Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1(VDAC1) Participates the Apoptosis of the Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Desminopathy.
ABSTRACT: Desminopathies caused by the mutation in the gene coding for desmin are genetically protein aggregation myopathies. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of pathological changes in the desminopathies at the earliest stage. The molecular mechanisms of mitochondria dysfunction in desminopathies remain exclusive. VDAC1 regulates mitochondrial uptake across the outer membrane and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Relationships between desminopathies and Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) remain unclear. Here we successfully constructed the desminopathy rat model, evaluated with conventional stains, containing hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Gomori Trichrome (MGT), (PAS), red oil (ORO), NADH-TR, SDH staining and immunohistochemistry. Immunofluorescence results showed that VDAC1 was accumulated in the desmin highly stained area of muscle fibers of desminopathy patients or desminopathy rat model compared to the normal ones. Meanwhile apoptosis related proteins bax and ATF2 were involved in desminopathy patients and desminopathy rat model, but not bcl-2, bcl-xl or HK2.VDAC1 and desmin are closely relevant in the tissue splices of deminopathies patients and rats with desminopathy at protein lever. Moreover, apoptotic proteins are also involved in the desminopathies, like bax, ATF2, but not bcl-2, bcl-xl or HK2. This pathological analysis presents the correlation between VDAC1 and desmin, and apoptosis related proteins are correlated in the desminopathy. Furthermore, we provide a rat model of desminopathy for the investigation of desmin related myopathy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Variants in the desmin gene (DES) are associated with desminopathy; a myofibrillar myopathy mainly characterized by muscle weakness, conduction block, and dilated cardiomyopathy. To date, only ~50 disease-associated variants have been described, and the majority of these lead to dominant-negative effects. However, the complete genotypic spectrum of desminopathy is not well established. CASE PRESENTATION: Next-generation sequencing was performed on 51 cardiac disease genes in a proband with profound skeletal myopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and respiratory dysfunction. Our analyses revealed compound heterozygous DES variants, both of which are predicted to lead to a loss-of-function. Consistent with recessive inheritance, each variant was identified in an unaffected parent. CONCLUSIONS: This case report serves to broaden the variant spectrum of desminopathies and provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of desminopathy, supporting distinct dominant-negative and loss-of-function etiologies.
Project description:mTOR is a central regulator of cellular growth and metabolism. Using metabolic profiling and numerous small-molecule probes, we investigated whether mTOR affects immediate control over cellular metabolism by posttranslational mechanisms. Inhibiting the FKBP12/rapamycin-sensitive subset of mTOR functions in leukemic cells enhanced aerobic glycolysis and decreased uncoupled mitochondrial respiration within 25 min. mTOR is in a complex with the mitochondrial outer-membrane protein Bcl-xl and VDAC1. Bcl-xl, but not VDAC1, is a kinase substrate for mTOR in vitro, and mTOR regulates the association of Bcl-xl with mTOR. Inhibition of mTOR not only enhances aerobic glycolysis, but also induces a state of increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis in leukemic cells, as shown by the synergy between the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose and rapamycin in decreasing cell viability.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The mitochondrial accumulation of ATF2 is involved in tumor suppressor activities via cytochrome c release in melanoma cells. However, the signaling pathways that connect mitochondrial ATF2 accumulation and cytochrome c release are not well documented.<h4>Methods</h4>Several melanoma cell lines, B16F10, K1735M2, A375 and A375-R1, were treated with paclitaxel and vemurafenib to test the function of mitochondrial ATF2 and its connection to Bim and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1). Immunoprecipitation analysis was performed to investigate the functional interaction between the involved proteins. VDAC1 oligomerization was evaluated using an EGS-based crosslinking assay.<h4>Results</h4>The expression and migration of ATF2 to the mitochondria accounted for paclitaxel stimuli and acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Mitochondrial ATF2 facilitated Bim stabilization through the inhibition of its degradation by the proteasome, thereby promoting cytochrome c release and inducing apoptosis in B16F10 and A375 cells. Studies using B16F10 and A375 cells genetically modified for ATF2 indicated that mitochondrial ATF2 was able to dissociate Bim from the Mcl-1/Bim complex to trigger VDAC1 oligomerization. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Bim interacts with VDAC1, and this interaction was remarkably enhanced during apoptosis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results reveal that mitochondrial ATF2 is associated with the induction of apoptosis and BRAF inhibitor resistance through Bim activation, which might suggest potential novel therapies for the targeted induction of apoptosis in melanoma therapy.
