DkXTH8, a novel xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase in persimmon, alters cell wall structure and promotes leaf senescence and fruit postharvest softening.
ABSTRACT: Fruit softening is mainly associated with cell wall structural modifications, and members of the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) family are key enzymes involved in cleaving and re-joining xyloglucan in the cell wall. In this work, we isolated a new XTH gene, DkXTH8, from persimmon fruit. Transcriptional profiling revealed that DkXTH8 peaked during dramatic fruit softening, and expression of DkXTH8 was stimulated by propylene and abscisic acid but suppressed by gibberellic acid and 1-MCP. Transient expression assays in onion epidermal cells indicated direct localization of DkXTH8 to the cell wall via its signal peptide. When expressed in vitro, the recombinant DkXTH8 protein exhibited strict xyloglucan endotransglycosylase activity, whereas no xyloglucan endohydrolase activity was observed. Furthermore, overexpression of DkXTH8 resulted in increased leaf senescence coupled with higher electrolyte leakage in Arabidopsis and faster fruit ripening and softening rates in tomato. Most importantly, transgenic plants overexpressing DkXTH8 displayed more irregular and twisted cells due to cell wall restructuring, resulting in wider interstitial spaces with less compact cells. We suggest that DkXTH8 expression causes cells to be easily destroyed, increases membrane permeability and cell peroxidation, and accelerates leaf senescence and fruit softening in transgenic plants.
Project description:Fruit cell wall modification is the primary factor affecting fruit softening. Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH), a cell wall-modifying enzyme, is involved in fruit softening. In this study, two novel XTH genes (DkXTH6 and DkXTH7) were identified from persimmon fruit. Transcriptional profiles of both of the two genes were analyzed in different tissues of persimmon, and in response to multiple hormonal and environmental treatments [gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), propylene, and low temperature]. Expression of DkXTH6 was positively up-regulated during ethylene production and by propylene and ABA treatments, and suppressed by GA3 and cold treatment. In contrast, DkXTH7 exhibited its highest transcript levels in GA3-treated fruit and cold-treated fruit, which had higher fruit firmness. We found that DkXTH6 protein was localized in cell wall by its signal peptide, while cytoplasmic DkXTH7 protein contained no signal peptide. When expressed in vitro, the recombinant proteins of both DkXTH6 and DkXTH7 exhibited strict xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) activity but no xyloglucan endohydrolase (XEH) activity. The recombinant protein of DkXTH6 showed a higher affinity with small acceptor molecules than the recombinant DkXTH7. Taken together with their opposing expression patterns and subcellular localizations, these results suggested that DkXTH6 might take part in cell wall restructuring and DkXTH7 was likely to be involved in cell wall assembly, indicating their special roles in persimmon fruit softening.
Project description:Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) enzymes have played a role in the remodeling of cell wall hemicelluloses. To investigate the function of XTHs in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruit development and postharvest softening, five cDNAs (DkXTH1 to DkXTH5), whose putative proteins contained the conserved DEIDFEFLG motif of XTH, were cloned. Real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that DkXTH1, DkXTH4, and DkXTH5 peaked in immature expanding fruit, and their higher expression was observed along with higher fruit firmness in cold-treated fruit or firmer cultivar fruit during storage. The opposite gene expression patterns were observed in DkXTH2 and DkXTH3, which reached maxima concomitance with pronounced fruit softening. Meanwhile, the xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) enzymes play important roles in both the rapid growth and ripening of persimmon fruit. Furthermore, the recombined DkXTH1 and DkXTH2 proteins showed significant XET activity without any detected XEH activity. However, the XET activity of recombined DkXTH2 protein had a higher affinity for small acceptor molecules than that of recombined DkXTH1 protein. The former might prefer to participate in cell wall restructuring, and the latter is more inclined to participate in cell wall assembly. Besides, DKXTH proteins could function by targeting to the cell wall under regulation of a signal peptide. The data suggested that individual DKXTHs could exhibit different patterns of expression, and the encoded products possessed specific enzymatic properties conferring on their respective functions in growth and postharvest softening of persimmon fruit.