyroid sonographic risk-stratification systems in the diagnostics of nodules with indeterminate/suspicious cytology or unequivocal cytology in a population with a history of iodine deficiency. The diagnostic efficacy of ACR-TIRADS (the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems), EU-TIRADS (European Thyroid Association TIRADS), Korean-TIRADS, Kwak-TIRADS, AACE/ACE-AME-guidelines (American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/ American College of Endocrinology-Associazione Medici Endocrinologi guidelines) and ATA-guidelines (American Thyroid Association guidelines) was evaluated in 1000 nodules with determined histopathological diagnosis: 329 FLUS/AUS (10.6% cancers), 167 SFN/SHT (11.6% cancers), 44 SM (77.3% cancers), 298 BL (benign lesions), 162 MN (malignant neoplasms). The percentage of PTC (papillary thyroid carcinoma) among cancers was higher in Bethesda MN (86.4%) and SM (suspicion of malignancy) nodules (91.2%) than in FLUS/AUS (57.1%, p < 0.005) and SFN/SHT (suspicion of follicular neoplasm/ suspicion of Hürthle cell tumor) nodules (36.8%, p < 0.001). TIRADS efficacy was higher for MN (AUC: 0.827-0.874) and SM nodules (AUC: 0.775-0.851) than for FLUS/AUS (AUC: 0.655-0.701) or SFN/SHT nodules (AUC: 0.593-0.621). FLUS/AUS (follicular lesion of undetermined significance/ atypia of undetermined significance) nodules assigned to a high risk TIRADS category had malignancy risk of 25%. In the SFN/SHT subgroup none TIRADS category changed nodule's malignancy risk. EU-TIRADS and AACE/ACE-AME-guidelines would allow diagnosing the highest number of PTC, FTC (follicular thyroid carcinoma), HTC (Hürthle cell carcinoma), MTC (medullary thyroid carcinoma). The highest OR value was for Kwak-TIRADS (12.6) and Korean-TIRADS (12.0). Conclusions: TIRADS efficacy depends on the incidence of PTC among cancers. All evaluated TIRADS facilitate the selection of FLUS/AUS nodules for the surgical treatment but these systems are not efficient in the management of SFN/SHT nodules.
Project description:Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a challenging category. The malignancy risk is different by multiple factors and subsequent management strategy is inconclusive. Therefore, we analyzed the malignancy risk of AUS/FLUS according to radiological and clinical features. A total of 687 nodules that had been initially diagnosed as AUS/FLUS were retrospectively reviewed from 6365 thyroid FNAs between 2011 and 2014. The ultrasonographic (US) features were categorized using the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System. Radiological and clinical features were compared according to the second FNA results or histologically confirmed results from surgery. Repeat FNA was performed on 248 (36%) nodules, and 49 (7%) nodules underwent immediate surgery. Among the 248 nodules subjected to repeated FNA, 49 (20%) nodules were diagnosed again as AUS/FLUS, 123 (50%) were found to be benign, and 47 (19%) were diagnosed as follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy or malignant. Among histologically confirmed nodules, the US features were more unfavorable in malignant nodules, and hypo- or anechogenicity was associated with a higher risk of malignancy after adjusting for age, size, and other US features (P < 0.01). In conclusion, we observed that malignant nodules tended to show unfavorable US features, especially hypo- or anechogenicity. Age, sex, and thyroid function were not significantly associated with malignancy risk. We also found out that malignancy risk was not different between the group which underwent immediate operation following the AUS/FLUS diagnosis and the group which underwent repeated FNA after the initial diagnosis.
Project description:Background Ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a standard procedure for thyroid nodules management and selecting patients for surgical treatment. Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), as stated by The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, is a diagnostic category with an implied malignancy risk of 5-15%. The aim of our study was to review cytology and histopathology reports, as well as clinical and ultrasound data, for thyroid nodules reported as AUS/FLUS, in order to evaluate the malignancy rate and to assess factors associated with malignant outcome. Patients and methods A total of 112 AUS/FLUS thyroid nodules in 105 patients were evaluated, of which 85 (75.9%) were referred to surgery, 21 (18.8%) were followed-up by repeat FNA and 6 nodules (5.3%) were clinically observed. Each was categorized in two final diagnostic groups - benign or malignant, which were further compared to clinical data of patients and ultrasonographic features of the nodules. Results Final diagnosis of malignancy was reached in 35 cases (31.2%) and 77 (68.8%) had benign lesions. The most frequent type of cancer was papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) - 58.1% PTC and 25.8% had follicular variant of PTC. Patients' younger age, smaller nodule size, hypoechoic nodule and presence of calcifications were shown to be statistically significant risk factors for malignancy. Conclusions The rate of malignancy for the AUS/FLUS diagnostic category in our study was higher than estimated by the Bethesda System. Clinical and ultrasound factors should be considered when decision for patient treatment is being made.