Project description:Background: The pleomorphic clinical presentation makes the diagnosis of desminopathy difficult. We aimed to describe the prevalence, phenotypic expression, and mitochondrial function of individuals with putative disease-causing desmin (DES) variants identified in patients with an unexplained etiology of cardiomyopathy. Methods: A total of 327 Czech patients underwent whole exome sequencing and detailed phenotyping in probands harboring DES variants. Results: Rare, conserved, and possibly pathogenic DES variants were identified in six (1.8%) probands. Two DES variants previously classified as variants of uncertain significance (p.(K43E), p.(S57L)), one novel DES variant (p.(A210D)), and two known pathogenic DES variants (p.(R406W), p.(R454W)) were associated with characteristic desmin-immunoreactive aggregates in myocardial and/or skeletal biopsy samples. The individual with the novel DES variant p.(Q364H) had a decreased myocardial expression of desmin with absent desmin aggregates in myocardial/skeletal muscle biopsy and presented with familial left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC), a relatively novel phenotype associated with desminopathy. An assessment of the mitochondrial function in four probands heterozygous for a disease-causing DES variant confirmed a decreased metabolic capacity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in myocardial/skeletal muscle specimens, which was in case of myocardial succinate respiration more profound than in other cardiomyopathies. Conclusions: The presence of desminopathy should also be considered in individuals with LVNC, and in the differential diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases.
Project description:Here, we review current evidence pointing to the function of VDAC1 in cell life and death, and highlight these functions in relation to cancer. Found at the outer mitochondrial membrane, VDAC1 assumes a crucial position in the cell, controlling the metabolic cross-talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. Moreover, its location at the boundary between the mitochondria and the cytosol enables VDAC1 to interact with proteins that mediate and regulate the integration of mitochondrial functions with other cellular activities. As a metabolite transporter, VDAC1 contributes to the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells. This is reflected by VDAC1 over-expression in many cancer types, and by inhibition of tumor development upon silencing VDAC1 expression. Along with regulating cellular energy production and metabolism, VDAC1 is also a key protein in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, participating in the release of apoptotic proteins and interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins. The involvement of VDAC1 in the release of apoptotic proteins located in the inter-membranal space is discussed, as is VDAC1 oligomerization as an important step in apoptosis induction. VDAC also serves as an anchor point for mitochondria-interacting proteins, some of which are also highly expressed in many cancers, such as hexokinase (HK), Bcl2, and Bcl-xL. By binding to VDAC, HK provides both metabolic benefit and apoptosis-suppressive capacity that offers the cell a proliferative advantage and increases its resistance to chemotherapy. VDAC1-based peptides that bind specifically to HK, Bcl2, or Bcl-xL abolished the cell's abilities to bypass the apoptotic pathway. Moreover, these peptides promote cell death in a panel of genetically characterized cell lines derived from different human cancers. These and other functions point to VDAC1 as a rational target for the development of a new generation of therapeutics.
Project description:Cancer cells share several properties, high proliferation potential, reprogramed metabolism, and resistance to apoptotic cues. Acquiring these hallmarks involves changes in key oncogenes and non-oncogenes essential for cancer cell survival and prosperity, and is accompanied by the increased energy requirements of proliferating cells. Mitochondria occupy a central position in cell life and death with mitochondrial bioenergetics, biosynthesis, and signaling are critical for tumorigenesis. Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) is situated in the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and serving as a mitochondrial gatekeeper. VDAC1 allowing the transfer of metabolites, fatty acid ions, Ca2+, reactive oxygen species, and cholesterol across the OMM and is a key player in mitochondrial-mediate apoptosis. Moreover, VDAC1 serves as a hub protein, interacting with diverse sets of proteins from the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria that together regulate metabolic and signaling pathways. The observation that VDAC1 is over-expressed in many cancers suggests that the protein may play a pivotal role in cancer cell survival. However, VDAC1 is also important in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, mediating release of apoptotic proteins and interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-xL, and hexokinase (HK), which are also highly expressed in many cancers. Strategically located in a "bottleneck" position, controlling metabolic homeostasis and apoptosis, VDAC1 thus represents an emerging target for anti-cancer drugs. This review presents an overview on the multi-functional mitochondrial protein VDAC1 performing several functions and interacting with distinct sets of partners to regulate both cell life and death, and highlights the importance of the protein for cancer cell survival. We address recent results related to the mechanisms of VDAC1-mediated apoptosis and the potential of associated proteins to modulate of VDAC1 activity, with the aim of developing VDAC1-based approaches. The first strategy involves modification of cell metabolism using VDAC1-specific small interfering RNA leading to inhibition of cancer cell and tumor growth and reversed oncogenic properties. The second strategy involves activation of cancer cell death using VDAC1-based peptides that prevent cell death induction by anti-apoptotic proteins. Finally, we discuss the potential therapeutic benefits of treatments and drugs leading to enhanced VDAC1 expression or targeting VDAC1 to induce apoptosis.
