In Vivo Gene Delivery to Lymph Node Stromal Cells Leads to Transgene-specific CD8+ T Cell Anergy in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Lymph node stromal cells play a role in self-tolerance by presenting tissue antigens to T cells. Yet, immunomodulatory properties of lymphoid tissue stroma, particularly toward CD4+ T cells, remain insufficiently characterized by lack of tools to target antigens for presentation by stromal cells. A lentiviral vector was therefore designed for antigen delivery to MHC class II+ cells of nonhematopoietic origin. Following intravenous vector delivery, the transgene was detected in lymph node gp38+ stromal cells which were CD45- MHCII+ and partly positive for CD86 and CTLA4 or B7-H4. The transgene was not detected in classical dendritic cells of lymph nodes or spleen. Transgene-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were primed and regulatory T cells were also induced but effector T cell response did not develop, even after a peptide boost. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were not cytolytic in vivo. Thus, expressing a neo-antigen in MHC-II+ lymph node stroma seems to trigger blunt CD4 T cell responses leading to antigen-specific CD8+ T cell anergy. These results open up new perspectives to further characterize lymph node stromal cell functional properties and to develop gene transfer protocols targeting lymph node stroma to induce peripheral tolerance.
Project description:It remains unclear how interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) contributes to type 1 diabetes. Here we have shown that dendritic cells (DCs) in the pancreas required IL-21R not for antigen uptake, but to acquire the chemokine receptor CCR7 and migrate into the draining lymph node. Consequently, less antigen, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, and CD86 was provided to autoreactive effector cells in Il21r(-/-) mice, impairing CD4(+) T cell activation, CD40:CD40L interactions, and pancreatic infiltration by autoreactive T cells. CD40 crosslinking restored defective CD4(+) cell expansion and CD4 independently expanded autoreactive CD8(+) cells, but CD8(+) cells still required CD4(+) cells to reach the pancreas and induce diabetes. Diabetes induction by transferred T cells required IL-21R-sufficient host antigen-presenting cells. Transferring IL-21R-sufficient DCs broke diabetes resistance in Il21r(-/-) mice. We conclude that IL-21R controls both antigen transport by DCs and the crucial beacon function of CD4(+) cells for autoreactive CD8(+) cells to reach the islets.
Project description:Antigen presentation is no longer the exclusive domain of cells of hematopoietic origin. Recent works have demonstrated that lymph node stromal cell (LNSC) populations, such as fibroblastic reticular cells, lymphatic and blood endothelial cells, not only provide a scaffold for lymphocyte interactions but also exhibit active immunomodulatory roles that are critical to mounting and resolving effective immune responses. Importantly, LNSCs possess the ability to present antigens and establish antigen-specific interactions with T cells. One example is the expression of peripheral tissue antigens, which are presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I molecules with tolerogenic consequences on T cells. Additionally, exogenous antigens, including self and tumor antigens, can be processed and presented on MHC-I complexes, which result in dysfunctional activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. While MHC-I is widely expressed on cells of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origins, antigen presentation via MHC-II is more precisely regulated. Nevertheless, LNSCs are capable of endogenously expressing, or alternatively, acquiring MHC-II molecules. Transfer of antigen between LNSC and dendritic cells in both directions has been recently suggested to promote tolerogenic roles of LNSCs on the CD4(+) T cell compartment. Thus, antigen presentation by LNSCs is thought to be a mechanism that promotes the maintenance of peripheral tolerance as well as generates a pool of diverse antigen-experienced T cells for protective immunity. This review aims to integrate the current and emerging literature to highlight the importance of LNSCs in immune responses, and emphasize their role in antigen trafficking, retention, and presentation.
Project description:Host defense against viruses and intracellular parasites depends on effector CD8(+) T cells, whose optimal clonal expansion, differentiation, and memory properties require signals from CD4(+) T cells. Here, we addressed the role of dendritic cell (DC) subsets in initial activation of the two T cell types and their co-operation. Surprisingly, initial priming of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was spatially segregated within the lymph node and occurred on different DCs with temporally distinct patterns of antigen presentation via MHCI versus MHCII molecules. DCs that co-present antigen via both MHC molecules were detected at a later stage; these XCR1(+) DCs are the critical platform involved in CD4(+) T cell augmentation of CD8(+) T cell responses. These findings delineate the complex choreography of cellular interactions underlying effective cell-mediated anti-viral responses, with implications for basic DC subset biology, as well as for translational application to the development of vaccines that evoke optimal T cell immunity.
