Transfusion: -80°C Frozen Blood Products Are Safe and Effective in Military Casualty Care.
ABSTRACT: The Netherlands Armed Forces use -80°C frozen red blood cells (RBCs), plasma and platelets combined with regular liquid stored RBCs, for the treatment of (military) casualties in Medical Treatment Facilities abroad. Our objective was to assess and compare the use of -80°C frozen blood products in combination with the different transfusion protocols and their effect on the outcome of trauma casualties.Hemovigilance and combat casualties data from Afghanistan 2006-2010 for 272 (military) trauma casualties with or without massive transfusions (MT: ?6 RBC/24hr, N = 82 and non-MT: 1-5 RBC/24hr, N = 190) were analyzed retrospectively. In November 2007, a massive transfusion protocol (MTP; 4:3:1 RBC:Plasma:Platelets) for ATLS® class III/IV hemorrhage was introduced in military theatre. Blood product use, injury severity and mortality were assessed pre- and post-introduction of the MTP. Data were compared to civilian and military trauma studies to assess effectiveness of the frozen blood products and MTP.No ABO incompatible blood products were transfused and only 1 mild transfusion reaction was observed with 3,060 transfused products. In hospital mortality decreased post-MTP for MT patients from 44% to 14% (P = 0.005) and for non-MT patients from 12.7% to 5.9% (P = 0.139). Average 24-hour RBC, plasma and platelet ratios were comparable and accompanying 24-hour mortality rates were low compared to studies that used similar numbers of liquid stored (and on site donated) blood products.This report describes for the first time that the combination of -80°C frozen platelets, plasma and red cells is safe and at least as effective as standard blood products in the treatment of (military) trauma casualties. Frozen blood can save the lives of casualties of armed conflict without the need for in-theatre blood collection. These results may also contribute to solutions for logistic problems in civilian blood supply in remote areas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Management of patients with major haemorrhage often requires urgent administration of multiple blood products, commonly termed a massive transfusion (MT). Clinical practice in these scenarios is supported in part by evidence-based MT guidelines, which typically recommend use of an MT protocol (MTP). MTPs aim to provide practical and specific interpretation of MT guidelines for local institutional use, outlining tasks and pre-configuration of blood product packs to be transfused to provide efficient and evidence-based transfusion management. Institutions can support this aim by the measurement of MTP performance and patient outcomes through collection of quality indicators (QI). Many international guidelines now recommend the routine collection of a range of QIs relating to MT/MTP; however, there is significant variation in procedures and no benchmarks or minimal evidence to guide practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We conducted a scoping review to document and evaluate reported QIs for MTP. We conducted a search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE for published studies from inception until May 14, 2020, that reported at least one MTP QI and use of an MTP or equivalent protocol. Included studies were evaluated using a QI classification system based on current MT QI guidelines and the Donabedian QI framework. RESULTS:We identified 107 eligible studies. Trauma patients were the most commonly evaluated group, and total blood products transfused and in-hospital mortality were the most commonly reported QIs. Reflecting the lack of international consensus and benchmarks, we found significant variability in the reporting of QIs, which often did not reflect guideline recommendations. DISCUSSION:Our review highlights the importance of establishing international consensus on prioritised QIs with quantifiable targets that are important to the process of MT.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Up to 40% of combat casualties with a truncal injury die of massive hemorrhage before reaching a surgeon. This hemorrhage can be prevented with damage control resuscitation (DCR) methods, which are focused on replacing shed whole blood by empirically transfusing blood components in a 1:1:1:1 ratio of platelets:fresh frozen plasma:erythrocytes:cryoprecipitate (PLT:FFP:RBC:CRYO). Measurement of hemostatic function with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) may allow optimization of the type and quantity of blood products transfused. Our hypothesis was that incorporating ROTEM measurements into DCR methods at the US Role 3 hospital at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan would change the standard transfusion ratios of 1:1:1:1 to a product mix tailored specifically for the combat causality. METHODS:This retrospective study collected data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry to compare transfusion practices and outcomes before and after ROTEM deployment to Bagram Airfield. Over the course of six months, 134 trauma patients received a transfusion (pre-ROTEM) and 85 received a transfusion and underwent ROTEM testing (post-ROTEM). Trauma teams received instruction on ROTEM