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although xyloglucans are ubiquitous in land plants, they are less abundant in Poales species than in eudicotyledons. Poales cell walls contain higher levels of ?-1,3/1,4 mixed-linked glucans and arabinoxylans than xyloglucans. Despite the relatively low level of xyloglucans in Poales, the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family in rice (Oryza sativa) is comparable in size to that of the eudicotyledon Arabidopsis thaliana. This raises the question of whether xyloglucan is a substrate for rice XTH gene products, whose enzyme activity remains largely uncharacterized. METHODS: This study focused on OsXTH19 (which belongs to Group IIIA of the XTH family and is specifically expressed in growing tissues of rice shoots), and two other XTHs, OsXTH11 (Group I/II) and OsXTH20 (Group IIIA), for reference, and measurements were made of the enzymatic activities of three recombinant rice XTHs, i.e. OsXTH11, OsXTH20 and OsXTH19. KEY RESULTS: All three OsXTH gene products have xyloglucan endohydrolase (XEH, EC 3·2·1·151) activity, and OsXTH11 has both XEH and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET, EC 2·4·1207) activities. However, these proteins had neither hydrolase nor transglucosylase activity when glucuronoarabinoxylan or mixed-linkage glucan was used as the substrate. These results are consistent with histological observations demonstrating that pOsXTH19::GUS is expressed specifically in the vicinity of tissues where xyloglucan immunoreactivity is present. Transgenic rice lines over-expressing OsXTH19 (harbouring a Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter::OsXTH19 cDNA construct) or with suppressed OsXTH19 expression (harbouring a pOsXTH19 RNAi construct) did not show dramatic phenotypic changes, suggesting functional redundancy and collaboration among XTH family members, as was observed in A. thaliana. CONCLUSIONS: OsXTH20 and OsXTH19 act as hydrolases exclusively on xyloglucan, while OsXTH11 exhibits both hydrolase and XET activities exclusively on xyloglucans. Phenotypic analysis of transgenic lines with altered expression of OsXTH19 suggests that OsXTH19 and related XTH(s) play redundant roles in rice growth.
Project description:The xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family encodes enzymes of central importance to plant cell wall remodeling. The evolutionary history of plant XTH gene products is incompletely understood vis-à-vis the larger body of bacterial endoglycanases in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16 (GH16). To provide molecular insight into this issue, high-resolution X-ray crystal structures and detailed enzyme kinetics of an extant transitional plant endoglucanase (EG) were determined. Functionally intermediate between plant XTH gene products and bacterial licheninases of GH16, Vitis vinifera EG16 (VvEG16) effectively catalyzes the hydrolysis of the backbones of two dominant plant cell wall matrix glycans, xyloglucan (XyG) and ?(1,3)/?(1,4)-mixed-linkage glucan (MLG). Crystallographic complexes with extended oligosaccharide substrates reveal the structural basis for the accommodation of both unbranched, mixed-linked (MLG) and highly decorated, linear (XyG) polysaccharide chains in a broad, extended active-site cleft. Structural comparison with representative bacterial licheninases, a xyloglucan endotranglycosylase (XET), and a xyloglucan endohydrolase (XEH) outline the functional ramifications of key sequence deletions and insertions across the phylogenetic landscape of GH16. Although the biological role(s) of EG16 orthologs remains to be fully resolved, the present biochemical and tertiary structural characterization provides key insight into plant cell wall enzyme evolution, which will continue to inform genomic analyses and functional studies across species.
