Developmentally regulated mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated transport of a lysosomal enzyme across the blood-brain barrier.
ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from inherited deficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is characterized by glycosaminoglycan storage in most tissues, including brain. In these disorders, enzyme delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle to correction of lysosomal storage in the CNS. Prior studies suggested mouse brain is accessible to GUS in the first 2 weeks of life but not later. To explore a possible role for the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor in GUS transport across the BBB in neonatal mice, we compared brain uptake of phosphorylated GUS (P-GUS) and nonphosphorylated GUS (NP-GUS) in newborn and adult mice. (131)I-P-GUS was transported across the BBB after i.v. injection in 2-day-old mice. The brain influx rate (K(in)) of (131)I-P-GUS in 2-day-old mice was 0.21 microl/g.min and decreased with age. By 7 weeks of age, transport of (131)I-P-GUS was not significant. Capillary depletion revealed that 62% of the (131)I-P-GUS in brain was in brain parenchyma in 2-day-old mice. In addition, uptake of (131)I-P-GUS into brain was significantly reduced by coinjection of unlabeled P-GUS or M6P in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the K(in) of (131)I-NP-GUS (0.04 microl/g.min) was significantly lower than (131)I-P-GUS in 2-day-old mice. Transcardiac brain perfusion confirmed that neither (131)I-P-GUS nor (131)I-NP-GUS crossed the BBB in adult mice. These results indicate that (131)I-P-GUS transport into brain parenchyma in early postnatal life is mediated by the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor. This receptor-mediated transport is not observed in adult mice.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA), which is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by inherited deficiency of sulfamidase, is characterized by severe, progressive central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) to treat CNS storage is challenging, because the access of enzymes to the brain is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a prior study, we found that phosphorylated beta-glucuronidase (P-GUS) could be transcytosed across the BBB in newborn mice by the mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor. In order to determine whether sulfamidase can utilize this pathway, we examined brain influx and the specificity of uptake of sulfamidase after intravenous (i.v.) injection in 2-day-old and 8-week-old mice. [(131)I]Sulfamidase was transported across the BBB in neonates at rates higher than that of simultaneously injected [(125)I]albumin. In contrast, the transport of [(131)I]sulfamidase was negligible in 8-week-old mice, thereby showing that the BBB transport mechanism is developmentally downregulated. Capillary depletion revealed that 83.7% of the [(131)I]sulfamidase taken up by the brain was in the parenchyma, demonstrating transfer across the capillary wall. The uptake of [(131)I]sulfamidase into the brain was significantly reduced by co-injections of M6P and P-GUS. That is, the transport of sulfamidase into the brain parenchyma in early postnatal life is mediated by the M6P receptor, which is shared with P-GUS and is likely accessible to other M6P-containing lysosomal enzymes.
Project description:Delivery of therapeutic agents to the central nervous system is a significant challenge, hindering progress in the treatment of diseases such as glioblastoma. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), therapeutic agents do not readily transverse the brain endothelium to enter the parenchyma. Previous reports suggest that surface modification of polymer nanoparticles (NPs) can improve their ability to cross the BBB, but it is unclear whether the observed enhancements in transport are large enough to enhance therapy. In this study, we synthesized two degradable polymer NP systems surface-modified with ligands previously suggested to improve BBB transport, and tested their ability to cross the BBB after intravenous injection in mice. All the NP preparations were able to cross the BBB, although generally in low amounts (<0.5% of the injected dose), which was consistent with prior reports. One NP produced significantly higher brain uptake (?0.8% of the injected dose): a block copolymer of polylactic acid and hyperbranched polyglycerol, surface modified with adenosine (PLA-HPG-Ad). PLA-HPG-Ad NPs provided controlled release of camptothecin, killing U87 glioma cells in culture. When administered intravenously in mice with intracranial U87 tumors, they failed to increase survival. These results suggest that enhancing NP transport across the BBB does not necessarily yield proportional pharmacological effects.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of probenecid on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G). Two groups of rats received an exponential infusion of M3G over 4 h to reach a target plasma concentration of 65 microM on two consecutive days. Probenecid was co-administered in the treatment group on day 2. Microdialysis was used to estimate unbound M3G concentrations in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and blood. In vivo recovery of M3G was calculated with retrodialysis by drug, preceding the drug administration. The BBB transport was modelled using NONMEM. In the probenecid group, the ratio of the steady-state concentration of unbound M3G in brain ECF to that in blood was 0.08+/-0.02 in the absence and 0.16+/-0.05 in the presence of probenecid (P=0.001). In the control group, no significant difference was found in this ratio between the 2 days (0.11+/-0.05 and 0.10+/-0.02, respectively). The process that appears to be mainly influenced by probenecid is influx clearance into the brain (0.11 microl min(-1) g-brain(-1) vs 0.17 microl min(-1) g-brain(-1), in the absence vs presence of probenecid, P:<0.001). The efflux clearance was 1.15 microl min(-1) g-brain(-1). The half-life of M3G was 81+/-25 min in brain ECF vs 22+/-2 min in blood (P<0.0001). Blood pharmacokinetics was not influenced by probenecid. In conclusion, a probenecid-sensitive transport system is involved in the transport of M3G across the BBB.
