Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with several genetic syndromes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PDAC progression is still unknown. In this study, we showed that Laminin Subunit Beta 3 (LAMB3) was aberrantly overexpressed in PDAC and was closely associated with the overall survival rate of patients with PDAC. Functional studies demonstrated that LAMB3 played important roles in cell proliferation, the cell cycle, and invasion capacity. Using bioinformatics analysis, we determined that miR-24-3p was an upstream miRNA of LAMB3, and further experiments verified that miR-24-3p regulated LAMB3 expression in PDAC cells. A dual-luciferase reporter system demonstrated that miR-24-3p directly targeted the LAMB3 3'UTR, and FISH assay confirmed that miR-24-3p and LAMB3 mRNA mostly resided in cytoplasm, accounting for their post-translational regulation. Rescue assay demonstrated that miR-24-3p exerted its anti-cancer role by suppressing LAMB3 expression. Finally, by using a subcutaneous xenotransplanted tumor model, we demonstrated that miR-24-3p overexpression inhibited the proliferation of PDAC by suppressing LAMB3 expression in vivo. Collectively, our results provide evidence that the miR-24-3p/LAMB3 axis plays a vital role in the progression of PDAC and indicate that the miR-24-3p/LAMB3 axis may represent a novel therapeutic target for PDAC.
Project description:Glioma is the most prevalent tumor of the central nervous system. To identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) in gliomas of different grades, bioinformatics analysis was performed. The DEMs between low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and high-grade gliomas (HGGs) were identified by screening the Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases using the LIMMA package. Six overlapping DEMs were identified by comparing LGGs and HGGs. Downregulation of miR-1298-3p correlated with poor overall survival rates in glioma patients. Overexpression of miR-1298-3p induced apoptosis of glioma cells and inhibited glioma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The basement membrane protein Nidogen-1 (NID1) was identified as a direct binding target of miR-1298-3p in glioma cells. MiR-1298-3p agonist downregulated the NID1 and vimentin levels, but upregulated the level of E-cadherin in glioma cells. Importantly, overexpression of miR-1298-3p induced apoptosis and reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of glioma. Our results show that miR-1298-3p functions as a tumor suppressor in glioma cells, and suggest that it might serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in glioma patients.
Project description:The poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is partially attributed to the invasive and metastatic behavior of this disease. Laminin subunit beta-3 (LAMB3) encodes one of the three subunits of LM-332, an extracellular matrix protein secreted by cultured human keratinocytes. In addition, LAMB3 is involved in the invasive and metastatic abilities of some types of cancer, including colon, pancreas, lung, cervix, stomach, and prostate cancer, but the role and mechanism of LAMB3 in PDAC have not been previously determined. Herein, we tentatively investigated the role of LAMB3 in the malignant biological behavior of PDAC. In this study, we demonstrated that LAMB3 is upregulated in PDAC. Inhibition of LAMB3 abrogated the tumorigenic outcomes of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation, including those involving cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis, proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro, and tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo. Our results showed that LAMB3 could mediate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PDAC cells and alter the proliferative, invasive, and metastatic behaviors of PDAC by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. LAMB3 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of PDAC in the future.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by abnormal formation of dental enamel, either in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Heterozygous variants in laminin subunit beta 3 ( LAMB3) cause AI with dominant inheritance in the absence of other cosegregating clinical features. In contrast, biallelic loss-of-function variants in LAMB3 cause recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa, characterized by life-threatening skin fragility. We identified 2 families segregating autosomal dominant AI with variable degrees of a distinctive hypoplastic phenotype due to pathogenic variants in LAMB3. Whole exome sequencing revealed a nonsense variant (c.3340G>T, p.E1114*) within the final exon in family 1, while Sanger sequencing in family 2 revealed a variant (c.3383-1G>A) in the canonical splice acceptor site of the final exon. Analysis of cDNA from family 2 revealed retention of the final intron leading to a premature termination codon. Two unerupted third molar teeth from individual IV:5 in family 2 were subject to computerized tomography and scanning electron microscopy. LAMB3 molar teeth have a multitude of cusps versus matched controls. LAMB3 enamel was well mineralized but pitted. The architecture of the initially secreted enamel was abnormal, with cervical enamel appearing much less severely affected than coronal enamel. This study further defines the variations in phenotype-genotype correlation for AI due to variants in LAMB3, underlines the clustering of nonsense and frameshift variants causing AI in the absence of junctional epidermolysis bullosa, and highlights the shared AI phenotype arising from variants in genes coding for hemidesmosome proteins.