Project description:The intermediate filament protein desmin is an essential component of the extra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton in muscle cells. This three-dimensional filamentous framework exerts central roles in the structural and functional alignment and anchorage of myofibrils, the positioning of cell organelles and signaling events. Mutations of the human desmin gene on chromosome 2q35 cause autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and sporadic myopathies and/or cardiomyopathies with marked phenotypic variability. The disease onset ranges from childhood to late adulthood. The clinical course is progressive and no specific treatment is currently available for this severely disabling disease. The muscle pathology is characterized by desmin-positive protein aggregates and degenerative changes of the myofibrillar apparatus. The molecular pathophysiology of desminopathies is a complex, multilevel issue. In addition to direct effects on the formation and maintenance of the extra-sarcomeric intermediate filament network, mutant desmin affects essential protein interactions, cell signaling cascades, mitochondrial functions, and protein quality control mechanisms. This review summarizes the currently available data on the epidemiology, clinical phenotypes, myopathology, and genetics of desminopathies. In addition, this work provides an overview on the expression, filament formation processes, biomechanical properties, post-translational modifications, interaction partners, subcellular localization, and functions of wild-type and mutant desmin as well as desmin-related cell and animal models.
Project description:This review presents current knowledge related to VDAC1 as a multi-functional mitochondrial protein acting on both sides of the coin, regulating cell life and death, and highlighting these functions in relation to disease. It is now recognized that VDAC1 does not only play a crucial role in regulating the metabolic and energetic functions of mitochondria. The location of VDAC1 at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) allows the control of metabolic cross-talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell and also enables its interaction with proteins involved in metabolic and survival pathways. Along with regulating cellular energy production and metabolism, VDAC1 is also involved in the process of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by mediating the release of apoptotic proteins and interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins. VDAC1 functions in the release of apoptotic proteins located in the mitochondrion inter-membranal space via oligomerization to form a large channel that allows passage of cytochrome <i>c</i> and AIF and their release to the cytosol, subsequently apoptotic cell death. VDAC1 also regulates apoptosis via interactions with apoptosis regulatory proteins, such as hexokinase (HK), Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, some of which are also highly expressed in many cancers. This review also provide insight into VDAC1 function in Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis, oxidative stress, and presents VDAC1 as a hub protein interacting with over 100 proteins. Such interactions enable VDAC1 to mediate and regulate the integration of mitochondrial functions with cellular activities. VDAC1 can thus be considered as standing at the crossroads between mitochondrial metabolite transport and apoptosis and hence represents an emerging cancer drug target.
Project description:B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) is a mitochondrial protein known to inhibit mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathways. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that Bcl-xL is critical in regulating neuronal energy metabolism and has a protective role in pathologies associated with an energy deficit. However, it is less known how Bcl-xL regulates physiological processes of the brain. In this study, we hypothesize that Bcl-xL is required for neurite branching and maturation during neuronal development by improving local energy metabolism. We found that the absence of Bcl-xL in rat primary hippocampal neurons resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction. Specifically, the ATP/ADP ratio was significantly decreased in the neurites of Bcl-xL depleted neurons. We further found that neurons transduced with Bcl-xL shRNA or neurons treated with ABT-263, a pharmacological inhibitor of Bcl-xL, showed impaired mitochondrial motility. Neurons lacking Bcl-xL had significantly decreased anterograde and retrograde movement of mitochondria and an increased stationary mitochondrial population when Bcl-xL was depleted by either means. These mitochondrial defects, including loss of ATP, impaired normal neurite development. Neurons lacking Bcl-xL showed significantly decreased neurite arborization, growth and complexity. Bcl-xL depleted neurons also showed impaired synapse formation. These neurons showed increased intracellular calcium concentration and were more susceptible to excitotoxic challenge. Bcl-xL may support positioning of mitochondria at metabolically demanding regions of neurites like branching points. Our findings suggest a role for Bcl-xL in physiological regulation of neuronal growth and development.
Project description:Maturation of neuronal synapses is thought to involve mitochondria. Bcl-xL protein inhibits mitochondria-mediated apoptosis but may have other functions in healthy adult neurons in which Bcl-xL is abundant. Here, we report that overexpression of Bcl-xL postsynaptically increases frequency and amplitude of spontaneous miniature synaptic currents in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. Bcl-xL, overexpressed either pre or postsynaptically, increases synapse number, the number and size of synaptic vesicle clusters, and mitochondrial localization to vesicle clusters and synapses, likely accounting for the changes in miniature synaptic currents. Conversely, knockdown of Bcl-xL or inhibiting it with ABT-737 decreases these morphological parameters. The mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), is a GTPase known to localize to synapses and affect synaptic function and structure. The effects of Bcl-xL appear mediated through Drp1 because overexpression of Drp1 increases synaptic markers, and overexpression of the dominant-negative dnDrp1-K38A decreases them. Furthermore, Bcl-xL coimmunoprecipitates with Drp1 in tissue lysates, and in a recombinant system, Bcl-xL protein stimulates GTPase activity of Drp1. These findings suggest that Bcl-xL positively regulates Drp1 to alter mitochondrial function in a manner that stimulates synapse formation.