Project description:The mechanism of copper (Cu) transport into the brain is unclear. This study evaluated the main species and route of Cu transport into the brain using in situ brain perfusion technique, and assessed the levels of mRNA encoding Cu transporters using real time RT-PCR. Free (64)Cu uptake in rat choroid plexus (CP), where the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) is primarily located, is about 50 and 1000 times higher than (64)Cu-albumin and (64)Cu-ceruloplasmin uptake, respectively. The unidirectional transport rate constants (K(in)) for Cu in the CP and brain capillaries of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were 1034 and 319 microl/s/g, respectively, while K(in) in CSF and capillary-depleted parenchyma were much reduced, 0.8 and 112 microl/s/g, respectively. The K(in) in cerebellum was significantly lower than that in hippocampus. The mRNAs encoding Cu transporter-1 (Ctr1) and ATP7A were higher in the CP than those in brain capillaries and parenchyma, whereas ATP7B mRNA was higher in brain capillaries than those in the CP and brain parenchyma. Taken together, these data suggest that the expression of Cu transporters is higher in brain barriers than in brain parenchyma; the Cu transport into the brain is mainly achieved through the BBB as a free Cu ion and the BCB may serve as a main regulatory site of Cu in the CSF.
Project description:Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is available for several lysosomal storage diseases. Except for Gaucher disease, for which an enzyme with exposed mannosyl residues targets mannose receptors (MR) on macrophages, ERT targets primarily the mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR). Most recombinant lysosomal enzymes contain oligosaccharides with both terminal mannosyl and mannose 6-phosphate residues. Effective MPR-mediated delivery may be compromised by rapid clearance of infused enzyme by the MR on fixed tissue macrophages, especially Kupffer cells. To evaluate the impact of this obstacle to ERT, we introduced the MR-null mutation onto the mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) background and produced doubly deficient MR-/- MPS VII mice. The availability of both MR+/+ and MR-/- mice allowed us to study the effects of eliminating the MR on MR- and MPR-mediated plasma clearance and tissue distribution of infused phosphorylated (P) and nonphosphorylated (NP) forms of human beta-glucuronidase (GUS). In MR+/+ MPS VII mice, the MR clearance system predominated at doses up to 6.4 mg/kg P-GUS. Genetically eliminating the MR slowed plasma clearance of both P- and NP-GUS and enhanced the effectiveness of P-GUS in clearing storage in kidney, bone, and retina. Saturating the MR clearance system by high doses of enzyme also improved targeting to MPR-containing tissues such as muscle, kidney, heart, and hepatocytes. Although ablating the MR clearance system genetically is not practical clinically, blocking the MR-mediated clearance system with high doses of enzyme is feasible. This approach delivers a larger fraction of enzyme to MPR-expressing tissues, thus enhancing the effectiveness of MPR-targeted ERT.
Project description:Human apolipoprotein E (APOE) exists in three isoforms ɛ2, ɛ3, and ɛ4, of which APOE4 is the main genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As cerebrovascular defects are associated with AD, we tested whether APOE genotype has an impact on the integrity and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in human APOE-targeted replacement mice. Using the quantitative in situ brain perfusion technique, we first found lower (13.0% and 17.0%) brain transport coefficient (Clup) of [(3)H]-diazepam in APOE4 mice at 4 and 12 months, compared with APOE2 and APOE3 mice, reflecting a decrease in cerebral vascularization. Accordingly, results from immunohistofluorescence experiments revealed a structurally reduced cerebral vascularization (26% and 38%) and thinner basement membranes (30% and 35%) in 12-month-old APOE4 mice compared with APOE2 and APOE3 mice, suggesting vascular atrophy. In addition, APOE4 mice displayed a 29% reduction in [(3)H]-d-glucose transport through the BBB compared with APOE2 mice without significant changes in the expression of its transporter GLUT1 in brain capillaries. However, an increase of 41.3% of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) was found in brain capillaries of 12-month-old APOE4 mice. In conclusion, profound divergences were observed between APOE genotypes at the cerebrovascular interface, suggesting that APOE4-induced BBB anomalies may contribute to AD development.