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of inherited diseases affecting the quality and quantity of dental enamel. To date, mutations in more than ten genes have been associated with non-syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Among these, ENAM and LAMB3 mutations are known to be parts of the etiology of hypoplastic AI in human cases. When both alleles of LAMB3 are defective, it could cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), while with only one mutant allele in the C-terminus of LAMB3, it could result in severe hypoplastic AI without skin fragility. We enrolled three Chinese families with hypoplastic autosomal-dominant AI. Despite the diagnosis falling into the same type, the characteristics of their enamel hypoplasia were different. Screening of ENAM and LAMB3 genes was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA from blood samples. Disease-causing mutations were identified and perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in three families: a 19-bp insertion mutation in the exon 7 of ENAM (c.406_407insTCAAAAAAGCCGACCACAA, p.K136Ifs*16) in Family 1, a single-base deletion mutation in the exon 5 of ENAM (c. 139delA, p. M47Cfs*11) in Family 2, and a LAMB3 nonsense mutation in the last exon (c.3466C>T, p.Q1156X) in Family 3. Our results suggest that heterozygous mutations in ENAM and LAMB3 genes can cause hypoplastic AI with markedly different phenotypes in Chinese patients. And these findings extend the mutation spectrum of both genes and can be used for mutation screening of AI in the Chinese population.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To explore the key regulatory genes associated with lung cancer in order to reduce its occurrence and progress through silencing these key genes. METHODS: To identify the key regulatory genes involved in lung cancer, we performed a combination of gene array and bioinformatics analyses to compare gene transcription profiles in 3 monoclonal cell strains with high, medium or low metastatic abilities, which were separated from the SPC-A-1sci and SPC-A-1 cell lines by limiting dilution monoclone assay. We then analyzed those genes' biological activities by knocking down their expression in SPC-A-1sci cells using siRNA and lenti-viral shRNA vectors, followed by determinations of the invasion and migration capabilities of the resulting cell lines in vitro as well as their potential for inducing occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer in vivo. To examine the clinical relevance of these findings, we analyzed the expression levels of the identified genes in human lung cancer tissues (n?=?135) and matched adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. RESULTS: Three monoclonal cell strains characterized with high, medium or low metastatic abilities were successfully selected. Gene array and bioinformatics analyses implied that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 were key genes involved in lung cancer. Knockdown of these genes suppressed human lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Clinical sample analyses indicated that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 protein expression levels were higher in lung cancer patients, compared to non-cancerous adjacent tissues, and correlated with lymphatic metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 played important roles in the occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer, thus provided important clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of metastasis and contributing to the therapeutic treatment of lung cancer.
Project description:Deficiency of basement membrane heterotrimeric laminin 332 component, coded by LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2 genes, causes junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), a severe skin adhesion defect. Herein, we report the first application of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology direct repair (HDR) to in situ restore LAMB3 expression in JEB keratinocytes in vitro and in immunodeficient mice transplanted with genetically corrected skin equivalents. We packaged an adenovector carrying Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) tailored to the intron 2 of LAMB3 gene and an integration defective lentiviral vector bearing a promoterless quasi-complete LAMB3 cDNA downstream a splice acceptor site and flanked by homology arms. Upon genuine HDR, we exploited the in vitro adhesion advantage of laminin 332 production to positively select LAMB3-expressing keratinocytes. HDR and restored laminin 332 expression were evaluated at single-cell level. Notably, monoallelic-targeted integration of LAMB3 cDNA was sufficient to in vitro recapitulate the adhesive property, the colony formation typical of normal keratinocytes, as well as their cell growth. Grafting of genetically corrected skin equivalents onto immunodeficient mice showed a completely restored dermal-epidermal junction. This study provides evidence for efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in situ restoration of LAMB3 expression, paving the way for ex vivo clinical application of this strategy to laminin 332 deficiency.
