Clinical Trials of Antiangiogenesis Therapy on Gastric Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Both malignant tumor growth and metastasis are dependent upon angiogenesis, a process of new blood vessel formation. Inhibition of this process by specific inhibitors might be able to control tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, antiangiogenesis thereapy is considered a promising strategy and being studied worldwide. A wide variety of angiogenesis inhibitors have been identified and some of them are under clinical trials in the advanced patients with cancer including gastric cancer. This review summarizes the development and progress of angiogenesis inhibitors in recent decades, and discusses the future direction of antiangiogenesis research, and the potential antiangiogenic agents which are most likely to be translated into standard treatment for gastrointestinal cancer patients either alone or combined with other therapies.
Project description:Angiogenesis is a hallmark of tumor development and metastasis and is now a validated target for cancer treatment. However, the survival benefits of antiangiogenic drugs have thus far been rather modest, stimulating interest in developing more effective ways to combine antiangiogenic drugs with established chemotherapies. This review discusses recent progress and emerging challenges in this field; interactions between antiangiogenic drugs and conventional chemotherapeutic agents are examined, and strategies for the optimization of combination therapies are discussed. Antiangiogenic drugs such as the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab can induce a functional normalization of the tumor vasculature that is transient and can potentiate the activity of coadministered chemoradiotherapies. However, chronic angiogenesis inhibition typically reduces tumor uptake of coadministered chemotherapeutics, indicating a need to explore new approaches, including intermittent treatment schedules and provascular strategies to increase chemotherapeutic drug exposure. In cases where antiangiogenesis-induced tumor cell starvation augments the intrinsic cytotoxic effects of a conventional chemotherapeutic drug, combination therapy may increase antitumor activity despite a decrease in cytotoxic drug exposure. As new angiogenesis inhibitors enter the clinic, reliable surrogate markers are needed to monitor the progress of antiangiogenic therapies and to identify responsive patients. New targets for antiangiogenesis continue to be discovered, increasing the opportunities to interdict tumor angiogenesis and circumvent resistance mechanisms that may emerge with chronic use of these drugs.
Project description:The tumor vasculature delivers nutrients, oxygen, and therapeutic agents to tumor cells. Unfortunately, the delivery of anticancer drugs through tumor blood vessels is often inefficient and can constitute an important barrier for cancer treatment. This barrier can sometimes be circumvented by antiangiogenesis-induced normalization of tumor vasculature. However, such normalizing effects are transient; moreover, they are not always achieved, as shown here, when 9L gliosarcoma xenografts were treated over a range of doses with the VEGF receptor-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors axitinib and AG-028262. The suppression of tumor blood perfusion by antiangiogenesis agents can be turned to therapeutic advantage, however, through their effects on tumor drug retention. In 9L tumors expressing the cyclophosphamide-activating enzyme P450 2B11, neoadjuvant axitinib treatment combined with intratumoral cyclophosphamide administration significantly increased tumor retention of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. Similar increases were achieved using other angiogenesis inhibitors, indicating that increased drug retention is a general response to antiangiogenesis. This approach can be extended to include systemic delivery of an anticancer prodrug that is activated intratumorally, where antiangiogenesis-enhanced retention of the therapeutic metabolite counterbalances the decrease in drug uptake from systemic circulation, as exemplified for cyclophosphamide. Importantly, the increase in intratumoral drug retention induced by neoadjuvant antiangiogenic drug treatment is shown to increase tumor cell killing and substantially enhance therapeutic activity in vivo. Thus, antiangiogenic agents can be used to increase tumor drug exposure and improve therapeutic activity following intratumoral drug administration, or following systemic drug administration in the case of a therapeutic agent that is activated intratumorally.
