Impact of Amendments on the Physical Properties of Soil under Tropical Long-Term No Till Conditions.
ABSTRACT: Tropical regions have been considered the world's primary agricultural frontier; however, some physico-chemical deficiencies, such as low soil organic matter content, poor soil structure, high erodibility, soil acidity, and aluminum toxicity, have affected their productive capacity. Lime and gypsum are commonly used to improve soil chemical fertility, but no information exists about the long-term effects of these products on the physical attributes and C protection mechanisms of highly weathered Oxisols. A field trial was conducted in a sandy clay loam (kaolinitic, thermic Typic Haplorthox) under a no-tillage system for 12 years. The trial consisted of four treatments: a control with no soil amendment application, the application of 2.1 Mg ha-1 phosphogypsum, the application of 2.0 Mg ha-1 lime, and the application of lime + phosphogypsum (2.0 + 2.1 Mg ha-1, respectively). Since the experiment was established in 2002, the rates have been applied three times (2002, 2004, and 2010). Surface liming effectively increased water-stable aggregates > 2.0 mm at a depth of up to 0.2 m; however, the association with phosphogypsum was considered a good strategy to improve the macroaggregate stability in subsoil layers (0.20 to 0.40 m). Consequently, both soil amendments applied together increased the mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) in all soil layers, with increases of up to 118 and 89%, respectively, according to the soil layer. The formation and stabilization of larger aggregates contributed to a higher accumulation of total organic carbon (TOC) on these structures. In addition to TOC, the MWD and aggregate stability index were positively correlated with Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels and base saturation. Consequently, the increase observed in the aggregate size class resulted in a better organization of soil particles, increasing the macroporosity and reducing the soil bulk density and penetration resistance. Therefore, adequate soil chemical management plays a fundamental role in improving the soil's physical attributes in tropical areas under conservative management and highly affected by compaction caused by intensive farming.
Project description:Legumes play critical dual roles in grazed grassland ecosystems; providing nitrogen inputs and high-quality feed for grazing livestock. However, many species fail to persist in acidic, low fertility soils. A glasshouse study was conducted to investigate the response of lucerne (Medicago sativa) to phosphogypsum (PG), lime and soluble P + S fertilizer (PS) application to two soils. Phosphorus and sulphur were applied through either PG (0, 1, 3 and 9 t ha-1) or P + S fertilizer at equivalent rates to PG. Both PG and PS were applied with or without lime, which was applied at 2 t ha-1. Yield and nutrient uptake of the lucerne was measured, while the soil was analyzed for pH, Olsen P and exchangeable aluminum. Yield responses were significantly different between the two soils. Maximum yields and P and S uptakes were obtained under PG 9 t ha-1 combined with lime. Exchangeable Al decreased in both soils under 1 ha-1 of PG compared with the control. At the highest rate, Olsen P increased by 8 and 6 mg kg-1 for PG and by 6 and 11 mg kg-1 for PS compared with the control for Glenmore and Molesworth soils respectively. Phosphogypsum showed positive effects on P and S bioavailability.
Project description:A laboratory incubation experiment was executed to examine the role of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (with PSB and without PSB) and poultry manure (4, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1) in improving P mobilization/mineralization under four different lime regimes (4.78, 10, 15 and 20% CaCO3 M/M) for 56 days using three factorial complete randomized design (CRD) with triplicates. Phosphorus availability progressively increased over time irrespective of PSB inoculation, PM and lime levels. The PSB and PM (4-12 t ha-1) addition into soil significantly increased Olsen P at all incubation intervals. Post incubation PSB survival increased by 12 and 9% with inoculation and 12 t PM ha-1 over control and 4 t PM ha-1, respectively. Liming ominously reduced P mobilization/mineralization by 1.3, 2.6 and 10.5% and PSB population by 6.6, 7.3 and 16.3% at 10, 15 and 20% (lime), respectively, over control at day 56. However, PSB and PM addition (with increasing rate) into soil significantly counterbalanced these ill effects of lime. Thus, the application of PSB and PM is a promising measure to enhance P availability in calcareous soils and shall be practiced.