Project description:Fragaria vesca or 'woodland strawberry' has emerged as an attractive model for the study of ripening of non-climacteric fruit. It has several advantages, such as its small genome and its diploidy. The recent availability of the complete sequence of its genome opens the possibility for further analysis and its use as a reference species. Fruit softening is a physiological event and involves many biochemical changes that take place at the final stages of fruit development; among them, the remodeling of cell walls by the action of a set of enzymes. Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is a cell wall-associated enzyme, which is encoded by a multigene family. Its action modifies the structure of xyloglucans, a diverse group of polysaccharides that crosslink with cellulose microfibrills, affecting therefore the functional structure of the cell wall. The aim of this work is to identify the XTH-encoding genes present in F. vesca and to determine its transcription level in ripening fruit.The search resulted in identification of 26 XTH-encoding genes named as FvXTHs. Genetic structure and phylogenetic analyses were performed allowing the classification of FvXTH genes into three phylogenetic groups: 17 in group I/II, 2 in group IIIA and 4 in group IIIB. Two sequences were included into the ancestral group. Through a comparative analysis, characteristic structural protein domains were found in FvXTH protein sequences. In complement, expression analyses of FvXTHs by qPCR were performed in fruit at different developmental and ripening stages, as well as, in other tissues. The results showed a diverse expression pattern of FvXTHs in several tissues, although most of them are highly expressed in roots. Their expression patterns are not related to their respective phylogenetic groups. In addition, most FvXTHs are expressed in ripe fruit, and interestingly, some of them (FvXTH 18 and 20, belonging to phylogenic group I/II, and FvXTH 25 and 26 to group IIIB) display an increasing expression pattern as the fruit ripens.A discrete group of FvXTHs (18, 20, 25 and 26) increases their expression during softening of F. vesca fruit, and could take part in cell wall remodeling required for softening in collaboration with other cell wall degrading enzymes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plant cells undergo cell expansion when a temporary imbalance between the hydraulic pressure of the vacuole and the extensibility of the cell wall makes the cell volume increase dramatically. The primary cell walls of most seed plants consist of cellulose microfibrils tethered mainly by xyloglucans and embedded in a highly hydrated pectin matrix. During cell expansion the wall stress is decreased by the highly controlled rearrangement of the load-bearing tethers in the wall so that the microfibrils can move relative to each other. Here the effect was studied of a purified recombinant xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) on the extension of isolated cell walls. METHODS: The epidermis of growing onion (Allium cepa) bulb scales is a one-cell-thick model tissue that is structurally and mechanically highly anisotropic. In constant load experiments, the effect of purified recombinant XTH proteins of Selaginella kraussiana on the extension of isolated onion epidermis was recorded. KEY RESULTS: Fluorescent xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) assays demonstrate that exogeneous XTH can act on isolated onion epidermis cell walls. Furthermore, cell wall extension was significantly increased upon addition of XTH to the isolated epidermis, but only transverse to the net orientation of cellulose microfibrils. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide evidence that XTHs can act as cell wall-loosening enzymes.
Project description:Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is a cell-wall-modifying enzyme participating in diverse cell morphogenetic processes and adaptation to stress. In this study, 48 XTH genes were identified from two pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars ('F153' and 'MD2') and designated Ac(F153)XTH1 to -24 and Ac(MD2)XTH1 to -24 based on their orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana genes. Endoglucanase family 16 members were identified in addition to XTHs of glycoside hydrolase family 16. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the XTHs into three major groups (Group I/II, III and Ancestral Group) and Group III was subdivided into Group IIIA and Group IIIB. Similar gene structure and motif number were observed within a group. Two highly conserved domains, glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GH16-XET) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase C-terminus (C-XET), were detected by multiple sequences alignment of all XTHs. Segmental replication were detected in the two cultivars, with only the paralogous pair Ac(F153)XTH7-Ac(F153)XTH18 presented in 'F153' prior to genomic expansion. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that XTHs were involved in the regulation of fruit ripening and crassulacean acid metabolism with tissue specificity and quantitative real-time PCR analysis suggested that Ac(MD2)XTH18 was involved in root growth. The results enhance our understanding of XTHs in the plant kingdom and provide a basis for further studies of functional diversity in A. comosus.