Project description:Naïve T cells continually recirculate between blood and secondary lymphoid organs, scanning dendritic cells (DC) for foreign antigen. Despite its importance for understanding how adaptive immune responses are efficiently initiated from rare precursors, a detailed quantitative analysis of this fundamental process has not been reported. Here we measure lymph node (LN) entry, transit, and exit rates for naïve CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, then use intravital imaging and mathematical modeling to relate cell-cell interaction dynamics to population behavior. Our studies reveal marked differences between CD4(+) vs. CD8(+) T cells. CD4(+) T cells recirculate more rapidly, homing to LNs more efficiently, traversing LNs twice as quickly, and spending ?1/3 of their transit time interacting with MHCII on DC. In contrast, adoptively transferred CD8(+) T cells enter and leave the LN more slowly, with a transit time unaffected by the absence of MHCI molecules on host cells. Together, these data reveal an unexpectedly asymmetric role for MHC interactions in controlling CD4(+) vs. CD8(+) T lymphocyte recirculation, as well as distinct contributions of T cell receptor (TCR)-independent factors to the LN transit time, exposing the divergent surveillance strategies used by the two lymphocyte populations in scanning for foreign antigen.
Project description:Purpose. To investigate the corneal expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and determine its contribution to the immunopathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). Methods. Seven to 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were housed in a controlled environment chamber and administered scopolamine to induce experimental DED. Mice received intravenous TLR4 inhibitor (Eritoran) to block systemic TLR4-mediated activity. The expression of TLR4 by the corneal epithelium and stroma was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) was performed to evaluate clinical disease severity. The corneal expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF, and CCL2), corneal infiltration of CD11b(+) antigen-presenting cells, and lymph node frequency of mature MHC-II(hi) CD11b(+) cells were assessed. Results. The epithelial cells of normal corneas expressed TLR4 intracellularly; however, DED significantly increased the cell surface expression of TLR4. Similarly, flow cytometric analysis of stromal cells revealed a significant increase in the expression of TLR4 proteins by DED-induced corneas as compared with normal corneas. DED increased the mRNA expression of TLR4 in corneal stromal cells, but not epithelial cells. TLR4 inhibition decreased the severity of CFS and significantly reduced the mRNA expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF. Furthermore, TLR4 inhibition significantly reduced the corneal infiltration of CD11b(+) cells and the lymph node frequency of MHC-II(hi) CD11b(+) cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that DED increases the corneal expression of TLR4 and that TLR4 participates in the inflammatory response to ocular surface desiccating stress.
Project description:The tolerogenic hepatic microenvironment impedes clearance of viral infections but is an advantage in viral vector gene transfer, which often results in immune tolerance induction to transgene products. Although the underlying tolerance mechanism has been extensively studied, our understanding of antigen presentation to transgene product-specific CD4+ T cells remains limited. To address this, we administered hepatotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV8) vector expressing cytoplasmic ovalbumin (OVA) into wt mice followed by adoptive transfer of transgenic OVA-specific T cells. We find that that the liver-draining lymph nodes (celiac and portal) are the major sites of MHC II presentation of the virally encoded antigen, as judged by in vivo proliferation of DO11.10 CD4+ T cells (requiring professional antigen-presenting cells, e.g., macrophages) and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg induction. Antigen presentation in the liver itself contributes to activation of CD4+ T cells egressing from the liver. Hepatic-induced Treg rapidly disseminate through the systemic circulation. By contrast, a secreted OVA transgene product is presented in multiple organs, and OVA-specific Treg emerge in both the thymus and periphery. In summary, liver draining lymph nodes play an integral role in hepatic antigen presentation and peripheral Treg induction, which results in systemic regulation of the response to viral gene products.
