Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarettes smoked by the participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: Our recent studies on tobacco smoke carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers and cancer risk among male smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study showed that exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is prospectively associated with the risk of cancer. These findings support the hypothesis that the smokers' cancer risk is a function of the dose of select tobacco carcinogens and highlight the importance of understanding the factors that affect the intake of these carcinogens by smokers. Given that tobacco constituent exposures are driven, at least in part, by the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke, we measured mainstream smoke TSNA and PAH levels in 43 Chinese cigarette brands that participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study reported to smoke. In all brands analyzed here, mainstream smoke levels of NNN and NNK, the two carcinogenic TSNA, were generally relatively low, averaging (±SD) 16.8(±25.1) and 14.2(±9.5) ng/cigarette, respectively. The levels of PAH were comparable to those found in U.S. cigarettes, averaging 15(±9) ng/cigarette for benzo[a]pyrene, 119(±66) ng/cigarette for phenanthrene and 37(±19) ng/cigarette for pyrene. Our findings indicate that the generally low levels of NNN and NNK are most likely responsible for the relatively low levels of the corresponding biomarkers in the urine of the Shanghai Cohort Study participants as compared to those found in the U.S. smokers, supporting the role of the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke in smokers' exposures. Our findings also suggest that, in addition to smoking, other sources contribute to Chinese smokers' exposure to PAH.
Project description:Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration's list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated HPLC/MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands, whereas NNK and NAB were present in lesser amounts. The average ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of individual TSNAs to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R2 = 0.61-0.98, p < 0.0001), and all three TSNAs individually predict total TSNAs with minimal difference between measured and predicted total TSNA amounts (error < 7.4%). NNK has weaker correlation (R2 = 0.56-0.82; p < 0.0001) and is a less reliable predictor of total TSNA quantities. Tobacco weight and levels of TSNAs in filler influence TSNA levels in smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine-smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands.
Project description:Introduction:Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are potent carcinogens. Levels of TSNAs can be modified through manufacturing practices. In the 2000s, TSNA levels in cigarettes sold in Canada were reduced by changes in tobacco curing processes. The current study examined TSNA levels over the following decade to examine trends over time. Methods:Data submitted to Health Canada under the Tobacco Reporting Regulations were used to examine whole tobacco constituents for 1809 brands and mainstream smoke emissions for 191 brands manufactured by Canada's three leading cigarette companies from 2005 through 2011/12 using one-way analysis of variances (ANOVAs) and linear regression models. Results:Levels of N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) (p < .001) and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (p < .001) in whole tobacco showed significant differences over time, decreasing between 2005 and 2007, and generally increasing from 2007 through 2012. Levels of all TSNAs in mainstream smoke emissions reflected a similar pattern: N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) (p < .001), NAT (p < .001), NNK (p < .001), and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) (p = .021). Linear regression analyses showed that TSNA levels varied by manufacturer over time in whole tobacco for NAT, NNK, and NNN (p < .001 for all), and in smoke emissions for NAB, NAT, NNK, and NNN (p < .001 for all). Conclusions:The findings indicate that levels of TSNAs in whole tobacco and smoke emissions of cigarettes sold in Canada increased from 2007 through 2011/12, following initial reductions over the previous 2 years. Differences in TSNA levels between companies raise questions about manufacturing practices that may be responsible for these changes. Although increased levels of carcinogenic TSNAs may be alarming, it remains unclear whether these differences translate into differences in health risk. Implications:The wide variation of TSNAs within the Canadian market across time and across cigarette companies demonstrates the feasibility of reducing the levels of these potent carcinogens. Although it is unclear whether changes made to levels of TSNAs will result in less tobacco-related disease, the tobacco industry bears a responsibility to minimize the harm from smoking to the fullest extent possible.
Project description:Nicotine, the psychoactive ingredient in tobacco, is metabolically inactivated by CYP2A6 to cotinine. CYP2A6 also activates procarcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). Genetic variation in CYP2A6 is known to alter smoking quantity and lung cancer risk in heavy smokers. Our objective was to investigate how CYP2A6 activity influences tobacco consumption and procarcinogen levels in light smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Cigarette smokers (n = 141), commercial smokeless tobacco users (n = 73) and iqmik users (n = 20) were recruited in a cross-sectional study of Alaska Native people. The participants' CYP2A6 activity was measured by both endophenotype and genotype, and their tobacco and procarcinogen exposure biomarker levels were also measured. Smokers, smokeless tobacco users and iqmik users with lower CYP2A6 activity had lower urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE) and (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL) levels (a biomarker of TSNA exposure). Levels of N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a TSNA metabolically bioactivated by CYP2A6, were higher in smokers with lower CYP2A6 activities. Light smokers and smokeless tobacco users with lower CYP2A6 activity reduce their tobacco consumption in ways (e.g. inhaling less deeply) that are not reflected by self-report indicators. Tobacco users with lower CYP2A6 activity are exposed to lower procarcinogen levels (lower NNAL levels) and have lower procarcinogen bioactivation (as indicated by the higher urinary NNN levels suggesting reduced clearance), which is consistent with a lower risk of developing smoking-related cancers. This study demonstrates the importance of CYP2A6 in the regulation of tobacco consumption behaviors, procarcinogen exposure and metabolism in both light smokers and smokeless tobacco users.