Project description:Since its inception, the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBS) has been widely adopted. Each category conveys a risk of malignancy and recommended next steps, though it is unclear if each category also predicts the type and extent of malignancy. If so, this would greatly expand the utility of the TBS by providing prognostic information in addition to baseline cancer risk.All patients prospectively enrolled into the authors' thyroid nodule database from 1995 to 2013 with histologically proven malignancy were analyzed. The primary ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (AUS, atypia of unknown significance; FN, follicular neoplasm; SUSP, suspicious; M, malignant) was correlated with the type of thyroid cancer and histological features known to impact prognosis and recurrence, including lymph node metastasis (LNM), lymphovascular invasion, and extrathyroidal extension (ETE). Primary cytology was separately correlated with higher risk malignancy.A total of 1291 malignancies were identified, with primary cytology AUS in 130 cases, FN in 241 cases, SUSP in 411 cases, and M in 509 cases. AUS, SUSP, and M cytology were progressively associated with an increasing risk of high-risk disease (p?<?0.001), LNM (p?<?0.001), ETE (p?<?0.001), and margin positivity (p?<?0.001). Notably, 71% of malignancies with AUS cytology were follicular variants of papillary thyroid cancer compared with 63% with SUSP cytology and only 20% with M cytology. In contrast, high-risk malignancies were diagnosed in only 4% with AUS cytology, but 9% and 27% with SUSP and M cytology, respectively. FN conveyed a significantly increased risk of follicular thyroid carcinoma compared with all other types (28% vs. 2%; p?<?0.001). A composite endpoint of recurrence, distant metastases, and death similarly increased as cytology progressed from AUS to SUSP to M (p?<?0.001).In addition to predicting cancer prevalence, the TBS also imparts important prognostic information about cancer type, variant, and risk of recurrence. These data extend the utility of TBS classification by fostering an improved understanding of the risk posed by any confirmed malignancy.
Project description:Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the most dependable tool to triage thyroid nodules for medical or surgical management. However, Bethesda class III cytology, namely "follicular lesion of undetermined significance" (FLUS) or "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS), is a major limitation of the US-FNA in assessing thyroid nodules. As the most important imaging method, ultrasound (US) has a high efficacy in diagnosing thyroid nodules. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the role of US in evaluating Bethesda class III thyroid nodules.With keywords "Undetermined Significance," "Bethesda Category III," "Bethesda system," "Cytological Subcategory," "AUS/FLUS," "Atypia of Undetermined Significance," and "Ultrasound/US," papers in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Google Scholar from inception to December 2016 were searched. A meta-analysis of these trials was then performed for evaluating the diagnostic value of thyroid ultrasound in Bethesda Category III thyroid nodules.Fourteen studies including 2405 nodules were analyzed. According to the criteria for US diagnosis of thyroid nodules in each article, with any one of suspicious features as indictors of malignancy, US had a pooled sensitivity of 0.75 (95% CI 0.72-0.78) and a pooled specificity of 0.48 (95% CI 0.45-0.50) in evaluating Bethesda Class III Nodules. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 10.92 (95% CI 6.04-19.74). The overall area under the curve was 0.84 and the Q* index was 0.77. With any 2 or 3 of US suspicious features as indictors of malignancy, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.77 (95% CI 0.71-0.83) and 0.54 (95% CI 0.51-0.58), 0.66 (95% CI 0.59-0.73) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.68-0.74), respectively.US was helpful for differentiating benign and malignant Bethesda class III thyroid nodules, with the more suspicious features, the more likely to be malignant.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Management recommendations for thyroid nodules rely primarily on the cytological diagnosis. However, 25% of biopsies render an indeterminate cytology for which management decision is more challenging due to heterogeneity of the specimens. This study aimed to stratify the cancer risk through subcategorization of indeterminate cytology. METHODS:The indeterminate cytological specimens (Bethesda-III or IV) of 518 thyroid nodules consecutively evaluated at our academic cancer center between October 2008 and September 2015, blinded to the histological outcome, were retrospectively reviewed. Cytological specimens were subclassified into four groups: aspirates exhibiting nuclear atypia (n?=?158; 31%); architectural atypia (n?=?222; 43%); oncocytic features (n?=?120; 23%); or other types of atypia (n?=?18; 3%). The prevalence of malignancy and odds ratio for malignancy were calculated in 323 nodules with histological confirmation. RESULTS:The prevalence of malignancy was 26% overall (20% in Bethesda-III and 29% in Bethesda-IV; p?=?0.07), and 47%, 12%, 24%, and 25% for aspirates with nuclear atypia, architectural atypia, oncocytic features, or other types of atypia, respectively. The OR of nuclear atypia over architectural atypia was 6.4 (3.4-12.2; p?<?0.001), and 2.7 over oncocytic features (1.4-5.1; p?=?0.01), whereas the OR of architectural atypia over oncocytic features was 0.4 (0.2-0.9; p?=?0.03). Results were similar for Bethesda-III and IV aspirates when analyzed independently. Furthermore, cytological subcategories improved cytology-histology correlation, as they were associated with distinct profiles of histological diagnoses (p?