Project description:The development of new strategies for enhancing drug delivery to the brain represents a major challenge in treating cerebral diseases. In this paper, we report on the synthesis and structural characterization of a biocompatible nanoparticle (NP) made up of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) co-polymer (namely PELGA) functionalized with the membranotropic peptide gH625 (gH) and the iron-mimicking peptide CRTIGPSVC (CRT) for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). gH possesses a high translocation potency of the cell membrane. Conversely, CRT selectively recognizes the brain endothelium, which interacts with transferrin (Tf) and its receptor (TfR) through a non-canonical ligand-directed mechanism. We hypothesize that the delivery across the BBB of PELGA NPs should be efficiently enhanced by the NP functionalization with both gH and CRT. Synthesis of peptides and their conjugation to the PLGA as well as NP physical-chemical characterization are performed. Moreover, NP uptake, co-localization, adhesion under dynamic conditions, and permeation across in vitro BBB model are evaluated as a function of gH/CRT functionalization ratio. Results establish that the cooperative effect of CRT and gH may change the intra-cellular distribution of NPs and strengthen NP delivery across the BBB at the functionalization ratio 33% gH?66% CRT.
Project description:To realize the potential of large molecular weight substances to treat neurological disorders, novel approaches are required to surmount the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We investigated whether fusion of a receptor-binding peptide from apolipoprotein E (apoE) with a potentially therapeutic protein can bind to LDL receptors on the BBB and be transcytosed into the CNS. A lysosomal enzyme, ?-L-iduronidase (IDUA), was used for biological and therapeutic evaluation in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I, one of the most common lysosomal storage disorders with CNS deficits. We identified two fusion candidates, IDUAe1 and IDUAe2, by in vitro screening, that exhibited desirable receptor-mediated binding, endocytosis, and transendothelial transport as well as appropriate lysosomal enzyme trafficking and biological function. Robust peripheral IDUAe1 or IDUAe2 generated by transient hepatic expression led to elevated enzyme levels in capillary-depleted, enzyme-deficient brain tissues and protein delivery into nonendothelium perivascular cells, neurons, and astrocytes within 2 d of treatment. Moreover, 5 mo after long-term delivery of moderate levels of IDUAe1 derived from maturing red blood cells, 2% to 3% of normal brain IDUA activities were obtained in MPS I mice, and IDUAe1 protein was detected in neurons and astrocytes throughout the brain. The therapeutic potential was demonstrated by normalization of brain glycosaminoglycan and ?-hexosaminidase in MPS I mice 5 mo after moderate yet sustained delivery of IDUAe1. These findings provide a noninvasive and BBB-targeted procedure for the delivery of large-molecule therapeutic agents to treat neurological lysosomal storage disorders and potentially other diseases that involve the brain.
Project description:Toxic aggregated amyloid-? accumulation is a key pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which derives from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by BACE1 (?-site APP cleavage enzyme 1) and ?-secretase. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) show great promise for AD therapy by specific silencing of BACE1. However, lack of effective siRNA brain delivery approaches limits this strategy. Here, we developed a glycosylated "triple-interaction" stabilized polymeric siRNA nanomedicine (Gal-NP@siRNA) to target BACE1 in APP/PS1 transgenic AD mouse model. Gal-NP@siRNA exhibits superior blood stability and can efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via glycemia-controlled glucose transporter-1 (Glut1)-mediated transport, thereby ensuring that siRNAs decrease BACE1 expression and modify relative pathways. Noticeably, Gal-NP@siBACE1 administration restored the deterioration of cognitive capacity in AD mice without notable side effects. This "Trojan horse" strategy supports the utility of RNA interference therapy in neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:The accumulation and formation of ?-amyloid (A?) plaques in the brain are distinctive pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Designing nanoparticle (NP) contrast agents capable of binding with A? highly selectively can potentially facilitate early detection of AD. However, a significant obstacle is the blood brain barrier (BBB), which can preclude the entrance of NPs into the brain for A? binding. In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated NPs are decorated with sialic acid (NP-BSAx -Sia) to overcome the challenges in A? imaging in vivo. The NP-BSAx -Sia is biocompatible with high magnetic relaxivities, suggesting that they are suitable contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The NP-BSAx -Sia binds with A? in a sialic acid dependent manner with high selectivities toward A? deposited on brains and cross the BBB in an in vitro model. The abilities of these NPs to detect A? in vivo in human AD transgenic mice by MRI are evaluated without the need to coinject mannitol to increase BBB permeability. T2 *-weighted MRI shows that A? plaques in mouse brains can be detected as aided by NP-BSAx -Sia, which is confirmed by histological analysis. Thus, NP-BSAx -Sia is a promising new tool for noninvasive in vivo detection of A? plaques.