use and interpretation, with no provision of a specific transfusion protocol, to supplement their clinical judgment and practice. RESULTS:The pre and post groups were not significantly different in terms of mortality, massive transfusion protocol activation, mean injury severity score, or coagulation measurements. Despite the difference in size, each group received an equal total number of transfusions. However, the post-ROTEM group received a significant increase in PLT and CRYO transfusions ratios, 4× and 2×, respectively. CONCLUSION:The introduction of ROTEM significantly improved adherence to DCR practices. The transfusion differences suggest that aggressive DCR without thromboelastometry data may result in reduced hemostatic support and underestimate the need for PLT and CRYO. Thus, future controlled trials should include ROTEM-guided coagulation management in trauma resuscitation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic, level IV.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine if higher fresh frozen plasma and platelet to packed RBC ratios are associated with lower 24-hour mortality in bleeding pediatric trauma patients. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Trauma Quality Improvement Program Database from 2014 to 2016. SETTING:Level I and II pediatric trauma centers participating in the Trauma Quality Improvement Program PATIENTS:: Injured children (? 14 yr old) who received massive transfusion (? 40?mL/kg total blood products in 24?hr). Of 123,836 patients, 590 underwent massive transfusion, of which 583 met inclusion criteria. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Ratios of fresh frozen plasma:packed RBC and platelet:packed RBC. Of the 583 patients, 60% were male and the median age was 5 years (interquartile range, 2-10 yr). Overall mortality was 19.7% (95% CI, 16.6-23.2%) at 24 hours. There was 51% (adjusted relative risk, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.87; p = 0.02) and 40% (adjusted relative risk, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39-0.92; p = 0.02) lower risk of death at 24 hours for the high (? 1:1) and medium (? 1:2 and < 1:1) fresh frozen plasma:packed RBC ratio groups, respectively, compared with the low ratio group (< 1:2). Platelet:packed RBC ratio was not associated with mortality (adjusted relative risk, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.51-1.71; p = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS:Higher fresh frozen plasma ratios were associated with lower 24-hour mortality in massively transfused pediatric trauma patients. The platelet ratio was not associated with mortality. Although these findings represent the largest study evaluating blood product ratios in pediatric trauma patients, prospective studies are necessary to determine the optimum blood product ratios to minimize mortality in this population.
Project description:Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.
Project description:In transfusion medicine, several blood products can be prepared and used as replacement therapy; however, four of these products are more commonly used in general practice: RBCs, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets and cryoprecipitate. RBC transfusions are mainly administered to improve tissue oxygenation in cases of anaemia or acute blood loss due to trauma or surgery. FFP, platelets and cryoprecipitate are used for the prevention and treatment of bleeding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early identification of patients who may need massive blood transfusion remains a major challenge in trauma care. This study proposed a novel and easy-to-calculate prediction score using clinical and point of care laboratory findings in patients with abdominal trauma (AT). METHODS:Patients with AT admitted to a trauma center in Qatar between 2014 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The FASILA score was proposed and calculated using focused assessment with sonography in trauma (0?=?negative, 1?=?positive), Shock Index (SI) (0?=?0.50-0.69, 1?=?0.70-0.79, 2?=?0.80-0.89, and 3???0.90), and initial serum lactate (0???2.0, 1?=?2.0-4.0, and 2???4.0 mmol/l). Outcome variables included mortality, laparotomy, and massive blood transfusion (MT). FASILA was compared to other prediction scores using receiver operating characteristics and areas under the curves. Bootstrap procedure was employed for internal validation. RESULTS:In 1199 patients with a mean age of 31?±?13.5 years, MT, MT protocol (MTP) activation, exploratory laparotomy (ExLap), and hospital mortality were related linearly with the FASILA score, Injury Severity Score, and total length of hospital stay. Initial hemoglobin, Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) were inversely proportional. FASILA scores correlated significantly with the Assessment of Blood Consumption (ABC) (r?=?0.65), Revised Assessment of Bleeding and Transfusion (RABT) (r?=?0.63), SI (r?=?0.72), RTS (r?=?-?0.34), and Glasgow Coma Scale (r?=?-?0.32) and outperformed other predictive systems (RABT, ABC, and SI) in predicting MT, MTP, ExLap, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS:The novel FASILA score performs well in patients with abdominal trauma and offers advantages over other scores.