Project description:BACKGROUND:How carcinogen exposure varies across users of different, particularly noncigarette, tobacco products remains poorly understood. METHODS:We randomly selected 165 participants of the Golestan Cohort Study from northeastern Iran: 60 never users of any tobacco, 35 exclusive cigarette, 40 exclusive (78% daily) waterpipe, and 30 exclusive smokeless tobacco (nass) users. We measured concentrations of 39 biomarkers of exposure in 4 chemical classes in baseline urine samples: tobacco alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). We also quantified the same biomarkers in a second urine sample, obtained 5 years later, among continuing cigarette smokers and never tobacco users. RESULTS:Nass users had the highest concentrations of tobacco alkaloids. All tobacco users had elevated TSNA concentrations, which correlated with nicotine dose. In both cigarette and waterpipe smokers, PAH and VOC biomarkers were higher than never tobacco users and nass users, and highly correlated with nicotine dose. PAH biomarkers of phenanthrene and pyrene and two VOC metabolites (phenylmercapturic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid) were higher in waterpipe smokers than in all other groups. PAH biomarkers among Golestan never tobacco users were comparable to those in U.S. cigarette smokers. All biomarkers had moderate to good correlations over 5 years, particularly in continuing cigarette smokers. CONCLUSIONS:We observed two patterns of exposure biomarkers that differentiated the use of the combustible products (cigarettes and waterpipe) from the smokeless product. Environmental exposure from nontobacco sources appeared to contribute to the presence of high levels of PAH metabolites in the Golestan Cohort. IMPACT:Most of these biomarkers would be useful for exposure assessment in a longitudinal study.
Project description:The association of tobacco smoke with decreased cell motility and wound healing is well documented; however, the cellular mechanisms and specific toxic tobacco constituents responsible for this effect are not well understood. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) are among the most important classes of carcinogens found in tobacco products. The TSNA N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is present at relatively high levels in tobacco and its smoke, as well as second- and third-hand smoke. To investigate the cellular pathways that are perturbed upon NNN exposure, we employed a quantitative proteomic approach, utilizing stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and mass spectrometry, to assess the NNN-induced alteration of protein expression in GM00637 human skin fibroblast cells. With this approach, we were able to quantify 2599 proteins, 191 of which displayed significantly changed expression following NNN exposure. One of the main findings from our proteomic analysis was the down-regulation of six different subunits of myosin, particularly nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain, isoforms A, B, and C. In addition, we found the altered expression of several extracellular matrix proteins and proteins involved in cellular adhesion. Together, our quantitative proteomic results suggested that NNN exposure may interfere with fibroblast motility. An in vitro scratch wound assay result supported that NNN exposure reduced the ability of dermal fibroblast to migrate into the scratched area. The results from the present study offer novel insights into the cellular mechanisms of NNN toxicity and identify NNN as a specific tobacco constituent that contributes to decreased fibroblast migration.
Project description:Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Monitoring population-level toxicant exposures from smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is important for assessing population health risks due to product use. In this study, we assessed tobacco biomarkers of exposure (BOE) among SLT users from the Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. METHODS:Urinary biospecimens were collected from adults ages 18 and older. Biomarkers of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compounds (VOC), metals, and inorganic arsenic were analyzed and reported among exclusive current established SLT users in comparison with exclusive current established cigarette smokers, dual SLT and cigarette users, and never tobacco users. RESULTS:In general, SLT users (n = 448) have significantly higher concentrations of BOE to nicotine, TSNAs, and PAHs compared with never tobacco users; significant dose-response relationships between frequency of SLT use and biomarker concentrations were also reported among exclusive SLT daily users. Exclusive SLT daily users have higher geometric mean concentrations of total nicotine equivalent-2 (TNE2) and TSNAs than exclusive cigarette daily smokers. In contrast, geometric mean concentrations of PAHs and VOCs were substantially lower among exclusive SLT daily users than exclusive cigarette daily smokers. CONCLUSIONS:Our study produced a comprehensive assessment of SLT product use and 52 biomarkers of tobacco exposure. Compared with cigarette smokers, SLT users experience greater concentrations of some tobacco toxicants, including nicotine and TSNAs. IMPACT:Our data add information on the risk assessment of exposure to SLT-related toxicants. High levels of harmful constituents in SLT remain a health concern.
Project description:Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products.
Project description:Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) have been of concern to the public health community for decades and their reduction through agricultural practices, plant breeding, and tobacco processing has also been a decades-long industry effort. Despite those efforts, TSNAs, though lower, continue to be constituents of concern in tobacco products. This paper examines the TSNA levels of dark air-cured, dark fire-cured, and burley tobaccos purchased in the United States by U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company LLC (USSTC) and of nine finished USSTC moist smokeless tobacco products. TSNA values of the incoming purchased tobaccos and the finished products showed considerable variability. For the incoming tobaccos, the coefficient of variation was generally more than 100 % for each tobacco type and for each of the measured TSNAs. The relative TSNA variability of the finished tobacco products was also considerable, averaging approximately 25 %. It was also found that the measured values for the finished products averaged well above the proposed FDA NNN proposed product standard of 1.0 ?g/g dry weight. Because of the large variability in NNN values, products would have to average well below FDA's proposed product standard to be consistently compliant.
Project description:Differences in carcinogen exposure from different cigarette products could contribute to differences in smoking-associated cancer incidence among Chinese compared with US smokers.Urine concentrations of metabolites of nicotine, the tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (PAHs) were compared in 238 Chinese and 203 US daily smokers.Comparing Chinese versus US smokers, daily nicotine intake and nicotine intake per cigarette smoked were found to be similar. When normalised for cigarettes per day, urine NNAL excretion was fourfold higher in US smokers, while the excretion of urine metabolites of the PAHs fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites was 50% to fourfold higher in Chinese smokers (all, p<0.0001). Similar results were seen when NNAL and PAHs excretion was normalised for daily nicotine intake.Patterns of carcinogen exposure differ, with lower exposure to TSNA and higher exposure to PAHs in Chinese compared with US smokers. These results most likely reflect country differences in cigarette tobacco blends and manufacturing processes, as well as different environmental exposures.NCT00264342.