Project description:In a highly inbred Australian Shepherd litter, three of the five puppies developed widespread ulcers of the skin, footpads, and oral mucosa within the first weeks of life. Histopathological examinations demonstrated clefting of the epidermis from the underlying dermis within or just below the basement membrane, which led to a tentative diagnosis of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) with autosomal recessive inheritance. Endoscopy in one affected dog also demonstrated separation between the epithelium and underlying tissue in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result of the severity of the clinical signs, all three dogs had to be euthanized. We sequenced the genome of one affected puppy and compared the data to 73 control genomes. A search for private variants in 37 known candidate genes for skin fragility phenotypes revealed a single protein-changing variant, LAMB3:c.1174T>C, or p.Cys392Arg. The variant was predicted to change a conserved cysteine in the laminin ?3 subunit of the heterotrimeric laminin-322, which mediates the binding of the epidermal basement membrane to the underlying dermis. Loss-of-function variants in the human LAMB3 gene lead to recessive forms of JEB. We confirmed the expected co-segregation of the genotypes in the Australian Shepherd family. The mutant allele was homozygous in two genotyped cases and heterozygous in three non-affected close relatives. It was not found in 242 other controls from the Australian Shepherd breed, nor in more than 600 other controls. These data suggest that LAMB3:c.1174T>C represents the causative variant. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of a LAMB3-related JEB in domestic animals.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can be either isolated or part of a larger syndrome. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a collection of autosomal-recessive disorders featuring AI associated with skin fragility and other symptoms. JEB is a recessive syndrome usually caused by mutations in both alleles of COL17A1, LAMA3, LAMB3, or LAMC2. In rare cases, heterozygous carriers in JEB kindreds display enamel malformations in the absence of skin fragility (isolated AI). We recruited two kindreds with autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) characterized by generalized severe enamel hypoplasia with deep linear grooves and pits. Whole-exome sequencing of both probands identified novel heterozygous mutations in the last exon of LAMB3 that likely truncated the protein. The mutations perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in both families. In Family 1, an 8-bp deletion (c.3446_3453del GACTGGAG) shifted the reading frame (p.Gly 1149Glufs*8). In Family 2, a single nucleotide substitution (c.C3431A) generated an in-frame translation termination codon (p.Ser1144*). We conclude that enamel formation is particularly sensitive to defects in hemidesmosome/basement-membrane complexes and that syndromic and non-syndromic forms of AI can be etiologically related.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The 677 C>T and 1298 A>C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been widely reported and considered to have a significant effect on breast cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis based on 57 eligible studies was carried out to clarify the role of MTHFR gene polymorphisms in breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eligible articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI and CBM for the period up to August 2012. Finally, a total of 57 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. The pooled ORs were performed with additive model, dominant model and recessive model, respectively. Subgroup analysis was also performed by ethnicity. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with ?2-based Q-test. A meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Overall, the 677 C allele was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (OR?=?0.942, 95%CI?=?0.898 to 0.988) when compared with the 677 T allele in the additive model, and the same results were also revealed under other genetic models. Simultaneously, the 1298 A allele was not associated with the breast cancer susceptibility when compared with the 1298 C allele (OR?=?0.993, 95%CI?=?0.978 to 1.009). Furthermore, analyses under the dominant, recessive and the allele contrast model yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that 677 C>T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene may contribute to breast cancer development. However, the 1298 A>C polymorphism is not significantly associated with increased risks of breast cancer.