Project description:Radiotherapy is a vitally important strategy for clinical treatment of malignant cancers. Therefore, rational design and development of radiosensitizers that could enhance radiotherapeutic efficacy has attracted tremendous attention. Antiangiogenesis therapy could be a potentially effective strategy to regulate tumor growth and metastasis due to angiogenesis plays a pivotal role for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis to other organs. Herein, we have rationally designed a smart and effective nanosystem by combining ultrasmall selenium nanoparticles and bevacizumab (Avastin™, Av), for simultaneous radiotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy of cancer. The nanosystem was further coated with red blood cell (RBC) membranes to develop the final construct, RBCs@Se/Av. The RBC membrane coating effectively prolongs the blood circulation time and reduces the elimination of the nanosystem by autoimmune responses. As expected, RBCs@Se/Av, when irradiated with X-ray demonstrated potent anticancer and antiangiogenesis response in vitro and in vivo, as evidenced by strong inhibition of A375 tumor growth in nude mice, without causing any obvious histological damage to the non-target major organs. Taken together, this study demonstrates an effective strategy for design of smart Se-based nanosystem decorated with RBC membrane for simultaneous cancer radiosensitization and precise antiangiogenesis.
Project description:Drugs that target the tumor vasculature and inhibit angiogenesis are widely used for cancer treatment. Individual tumors show large differences in vascularity, but it is uncertain how these differences affect responsiveness to antiangiogenesis. We investigated this question using two closely related prostate cancer models that differ markedly in tumor vascularity: PC3, which has very low vascularity, and the PC3-derived cancer stem-like cell holoclone PC3/2G7, which forms tumors with high microvessel density, high tumor blood flow, and low hypoxia compared with parental PC3 tumors. Three angiogenesis inhibitors (axitinib, sorafenib, and DC101) all induced significantly greater decreases in tumor blood flow and microvessel density in PC3/2G7 tumors compared with PC3 tumors, as well as significantly greater decreases in tumor cell proliferation and cell viability and a greater increase in apoptosis. The increased sensitivity of PC3/2G7 tumors to antiangiogenesis indicates they are less tolerant of low vascularity and suggests they become addicted to their oxygen- and nutrient-rich environment. PC3/2G7 tumors showed strong upregulation of the proangiogenic factors chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and VEGFA compared with PC3 tumors, which may contribute to their increased vascularity, and they have significantly lower endothelial cell pericyte coverage, which may contribute to their greater sensitivity to antiangiogenesis. Interestingly, high levels of VEGF receptor-2 were expressed on PC3 but not PC3/2G7 tumor cells, which may contribute to the growth static response of PC3 tumors to VEGF-targeted antiangiogenesis. Finally, prolonged antiangiogenic treatment led to resumption of PC3/2G7 tumor growth and neovascularization, indicating these cancer stem-like cell-derived tumors can adapt and escape from antiangiogenesis.
Project description:Tumors undergo fast neovascularization to support the rapid proliferation of cancer cells. Vasculature in tumors, unlike that in wound healing, is immature and affects the tumor microenvironment, resulting in hypoxia, acidosis, glucose starvation, immune cell infiltration, and decreased activity, all of which promote cancer progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. This innate defect of tumor vasculature can however represent a useful therapeutic target. Angiogenesis inhibitors targeting tumor vascular endothelial cells important for angiogenesis have attracted attention as cancer therapy agents that utilize features of the tumor microenvironment. While angiogenesis inhibitors have the advantage of targeting neovascularization factors common to all cancer types, some limitations to their deployment have emerged. Further understanding of the mechanism of tumor angiogenesis may contribute to the development of new antiangiogenic therapeutic approaches to control tumor invasion and metastasis. This review discusses the mechanism of tumor angiogenesis as well as angiogenesis inhibition therapy with antiangiogenic agents.
Project description:The process of new blood vessel formation, or angiogenesis, has become an important target for therapeutic intervention in many cancers, including metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The growth and metastasis of primary tumors is dependent upon their ability to acquire and maintain an adequate blood supply; however, angiogenesis in tumors is an irregular process leading to chaotic and hyperpermeable vessels that may result in increased intratumoral pressure and poor exchange of macromolecules and oxygen. It has been hypothesized that inhibition of angiogenesis in tumors can both impair the formation of new tumor blood vessels and possibly 'normalize' the existing tumor vasculature, causing a more efficient delivery of cytotoxic chemotherapies (CTs). Over the last decade, therapies that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have become a component of treatment for several cancers. In particular, the combination of bevacizumab with established chemotherapeutic regimens for mCRC has been shown to improve overall and progression-free survival, as well as response rates, over CT alone. Agents that target various members of the VEGF family, as well as signaling by the VEGF receptors and their tyrosine kinase components, are currently under development and evaluation in clinical trials. Integration of these new therapies into the treatment of mCRC will ultimately increase the available therapeutic options for patients. Still, many challenges remain, including identifying and validating relevant biomarkers to guide the optimal use of antiangiogenesis agents.