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Cytological subcategories can effectively stratify the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology and improve cytology-histology correlation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the diagnostic role of ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) according to ultrasonography features of thyroid nodules that had inconclusive ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results. METHODS: A total of 88 thyroid nodules in 88 patients who underwent ultrasonography-guided CNB because of previous inconclusive FNA results were evaluated. The patients were classified into three groups based on ultrasonography findings: Group A, which was suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); Group B, which was suspicious for follicular (Hurthle cell) neoplasm; and Group C, which was suspicious for lymphoma. The final diagnoses of the thyroid nodules were determined by surgical confirmation or follow-up after ultrasonography-guided CNB. RESULTS: Of the 88 nodules, the malignant rate was 49.1% in Group A, 12.0% in Group B and 90.0% in Group C. The rates of conclusive ultrasonography-guided CNB results after previous incomplete ultrasonography-guided FNA results were 96.2% in Group A, 64.0% in Group B and 90.0% in Group C (p=0.001). 12 cases with inconclusive ultrasonography-guided CNB results were finally diagnosed as 8 benign lesions, 3 PTCs and 1 lymphoma. The number of previous ultrasonography-guided FNA biopsies was not significantly different between the conclusive and the inconclusive result groups of ultrasonography-guided CNB (p=0.205). CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography-guided CNB has benefit for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with inconclusive ultrasonography-guided FNA results. However, it is still not helpful for the differential diagnosis in 36% of nodules that are suspicious for follicular neoplasm seen on ultrasonography. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study shows the diagnostic contribution of ultrasonography-guided CNB as an alternative to repeat ultrasonography-guided FNA or surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Following fine needle aspiration, 15-30% of thyroid nodules are not clearly benign or malignant. These cytologically indeterminate nodules are often referred for diagnostic surgery, though most prove benign. A novel diagnostic test measuring the expression of 167 genes has shown promise in improving pre-operative risk assessment. We evaluated this test in a prospective, multicenter study. METHODS: Over 19 months, we performed a prospective study at 49 clinical sites enrolling 3,789 patients and collecting 4,812 samples from thyroid nodules >1cm requiring evaluation. We obtained 577 cytologically indeterminate aspirates with corresponding histopathology of excised lesions on 413. Central blinded histopathologic review served as the reference (“gold”) standard. After applying inclusion criteria, gene expression classifier results were obtained for 265 indeterminate nodules used in this analysis, and performance was calculated. RESULTS: 85 of 265 indeterminate nodules were malignant. The gene expression classifier correctly identified 78 of 85 as ‘suspicious’ (92% sensitivity, [84%-97%] 95% CI). Specificity was 52%, [44%-59%]. The negative predictive value was 95%, 94%, and 85%, respectively, for aspirates with AUS/FLUS, FN/SFN, or ‘suspicious’ cytology. Analysis of 7 false negative cases revealed 6 with a paucity of thyroid follicular cells, suggesting that insufficient sampling of the nodule had occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Though individualized clinical care is recommended, these data support consideration of a conservative approach for most patients with indeterminate FNA cytology and benign gene expression classifier results. 265 cytologically indetermine samples, 47 cytologically benign and 55 cytologically malignant samples
Project description:Cytologic diagnosis of thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and Hurthle cell adenoma and carcinoma (FACHAC) is challenging due to cytomorphologic features that overlap with other follicular-patterned lesions. This study was designed to analyze diagnostic categories (DCs) of preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of histologically proven thyroid FACHACs to evaluate under- or misdiagnoses in FNAC and elucidate potential causes for such phenomena. A total of 104 thyroid nodules with preoperative FNAC which were diagnosed as FACHAC in resection specimens were included in this study. Of these, 66 cases had also undergone thyroid core needle biopsy (CNB); FNAC and CNB DCs were compared in these cases. Various cytologic and histologic parameters were compared between the nodules with different FNAC DCs. After a review of FNAC slides, DCs were re-assigned in 20 (19.2%) out of the 104 cases. Of the 66 cases with CNB diagnoses which were mostly classified as lower DCs in FNAC, 31 (47.0%) were diagnosed as suspicious for a follicular neoplasm in CNB. Cases which were underdiagnosed in FNACs were associated with lower cellularity, predominant macrofollicular pattern, absence of microfollicles arranged in trabecular pattern, and absence of transgressing vessels in cytology smears. High cellularity, microfollicles arranged in trabecular pattern, nucleolar prominence, and large cell dysplasia were more frequently found in malignancy than in benign neoplasm. In conclusion, thyroid FACHACs seem to be under- and misdiagnosed in preoperative FNAC. Innate characteristics of the nodules were associated with under-diagnosis as well as the quality of the FNAC specimens. Certain cytomorphologic features can be helpful in differentiating malignancy among FACHACs.