SGA as a Risk Factor for Cerebral Palsy in Moderate to Late Preterm Infants: a System Review and Meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Small for gestational age (SGA) is an established risk factor for cerebral palsy (CP) in term infants. However, there is conflicting data on the association between SGA and CP in moderate to late preterm infants. The aim of the article was to explore the relationship between SGA and CP in the moderate to late preterm infants and its strength by meta-analysis. We performed a system search in OVID (EMBASE and MEDLINE) and WANFANG from inception to May 2016. The study-specific risk estimates were pooled using the random-effect model. A total of seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, consisting of three cohort and four case-control studies. A statistically significant association was found between SGA and CP in moderate to late premature infants (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.43-3.82). The association were higher in the several subgroups: 34-36 week gestational age (OR: 3.47; 95% CI: 1.29-9.31), SGA?
Project description:Purpose:The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and mortality pattern of small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in comparison to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) preterm infants of similar gestational age. Method:We compared neonatal outcomes of 1336, 1:1 matched, singleton SGA and AGA preterm infants based on their gestational age using data from the study 'Causes of Illness and Death of Preterm Infants in Ethiopia (SIP)'. Data were analysed using SPSS V.23. ORs and 95% CIs and ?2 tests were done, p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result:The majority of the infants (1194, 89%) were moderate to late preterm (32-36 weeks of gestation), 763 (57%) were females. Male preterm infants had higher risk of being SGA than female infants (p<0.001). SGA infants had increased risk of hypoglycaemic (OR and 95% CI 1.6 (1.2 to 2.0), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) 2.3 (1.2 to 4.1), polycythaemia 3.0 (1.6 to 5.4), late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS) 3.6 (1.1 to 10.9)) and prolonged hospitalisation 2.9 (2.0 to 4.2). The rates of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), apnoea and mortality were similar in the SGA and AGA groups. Conclusion:Neonatal complications such as hypoglycaemic, NEC, LOS, polycythaemia and prolonged hospitalisation are more common in SGA infants, while rates of RDS and mortality are similar in SGA and AGA groups. Early recognition of SGA status, high index of suspicion and screening for complications associated and timely intervention to prevent complications need due consideration.
Project description:Background We hypothesized that women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at increased risk of giving birth preterm, including very and moderately preterm and giving birth to infants small for gestational age (SGA). We aimed to investigate this in a nation-wide study with focus on the potential modifying effect of socioeconomic status. Methods and Results We performed a cohort study using Danish nation-wide registers between 1997 and 2014. The exposure, maternal CHD, was subdivided into simple, moderate and complex based on severity of defects. Outcomes were preterm birth and SGA. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR). A total of 933 149 births including 3745 births among women with CHD were studied. The risk of giving birth preterm and SGA were higher among women with CHD as compared with women without CHD; for example, adjusted hazard ratios of preterm birth according to severity: simple 1.33 (95% CI, 1.11-1.59), moderate 1.45 (95% CI, 1.14-1.83) and complex 3.26 (95% CI, 2.41-4.40). Same pattern was seen for very and moderately preterm births and SGA. Education was a strong predictor of both preterm birth and SGA but did not modify the association between maternal congenital heart disease and preterm birth (P=0.38) or SGA (P=0.99). Conclusions Women with CHD were at increased risk of preterm birth both, moderately and very preterm, as well as giving birth to infants SGA. Education was a strong predictor of both preterm birth and SGA but the association between CHD and risk of preterm birth and SGA was independent of educational level.
Project description:Influenza infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes such as preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA). Maternal influenza immunization may prevent these adverse infant outcomes during periods of influenza circulation.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of live births within Kaiser Permanente (KP) Georgia and Mid-Atlantic States (n = 3327) during the period of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus circulation. Primary outcomes were third-trimester preterm birth (27-36 weeks), birth weight, low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g), and SGA.There were 327 (9.8%) preterm, 236 (7.4%) LBW, and 267 (8.4%) SGA births. Among H1N1-vaccinated mothers (n = 1125), there were 86 (7.6%) preterm, 68 (6.4%) LBW, and 99 (9.3%) SGA births, and the mean birth weight was 3308.5 g (95% confidence interval [CI], 3276.6-3340.4). Among unvaccinated mothers (n = 1581), there were 191 (12.1%) preterm, 132 (8.8%) LBW, and 123 (8.2%) SGA births, and the mean birth weight was 3245.3 g (95% CI, 3216.5-3274.2). Infants of H1N1-vaccinated mothers had 37% lower odds of being born preterm than infants of unvaccinated mothers (adjusted odds ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, .47-.84]). The mean birth weight difference between infants of H1N1-vaccinated mothers and infants of unvaccinated mothers was 45.1 g (95% CI, 1.8-88.3). There was no significant association between maternal H1N1 influenza immunization and LBW or SGA.Pregnant women who received H1N1 influenza vaccine were less likely to give birth preterm, and gave birth to heavier infants. The findings support US vaccine policy choices to prioritize pregnant women during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic.