Project description:A shift of the angiogenic balance to the proangiogenic state, termed the "angiogenic switch," is a hallmark of cancer progression. Here we devise a strategy for identifying genetic participants of the angiogenic switch based on inverse regulation of genes in human endothelial cells in response to key endogenous pro- and antiangiogenic proteins. This approach reveals a global network pattern for vascular homeostasis connecting known angiogenesis-related genes with previously unknown signaling components. We also demonstrate that the angiogenic switch is governed by simultaneous regulations of multiple genes organized as transcriptional circuitries. In pancreatic cancer patients, we validate the transcriptome-derived switch of the identified "angiogenic network:" The angiogenic state in chronic pancreatitis specimens is intermediate between the normal (angiogenesis off) and neoplastic (angiogenesis on) condition, suggesting that aberrant proangiogenic environment contributes to the increased cancer risk in patients with chronic pancreatitis. In knockout experiments in mice, we show that the targeted removal of a hub node (peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor delta) of the angiogenic network markedly impairs angiogenesis and tumor growth. Further, in tumor patients, we show that peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor delta expression levels are correlated with advanced pathological tumor stage, increased risk for tumor recurrence, and distant metastasis. Our results therefore also may contribute to the rational design of antiangiogenic cancer agents; whereas "narrow" targeted cancer drugs may fail to shift the robust angiogenic regulatory network toward antiangiogenesis, the network may be more vulnerable to multiple or broad-spectrum inhibitors or to the targeted removal of the identified angiogenic "hub" nodes.
Project description:Angiogenesis has been well recognized as a fundamental part of a multistep process in the evolution of cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis. Strategies for inhibiting angiogenesis have been one of the most robust fields of cancer investigation, focusing on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and its receptors. There are numerous regulatory drug approvals to date for the use of these agents in treating a variety of solid tumors. While therapeutic efficacy has been established, challenges remain with regards to overcoming resistance and assessing response to antiangiogenic therapies. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy among American men and angiogenesis plays a role in disease progression. The use of antiangiogenesis agents in prostate cancer has been promising and is hereby explored.
Project description:Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy suggest that manipulation of the immune system to enhance the antitumor response may be a highly effective treatment modality. One understudied aspect of immunosurveillance is antiangiogenic surveillance, the regulation of tumor angiogenesis by the immune system, independent of tumor cell lysis. CD4(+) T cells can negatively regulate angiogenesis by secreting antiangiogenic factors such as thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). In tumor-bearing mice, we show that a Th1-directed viral infection that triggers upregulation of TSP-1 in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and suppress tumor growth. Using bone marrow chimeras and adoptive T-cell transfers, we demonstrated that TSP-1 expression in the T-cell compartment was necessary and sufficient to inhibit tumor growth by suppressing tumor angiogenesis after the viral infection. Our results establish that tumorigenesis can be stanched by antiangiogenic surveillance triggered by an acute viral infection, suggesting novel immunologic approaches to achieve antiangiogenic therapy.
Project description:Novel antiangiogenic agents currently being developed may ultimately be more effective against solid tumours and less toxic than cytotoxic chemotherapy. As a result of the early clinical trials of angiogenesis inhibitors, investigators are beginning to appreciate the complexity of targeting angiogenesis and the realisation that developing clinically useful antiangiogenic therapy will be more challenging than originally thought. It is now apparent that new methods and surrogate markers to assess these agents' biological activity are crucial for their successful development. This review summarises the currently available clinical data on the development of surrogate markers of angiogenesis inhibitors.