Project description:Among agricultural soil amendment that can enhance crop productivity and soil sustainability is biochar. Hence, two-year field experiments were conducted on a sandy loam Alfisol at Owo, southwest Nigeria, to evaluate the effects of biochar produced from hardwood on soil physical and chemical characteristics, erosion potential, and cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott) yield. The study was a 2?×?4 factorial experiment with two years (2017 and 2018) and four biochar levels (0 (control), 10, 20, and 30?t ha-1). The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that biochar application significantly in both years improved yield of cocoyam and soil physical (bulk density, porosity, moisture content, mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates, dispersion ratio, and infiltration rate) and chemical (soil organic matter, pH, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and CEC) properties and erosion resistance. Soil characteristics and cocoyam yield improved with level of biochar from 0-30?t ha-1. When 2018 is compared with 2017 in term of soil loss, in the amended plots, 2018 reduced soil loss by 7.4, 20, and 73.5%, respectively, for 10, 20, and 30?t ha-1biochar, whereas there was an increase of 2.7% soil loss in the control plot in 2018 compared with 2017. Therefore, application rate of 30?t ha-1 biochar is considered as suitable for severely degraded soil because this application rate efficiently improves cocoyam yield and soil properties and reduces soil loss.
Project description:It has been shown that the golden apple snail (GAS, Pomacea canaliculata), which is a serious agricultural pest in Southeast Asia, can provide a soil amendment for the reversal of soil acidification and degradation. However, the impact of GAS residue (i.e., crushed, whole GAS) on soil bacterial diversity and community structure remains largely unknown. Here, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to measure bacterial abundance and community structure in soils amended with GAS residue and lime. The results suggest that adding GAS residue resulted in a significant variation in soil pH and nutrients (all P?<?0.05), and resulted in a slightly alkaline (pH?=?7.28-7.75) and nutrient-enriched soil, with amendment of 2.5-100 g kg-1 GAS residue. Soil nutrients (i.e., NO3-N and TN) and TOC contents were increased (by 132-912%), and some soil exocellular enzyme activities were enhanced (by 2-98%) in GAS residue amended soil, with amendment of 1.0-100 g kg-1 GAS residue. Bacterial OTU richness was 19% greater at the 2.5 g kg-1 GAS residue treatment than the control, while it was 40% and 53% lower at 100 g kg-1 of GAS residue and 50 g kg-1 of lime amended soils, respectively. Firmicutes (15-35%) was the most abundant phylum while Bacterioidetes (1-6%) was the lowest abundant one in GAS residue amended soils. RDA results suggest that the contents of soil nutrients (i.e., NO3-N and TN) and soil TOC explained much more of the variations of bacterial community than pH in GAS residue amended soil. Overuse of GAS residue would induce an anaerobic soil environment and reduce bacterial OTU richness. Soil nutrients and TOC rather than pH might be the main factors that are responsible for the changes of bacterial OTU richness and bacterial community structure in GAS residue amended soil.
Project description:Grazing exclusion (GE) has been deemed as an important approach to enhance the soil carbon storage of semiarid grasslands in China; however, it remains unclear how different organic carbon (OC) components in soils vary with the duration of GE. Here, we observed the changing trends of different OC components in soils with increased GE duration in five grassland succession series plots, ranging from free grazing to 31-year GE. Specifically, we measured microbial biomass carbon (MBC), easily oxidizable OC (EOC), water-soluble OC (WSOC), and OC in water stable aggregates (macroaggregates [250-2000 ?m], microaggregates [53-250 ?m], and mineral fraction [< 53 ?m]) at 0-20 cm soil depths. The results showed that GE significantly enhanced EOC and WSOC contents in soils, but caused a decline of MBC at the three decade scale. Macroaggregate content (F = 425.8, P < 0.001), OC stored in macroaggregates (F = 84.1, P < 0.001), and the mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates (F = 371.3, P < 0.001) increased linearly with increasing GE duration. These findings indicate that OC stored in soil increases under three-decade GE with soil organic matter (SOM) stability improving to some extent. Long-term GE practices enhance the formation of soil aggregates through higher SOM input and an exclusion of animal trampling. Therefore, the practice of GE may be further encouraged to realize the soil carbon sequestration potential of semi-arid grasslands, China.