Project description:Dendritic cell (DC) subsets with biased capacity for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation are asymmetrically distributed in lymph nodes (LNs), but how this affects adaptive responses has not been extensively studied. Here we used quantitative imaging to examine the relationships among antigen dispersal, DC positioning, and T cell activation after protein immunization. Antigens rapidly drained into LNs and formed gradients extending from the lymphatic sinuses, with reduced abundance in the deep LN paracortex. Differential localization of DCs specialized for major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) and MHC II presentation resulted in preferential activation of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells within distinct LN regions. Because MHC I-specialized DCs are positioned in regions with limited antigen delivery, modest reductions in antigen dose led to a substantially greater decline in CD8+ compared with CD4+ T cell activation, expansion, and clonal diversity. Thus, the collective action of antigen dispersal and DC positioning regulates the extent and quality of T cell immunity, with important implications for vaccine design.
Project description:In mice that express a transgene for the 2C T cell antigen-receptor (TCR) and lack a recombinase-activating gene (2C(+)RAG(-/-) mice) most of the peripheral T cells are CD8(+), a few are CD4(+), and a significant fraction are CD4(-)CD8(-) [double negative (DN)]. The DN 2C cells, like DN T cells that are abundant in various other alphabeta TCR-transgenic mice, appear to be derived directly from DN thymocytes that prematurely express the TCR transgene. The DN 2C cells are virtually absent in mice deficient in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) but more abundant in mice deficient in MHC-I, suggesting that the DN 2C thymocytes are positively selected by self-peptide-MHC-II (pMHC-II) complexes and negatively selected by self-pMHC-I complexes. The pMHC-I complexes, however, positively select CD8(+) 2C T cells in the same mice. The different effects of thymic pMHC-I on DN and CD8(+) thymocytes are consistent with the finding that DN 2C thymocytes are more sensitive than more mature CD4(+)CD8(+) [double positive (DP)] thymocytes to a weak pMHC-I agonist for the 2C TCR. Together with previous evidence that DP thymocytes respond more sensitively than T cells in the periphery to weak pMHC agonists, the findings suggest progressive decreases in responsiveness to self-pMHC-I complexes as thymocytes develop from DN to DP thymocytes and then to mature naïve T cells in the periphery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:TNF receptor family agonists and checkpoint blockade combination therapies lead to minimal tumor clearance of poorly immunogenic tumors. Therefore, a need to enhance the efficacy of this combination therapy arises. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) present antigen to T cells and steer the immune response through chemokine and cytokine secretion. DRibbles (DR) are tumor-derived autophagosomes containing tumor antigens and innate inflammatory adjuvants. METHODS:Using preclinical murine lung and pancreatic cancer models, we assessed the triple combination therapy of GITR agonist and PD-1 blocking antibodies with peritumoral injections of DRibbles-pulsed-bone marrow cells (BMCs), which consisted mainly of APCs, or CD103+ cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). Immune responses were assessed by flow cytometry. FTY720 was used to prevent T-cell egress from lymph nodes to assess lymph node involvement, and MHC-mismatched-BMCs were used to assess the necessity of antigen presentation by the peritumorally-injected DR-APCs. RESULTS:Tritherapy increased survival and cures in tumor-bearing mice compared to combined antibody therapy or peritumoral DR-BMCs alone. Peritumorally-injected BMCs remained within the tumor for at least 14?days and tritherapy efficacy was dependent on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Although the overall percent of tumor-infiltrating T cells remained similar, tritherapy increased the ratio of effector CD4+ T cells-to-regulatory T cells, CD4+ T-cell cytokine production and proliferation, and CD8+ T-cell cytolytic activity in the tumor. Despite tritherapy-induced T-cell activation and cytolytic activity in lymph nodes, this T-cell activation was not required for tumor regression and enhanced survival. Replacement of DR-BMCs with DR-pulsed-DCs in the tritherapy led to similar antitumor effects, whereas replacement with DRibbles was less effective but delayed tumor growth. Interestingly, peritumoral administration of DR-pulsed MHC-mismatched-APCs in the tritherapy led to similar antitumor effects as MHC-matched-APCs, indicating that the observed enhanced antitumor effect was mediated independently of antigen presentation by the administered APCs. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, these results demonstrate that peritumoral DR-pulsed-BMC/DC administration synergizes with GITR agonist and PD-1 blockade to locally modulate and sustain tumor effector T-cell responses independently of T cell priming and perhaps through innate inflammatory modulations mediated by the DRibbles adjuvant. We offer a unique approach to modify the tumor microenvironment to benefit T-cell-targeted immunotherapies.