Project description:Small for gestational age (SGA) is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%), Nepal (17.9%), the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%), and Japan (16.0%), while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%), Uganda (6.6%) and Thailand (9.7%). The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28) compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3) (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92) was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.
Project description:Objectives were to examine the growth patterns of preterm and growth-restricted infants and to evaluate the associations of prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with risk of stunting, wasting and underweight. Data from a cohort of HIV-negative pregnant women-infant pairs were collected prospectively in Tanzania. Small for gestational age [SGA, birthweight (BW) <10th percentile] was used as proxy for IUGR. Anthropometry was measured monthly until 18 months. Length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ), and weight-for-age (WAZ) z-scores were calculated using the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards. Stunting, wasting and underweight were defined as binary outcomes using a cut-off of <-2 SD of the respective z-scores. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the associations between preterm and SGA to time to stunting, wasting and underweight. The study included 6664 singletons. Preterm and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants had slightly better nutritional status than term-SGA infants and despite some catch-up growth, preterm-SGA infants had the poorest nutritional status. The gap in LAZ and WAZ?z-scores among the groups remained similar throughout the follow-up. Compared with term-AGA babies, relative risk (RR) of stunting among preterm-AGA babies was 2.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93-2.36), RR among term-SGA was 2.21 (95% CI 2.02-2.41) and the highest risk was among the babies who were both preterm and SGA (RR?=?7.58, 95% CI 5.41-10.64). Similar magnitude of RR of underweight was observed among the three groups. Preterm and SGA infants should be closely monitored for growth failure. Intervention to reduce preterm and SGA birth may lower risk of undernutrition in resource-limited settings.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the relationships between maternal fish consumption and pregnancy outcomes in a large, population-based sample of women in the USA. DESIGN:We collected average fish consumption prior to pregnancy using a modified version of the semi-quantitative Willett FFQ. We estimated adjusted OR (aOR) and 95 % CI for associations between different levels of fish consumption and preterm birth (<37 weeks), early preterm birth (<32 and <35 weeks) and small-for-gestational-age infants (SGA; <10th percentile). SETTING:The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). SUBJECTS:Control mother-infant pairs with estimated delivery dates between 1997 and 2011 (n 10 919). RESULTS:No significant associations were observed between fish consumption and preterm birth or early preterm birth (aOR = 0·7-1·0 and 0·7-0·9, respectively). The odds of having an SGA infant were elevated (aOR = 2·1; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·4) among women with daily fish consumption compared with women consuming fish less than once per month. No associations were observed between other levels of fish consumption and SGA (aOR = 0·8-1·0). CONCLUSIONS:High intake of fish was associated with twofold higher odds of having an SGA infant, while moderate fish consumption prior to pregnancy was not associated with preterm or SGA. Our study, like many other studies in this area, lacked information regarding preparation methods and the specific types of fish consumed. Future studies should incorporate information on nutrient and contaminant contents, preparation methods and biomarkers to assess these relationships.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify risk factors associated with SGA and examined the potential for reducing the proportion of infants with SGA at a population level. METHODS: Birth and hospital records were linked for births occurring in 2007-2010 in New South Wales, Australia. The analysis was stratified into three groups: preterm births, term births to non-diabetic mothers and term births to diabetic mothers. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between SGA and a range of socio-demographic and behavioural factors and health conditions, with generalised estimating equations to account for correlation among births to the same mother. Model-based population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated for risk factors that were considered causative and potentially modifiable. RESULTS: Of 28,126 SGA infants, the largest group was term infants of non-diabetic mothers (88.5%), followed by term infants of diabetic mothers (6.3%) and preterm infants (5.3%). The highest PAFs were for smoking: 12.4% for preterm SGA and 10.3% for term SGA infants of non-diabetic mothers. Other risk factors for SGA that were considered modifiable included: illicit drug dependency or abuse in pregnancy in all three groups, and pregnancy hypertension and late commencement of antenatal care in term infants of non-diabetic mothers, but PAFs were less than 3%. CONCLUSIONS: There are opportunities for modest reduction of the prevalence of SGA through reduction in smoking in pregnancy, and possibly earlier commencement of antenatal care and improved management of high-risk pregnancies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To characterise the excess risk for death, grade 3-4 intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and stage 3-5 retinopathy of prematurity independently associated with birth small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm infants, stratified by completed weeks of gestation. METHODS:Retrospective cohort study using