Project description:Hemorrhage coupled with coagulopathy remains the leading cause of preventable in-hospital deaths among trauma patients. Use of a transfusion protocol with a predefined ratio of 1:1:1 (1 each of red blood cells [RBC], frozen plasma [FP] and platelets) has been associated with improved survival in retrospective studies in military and civilian settings, but such a protocol has its challenges and may increase the risk of respiratory complications. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility of a 1:1:1 transfusion protocol and its effect on mortality and complications among patients with severe trauma.We included 78 patients seen in a tertiary trauma centre between July 2009 and October 2011 who had hypotension and bleeding and were expected to need massive transfusion (≥ 10 RBC units in 24 h). We randomly assigned them to either the fixed-ratio (1:1:1) transfusion protocol (n = 40) or to a laboratory-results-guided transfusion protocol (control; n = 38). The primary outcome, feasibility, was assessed in terms of blood product ratios and plasma wastage. Safety was measured based on 28-day mortality and survival free of acute respiratory distress syndrome.Overall, a transfusion ratio of 1:1:1 was achieved in 57% (21/37) of patients in the fixed-ratio group, as compared with 6% (2/32) in the control group. A ratio of 1:1 (RBC:FP) was achieved in 73% (27/37) in the fixed-ratio group and 22% (7/32) in the control group. Plasma wastage was higher with the intervention protocol (22% [86/390] of FP units v. 10% [30/289] in the control group). The 28-day mortality and number of days free of acute respiratory distress syndrome were statistically similar between the groups.The fixed-ratio transfusion protocol was feasible in our study, but it was associated with increased plasma wastage. Larger randomized trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of such a protocol in trauma care.ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00945542.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We aimed to evaluate the evolution and implementation of the massive transfusion protocol (MTP) in an urban level 1 trauma centre. Most data on this topic comes from trauma centres with high exposure to life-threatening haemorrhage. This study examines the effect of the introduction of an MTP in an Australian level 1 trauma centre. METHODS:A retrospective study of prospectively collected data was performed over a 14-year period. Three groups of trauma patients, who received more than 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBC), were compared: a pre-MTP group (2002-2006), an MTP-I group (2006-2010) and an MTP-II group (2010-2016) when the protocol was updated. Key outcomes were mortality, complications and number of blood products transfused. RESULTS:A total of 168 patients were included: 54 pre-MTP patients were compared to 47 MTP-I and 67 MTP-II patients. In the MTP-II group, fewer units of PRBC and platelets were administered within the first 24?h: 17 versus 14 (P = 0.01) and 12 versus 8 (P?<?0.001), respectively. Less infections were noted in the MTP-I group: 51.9% versus 31.9% (P = 0.04). No significant differences were found regarding mortality, ventilator days, intensive care unit and total hospital lengths of stay. CONCLUSION:Introduction of an MTP-II in our level 1 civilian trauma centre significantly reduced the amount of PRBC and platelets used during damage control resuscitation. Introduction of the MTP did not directly impact survival or the incidence of complications. Nevertheless, this study reflects the complexity of real-life medical care in a level 1 civilian trauma centre.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Blood products are often transfused in critically ill children, although recent studies have recognized their potential for harm. Translatability to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is unknown given that hypoxemia has excluded pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome patients from clinical trials. We aimed to determine whether an association exists between blood product transfusion and survival or duration of ventilation in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of prospectively enrolled cohort. SETTING:Large, academic PICU. PATIENTS:Invasively ventilated children meeting Berlin Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome criteria from 2011 to 2015. INTERVENTIONS:We recorded transfusion of