Project description:Introduction:Rice bean (Phaseolus calcaltus), as an annual summer legume, is always subjected to acid soils in tropical to subtropical regions, limiting its growth and nodulation. However, little is known about its responses to lime and biochar addition, the two in improving soil fertility in acid soils. Materials and Methods:In the current study, a pot experiment was conducted using rice bean on a sandy yellow soil (Orthic Acrisol) with a pH of 5.5. The experiment included three lime rates (0, 0.75 and 1.5 g kg-1) and three biochar rates (0, 5 and 10 g kg-1). The biochar was produced from aboveground parts of Solanum tuberosum using a home-made device with temperature of pyrolysis about 500 °C. Results and Discussion:The results indicated that both lime and biochar could reduce soil exchange Al concentration, increase soil pH and the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen, and enhance urease and dehydrogenase activities, benefiting P. calcaltus growth and nodulation in acid soils. Lime application did decrease the concentrations of soil available phosphorus (AP) and alkali dispelled nitrogen (AN), whereas biochar application increased the concentrations of soil AP, AN and available potassium (AK). However, sole biochar application could not achieve as much yield increase as lime application did. High lime rate (1.5 g lime kg-1) incorporated with low biochar rate (5 g biochar kg-1) could obtain higher shoot biomass, nutrient uptake, and nodule number when compared with high lime rate and high biochar rate. Conclusion:Lime incorporated with biochar application could achieve optimum improvement for P. calcaltus growing in acid soils when compared with sole lime or biochar addition.
Project description:Composted sewage sludge (CS) is considered a rich source of soil nutrients and significantly affects the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil, but its effect on specific enzyme activity in soil is disregarded. The present experiment examined the absolute and specific enzyme activity of the enzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, the diversity of soil microbial functions, and soil community composition in a Fluventic Ustochrept under a maize-wheat rotation system in North China during 2012-2015. Application of CS led to increase in MBC and in its ratio to both total organic carbon (TOC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN). Absolute enzyme activity, except that of phosphatase, increased in CS-treated soils, whereas specific activity of all the enzymes declined, especially at the highest dose of CS (45 t ha-1). The diversity of soil microbial community also increased in CS-treated soils, whereas its functional diversity declined at higher doses of CS owing to the lowered specific enzyme activity. These changes indicate that CS application induced the domination of microorganisms that are not metabolically active and those that use resources more efficiently, namely fungi. Redundancy analysis showed that fundamental alterations in soil enzyme activity depend on soil pH. Soil specific enzyme activity is affected more than absolute enzyme activity by changes in soil properties, especially soil microbial activity and composition of soil microflora (as judged by the following ratios: MBC/TOC, MBC/MBN, and TOC/LOC, that is labile organic carbon) through the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Specific enzyme activity is thus a more accurate parameter than absolute enzyme activity for monitoring the effect of adding CS on the activities and structure of soil microbial community.