Project description:Few molecular studies have been devoted to the finger drop process that occurs during banana fruit ripening. Recent studies revealed the involvement of changes in the properties of cell wall polysaccharides in the pedicel rupture area. In this study, the expression of cell-wall modifying genes was monitored in peel tissue during post-harvest ripening of Cavendish banana fruit, at median area (control zone) and compared with that in the pedicel rupture area (drop zone). To this end, three pectin methylesterase (PME) and seven xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes were isolated. The accumulation of their mRNAs and those of polygalaturonase, expansin, and pectate lyase genes already isolated from banana were examined. During post-harvest ripening, transcripts of all genes were detected in both zones, but accumulated differentially. MaPME1, MaPG1, and MaXTH4 mRNA levels did not change in either zone. Levels of MaPME3 and MaPG3 mRNAs increased greatly only in the control zone and at the late ripening stages. For other genes, the main molecular changes occurred 1-4 d after ripening induction. MaPME2, MaPEL1, MaPEL2, MaPG4, MaXTH6, MaXTH8, MaXTH9, MaEXP1, MaEXP4, and MaEXP5 accumulated highly in the drop zone, contrary to MaXTH3 and MaXTH5, and MaEXP2 throughout ripening. For MaPG2, MaXET1, and MaXET2 genes, high accumulation in the drop zone was transient. The transcriptional data obtained from all genes examined suggested that finger drop and peel softening involved similar mechanisms. These findings also led to the proposal of a sequence of molecular events leading to finger drop and to suggest some candidates.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) proteins that possess xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity contribute to cell-wall assembly and remodelling, orchestrating plant growth and development. Little is known about in-vivo XET regulation, other than at the XTH transcriptional level. Plants contain 'cold-water-extractable, heat-stable polymers' (CHPs) which are XTH-activating factors (XAFs) that desorb and thereby activate wall-bound XTHs. Because XAFs may control cell-wall modification in vivo, we have further explored their nature. METHODS:Material was cold-water-extracted from 25 plant species; proteins were precipitated by heat-denaturation, then CHP was ethanol-precipitated. For XAF assays, CHP (or sub-fractions thereof) was applied to washed Arabidopsis thaliana cell walls, and the enzymes thus solubilized were assayed radiochemically for XET activity. In some experiments, the CHP was pre-treated with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), alkali (NaOH) or glycanases. KEY RESULTS:CHP specifically desorbed wall-bound XTHs, but not ?-glucosidases, phosphatases or peroxidases. CHP preparations from 25 angiosperms all possessed XAF activity but had no consistent monosaccharide composition. Of 11 individual plant polymers tested, only gum arabic and tamarind xyloglucan were XAF-active, albeit less so than CHP. On gel-permeation chromatography, XAF-active cauliflower CHP eluted with a molecular weight of ~7000-140 000, although no specific sugar residue(s) co-eluted exactly with XAF activity. Cauliflower XAF activity survived cold alkali and warm dilute TFA (which break ester and glycofuranosyl linkages, respectively), but was inactivated by hot 2 m TFA (which breaks glycopyranosyl linkages). Cauliflower XAF activity was remarkably stable to diverse glycanases and glycosidases. CONCLUSIONS:XAFs are naturally occurring heat-stable polymers that specifically desorb (thereby activating) wall-bound XTHs. Their XAF activity considerably exceeds that of gum arabic and tamarind xyloglucan, and they were not identifiable as any major plant polysaccharide. We propose that XAF is a specific, minor, plant polymer that regulates xyloglucan transglycosylation in vivo, and thus wall assembly and restructuring.
Project description:The large xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family continues to be the focus of much attention in studies of plant cell wall morphogenesis due to the unique catalytic functions of the enzymes it encodes. The XTH gene products compose a subfamily of glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16), which also comprises a broad range of microbial endoglucanases and endogalactanases, as well as yeast cell wall chitin/?-glucan transglycosylases. Previous whole-family phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the closest relatives to the XTH gene products are the bacterial licheninases (EC 18.104.22.168), which specifically hydrolyze linear mixed linkage ?(1?3)/?(1?4)-glucans. In addition to their specificity for the highly branched xyloglucan polysaccharide, XTH gene products are distinguished from the licheninases and other GH16 enzyme subfamilies by significant active site loop alterations and a large C-terminal extension. Given these differences, the molecular evolution of the XTH gene products in GH16 has remained enigmatic. Here, we present the biochemical and structural analysis of a unique, mixed function endoglucanase from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), which reveals a small, newly recognized subfamily of GH16 members intermediate between the bacterial licheninases and plant XTH gene products. We postulate that this clade comprises an important link in the evolution of the large plant XTH gene families from a putative microbial ancestor. As such, this analysis provides new insights into the diversification of GH16 and further unites the apparently disparate members of this important family of proteins.