the Optum Neonatal Database. Study infants were born <32 weeks gestation without severe congenital anomalies. SGA was defined as a birth weight <10th percentile. The excess outcome risk independently associated with SGA birth among SGA babies was assessed using adjusted risk differences (aRDs). RESULTS:Of 6708 infants sampled from 717 US hospitals, 743 (11.1%) were SGA. SGA compared with non-SGA infants experienced higher unadjusted rates of each study outcome except grade 3-4 IVH among survivors. The excess risk independently associated with SGA birth varied by outcome and gestational age. The highest aRD for death (0.27; 95%?CI 0.13 to 0.40) occurred among infants born at 24 weeks gestation and declined as gestational age increased. In contrast, the peak aRDs for BPD among survivors (0.32; 95%?CI 0.20 to 0.44) and the composites of death or BPD (0.35; 95%?CI 0.24 to 0.46) and death or major morbidity (0.35; 95%?CI 0.24 to 0.45) occurred at 27 weeks gestation. The risk-adjusted probability of dying or developing one or more of the evaluated morbidities among SGA infants was similar to that of non-SGA infants born approximately 2-3 weeks less mature. CONCLUSION:The excess risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with being born SGA varies by adverse outcome and gestational age.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Haiti has an estimated neonatal mortality rate of 32/1000 live births, the highest in the Western Hemisphere. Preterm birth and being born small for gestational age (SGA) are major causes of adverse neonatal outcomes worldwide. To reduce preterm birth and infants born SGA, it is important to understand which women are most at risk and how risk varies within countries. There are few studies estimating the prevalence and risk factors for these conditions in Haiti, particularly in rural regions. METHODS:We conducted a prospective cohort study of pregnant women at a rural tertiary care centre in Haiti from May to December 2017. We collected data during interviews and from the medical record. We built multivariable models to identify risk factors for preterm birth and being born SGA among women who had a facility-based delivery. RESULTS:1089 pregnant women delivered at the hospital and were included in this analysis. Median gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks (IQR 36-40). In multivariable analyses, risk factors for preterm birth included maternal age <20 years (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.76, 95%?CI 1.14 to 2.72) and >34 years (AOR 1.46, 95%?CI 1.01 to 2.11) and severe hunger in the household (AOR 1.57, 95%?CI 1.09 to 2.26). Risk factors for SGA were age >34 years (AOR 1.76, 95%?CI 1.18 to 2.59), twin pregnancy (AOR 3.28, 95%?CI 1.20 to 8.95) and first pregnancy (AOR 1.57, 95%?CI 1.12 to 2.23). Number of prior abortions was associated with reduced risk for SGA (AOR 0.41, 95%?CI 0.17 to 0.97). CONCLUSIONS:Food insecurity as a risk factor for preterm birth stands out as an important addition to the understanding of the risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. This association highlights a potentially important intervention target to improve birth outcomes and suggests that food support has an important role to play for pregnant women who are food insecure in low-income settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births are associated with adverse health consequences, including neonatal and infant mortality, childhood undernutrition, and adulthood chronic disease. OBJECTIVES:The specific aims of this study were to estimate the association between short maternal stature and outcomes of SGA alone, preterm birth alone, or both, and to calculate the population attributable fraction of SGA and preterm birth associated with short maternal stature. METHODS:We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis with the use of data sets from 12 population-based cohort studies and the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (13 of 24 available data sets used) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We included those with weight taken within 72 h of birth, gestational age, and maternal height data (n = 177,000). For each of these studies, we individually calculated RRs between height exposure categories of < 145 cm, 145 to < 150 cm, and 150 to < 155 cm (reference: ≥ 155 cm) and outcomes of SGA, preterm birth, and their combination categories. SGA was defined with the use of both the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) birth weight standard and the 1991 US birth weight reference. The associations were then meta-analyzed. RESULTS:All short stature categories were statistically significantly associated with term SGA, preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), and preterm SGA births (reference: term AGA). When using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard to define SGA, women < 145 cm had the highest adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) (term SGA-aRR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.35; preterm AGA-aRR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.66; preterm SGA-aRR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.21). Similar associations were seen for SGA defined by the US reference. Annually, 5.5 million term SGA (18.6% of the global total), 550,800 preterm AGA (5.0% of the global total), and 458,000 preterm SGA (16.5% of the global total) births may be associated with maternal short stature. CONCLUSIONS:Approximately 6.5 million SGA and/or preterm births in LMIC may be associated with short maternal stature annually. A reduction in this burden requires primary prevention of SGA, improvement in postnatal growth through early childhood, and possibly further intervention in late childhood and adolescence. It is vital for researchers to broaden the evidence base for addressing chronic malnutrition through multiple life stages, and for program implementers to explore effective, sustainable ways of reaching the most vulnerable populations.