Project description:Low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) is one of the main problems of acidic soil that limit the crop growth. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the response of crop yield and PUE to the long-term application of fertilizers and quicklime (CaO) in the acidic soil under wheat-maize rotation system. Treatments included, CK (no fertilization), NP (inorganic nitrogen and P fertilization), NPK (inorganic N, P and potassium fertilization), NPKS (NPK?+?straw return), NPCa (NP?+?lime), NPKCa (NPK?+?lime) and NPKSCa (NPKS?+?lime). Results showed that, fertilizer without lime treatments, significantly (p???0.05) decreased soil pH and crop yield, compared to the fertilizer with lime treatments during the period of 2012-2018. Average among years, compared to the CK treatment, wheat grain yield increased by 138%, 213%, 198%, 547%, 688% and 626%, respectively and maize yield increased by 687%, 1887%, 1651%, 2605%, 5047% and 5077%, respectively, under the NP, NPK, NPKS, NPCa, NPKCa and NPKSCa treatments. Lime application significantly increased soil exchangeable base cations (Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup>) and decreased Al<sup>3+</sup> cation. Compared to the NP treatment, phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) increased by 220%, 212%, 409%, 807% and 795%, respectively, under the NPK, NPKS, NPCa, NPKCa and NPKSCa treatments. Soil pH showed significant negative relationship with exchangeable Al<sup>3+</sup> and soil total N. While, soil pH showed significant (p???0.05) positive relationship with exchangeable Ca<sup>2+</sup>, PUE and annual crop yield. PUE was highly negatively correlated with soil exchangeable Al<sup>3+</sup>. In addition, soil exchangeable Ca<sup>2+</sup>, pH, exchangeable Al<sup>3+</sup> and available N were the most influencing factors of crop yield. Therefore, we concluded that lime application is an effective strategy to mitigate soil acidification and to increase PUE through increasing exchangeable base cations and reducing the acidic cations for high crop yield in acidic soil.
Project description:Microbiome plays a key role in determining soil suppressiveness against invading pathogens. Our previous study revealed that microbial community of bulk soil could be manipulated by lime and ammonium bicarbonate fumigation followed by biofertilizer application. However, the assembly of microbial community suppressive to banana Panama disease in the rhizosphere is still unclear. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR to explore the assembly of rhizosphere microbiome associated with banana Panama disease suppression in a two-seasonal pot experiment. We found biofertilizer applied to lime and ammonium bicarbonate fumigated soil significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the abundance of rhizosphere Fusarium oxysporum compared to biofertilizer applied to non-fumigated soil. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that biofertilizer applied to lime and ammonium bicarbonate fumigated soil re-shaped the rhizosphere bacterial community composition by increasing the phylogenetic relatedness, and stimulating indigenous microbes, for example, Gemmatimonas, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter and Bacillus. Co-occurrence analysis revealed that potential species involved in disease suppression were more interrelated in disease-suppressive soils. Taken together, lime and ammonium bicarbonate fumigation followed by biofertilizer application could induce banana rhizosphere to assemble beneficial microbes dominated consortia to suppress banana Panama disease.
Project description:Low soil fertility, high rates of fertilizer application and low yields and quality are major problems in intensive banana production in acid soils of south China. A field experiment was carried out for two years to determine the optimum management practices for maximizing soil health and banana yield and quality. The experiment consisted of an unamended control (CK) and lime (Lime), calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (CMP), organic fertilizer (OF), and organic fertilizer combined with calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (OFC) treatments. Soil nutrient concentrations and banana shoot biomass, nutrient uptake, yield and fruit quality were determined. Application of lime and CMP was found to increase soil pH and nutrient availability and increase banana yield. Yet, the banana biomass and yields in the Lime and CMP treatments were significantly lower than those in the OF and OFC treatments in which soil organic matter (SOM) content increased. Total soluble solids and soluble sugar contents increased in the CMP and organic fertilizer treatments. A consistent increase in Mg concentrations in banana leaves over the two years in the CMP and organic fertilizer treatments indicates that Mg is essential for banana production and quality. Short-term adding Mg from banana corms increased total soluble solids and soluble sugar content. The application of organic fertilizer combined with CMP or Mg solution is therefore recommended to increase soil health and promote the yield and quality of banana in intensively managed plantations in subtropical regions.