RBC, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets within the first 3 days of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. Each product was tested for independent association with survival (Cox) and duration of mechanical ventilation (competing risk regression with extubation as primary outcome and death as competing risk). A sensitivity analysis using 1:1 propensity matching was also performed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Of 357 pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, 155 (43%) received RBC, 82 (23%) received fresh frozen plasma, and 92 (26%) received platelets. Patients who received RBC, fresh frozen plasma, or platelets had higher severity of illness score, lower PaO2/FIO2, and were more often immunocompromised (all p < 0.05). Patients who received RBC, fresh frozen plasma, or platelets had worse survival and longer duration of ventilation by univariate analysis (all p < 0.05). After multivariate adjustment for above confounders, no blood product was associated with survival. After adjustment for the same confounders, RBC were associated with decreased probability of extubation (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51-0.83). The association between RBC and prolonged ventilation was confirmed in propensity-matched subgroup analysis. CONCLUSIONS:RBC transfusion was independently associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Hemoglobin transfusion thresholds should be tested specifically within pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome to establish whether a more restrictive transfusion strategy would improve outcomes.
Project description:Hemostatic resuscitation has been shown to be beneficial for patients with trauma, but there is little evidence that it is equally beneficial for bleeding patients without trauma. The practice of a high transfusion ratio of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to red blood cells (RBCs) has spread to other surgical and medical fields.To identify whether ratio-based resuscitation in patients without trauma is associated with improved survival.This study is a retrospective review of all massive transfusions provided in an urban academic hospital from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Massive transfusion was defined as the transfusion of at least 10 U of RBCs in the first 24 hours after a patient's admission to the operating room, emergency department, or intensive care unit. All patients who received massive transfusions within the study period and survived more than 30 minutes after hospital arrival were counted (n=865). Patients were grouped into those with trauma and those without trauma. Sources of data included the Research Patient Data Registry, patients' medical records, and blood bank records. All data collection occurred between April 26, 2013, and April 26, 2015. Data analysis took place from April 27, 2015, and June 22, 2016.Examination of FFP:RBC transfusion ratios for patients without trauma.There were 865 massive transfusion events that occurred within 4 years, transfusing 16?569 U of RBCs, 13?933 U of FFP, 5228 U of cryoprecipitate, and 22?635 U of platelets. Most of these transfusions were received by patients without trauma (767 [88.7%]), by men (582 [67.3%]), and for intraoperative bleeding (544 [62.9%]). The FFP:RBC ratios of survivors and nonsurvivors were nearly identical: the ratio for survivors was 1:1.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 1:1.1-1:2.2) and for nonsurvivors was 1:1.4 (IQR, 1:1.1-1:1.9; P?=?.43). Among the 767 patients without trauma, there was no difference in the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for 30-day mortality when comparing the high FFP:RBC ratio vs the low FFP:RBC ratio subgroups (aOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.72-1.70; P?=?.65). In vascular surgery, the aOR for death favored the high FFP:RBC ratio subgroup (aOR,?0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.79; P?=?.02). However, in general surgery and medicine, the aOR for death favored the low FFP:RBC ratio subgroup; general surgery: aOR, 4.27 (95% CI, 1.28-14.22; P?=?.02); medicine: aOR, 8.48 (95% CI, 1.50-47.75; P?=?.02).High FFP:RBC transfusion ratios are applied mostly to patients without trauma, who account for nearly 90% of all massive transfusion events. Thirty-day survival was not significantly different in patients who received a high FFP:RBC ratio compared with those who received a low ratio.