Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enolase Influences Bacterial Tolerance to Oxidative Stresses and Virulence.
ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram negative opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, which causes acute and chronic infections. Upon entering the host, bacteria alter global gene expression to adapt to host environment and avoid clearance by the host. Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme involved in carbon metabolism. It is also a component of RNA degradosome, which is involved in RNA processing and gene regulation. Here, we report that enolase is required for the virulence of P. aeruginosa in a murine acute pneumonia model. Mutation of enolase coding gene (eno) increased bacterial susceptibility to neutrophil mediated killing, which is due to reduced tolerance to oxidative stress. Catalases and alkyl hydroperoxide reductases play a major role in protecting the cell from oxidative damages. In the eno mutant, the expression levels of catalases (KatA and KatB) were similar as those in the wild type strain in the presence of H2O2, however, the expression levels of alkyl hydroperoxide reductases (AhpB and AhpC) were significantly reduced. Overexpression of ahpB but not ahpC in the eno mutant fully restored the bacterial resistance to H2O2 as well as neutrophil mediated killing, and partially restored bacterial virulence in the murine acute pneumonia model. Therefore, we have identified a novel role of enolase in the virulence of P. aeruginosa.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intracellular pathogen that can survive and replicate within macrophages. One of the host defense mechanisms that Salmonella encounters during infection is the production of reactive oxygen species by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Among them, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) can diffuse across bacterial membranes and damage biomolecules. Genome analysis allowed us to identify five genes encoding H(2)O(2) degrading enzymes: three catalases (KatE, KatG, and KatN) and two alkyl hydroperoxide reductases (AhpC and TsaA). Inactivation of the five cognate structural genes yielded the HpxF(-) mutant, which exhibited a high sensitivity to exogenous H(2)O(2) and a severe survival defect within macrophages. When the phagocyte NADPH oxidase was inhibited, its proliferation index increased 3.7-fold. Moreover, the overexpression of katG or tsaA in the HpxF(-) background was sufficient to confer a proliferation index similar to that of the wild type in macrophages and a resistance to millimolar H(2)O(2) in rich medium. The HpxF(-) mutant also showed an attenuated virulence in a mouse model. These data indicate that Salmonella catalases and alkyl hydroperoxide reductases are required to degrade H(2)O(2) and contribute to the virulence. This enzymatic redundancy highlights the evolutionary strategies developed by bacterial pathogens to survive within hostile environments.
Project description:Most bacteria control oxidative stress through the H(2)O(2)-responsive transactivator OxyR, a member of the LTTR family (LysR Type Transcriptional Regulators), which activates the expression of defensive genes such as those encoding catalases, alkyl hydroperoxide reductases and superoxide dismutases. In the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, OxyR positively regulates expression of the oxidative stress response genes katA, katB, ahpB and ahpCF. To identify additional targets of OxyR in P. aeruginosa PAO1, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with whole genome tiling array analyses (ChIP-chip). We detected 56 genes including all the previously identified defensive genes and a battery of novel direct targets of OxyR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) for selected newly identified targets indicated that ?70% of those were bound by purified oxidized OxyR and their regulation was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, a thioredoxin system was identified to enzymatically reduce OxyR under oxidative stress. Functional classification analysis showed that OxyR controls a core regulon of oxidative stress defensive genes, and other genes involved in regulation of iron homeostasis (pvdS), quorum-sensing (rsaL), protein synthesis (rpsL) and oxidative phosphorylation (cyoA and snr1). Collectively, our results indicate that OxyR is involved in oxidative stress defense and regulates other aspects of cellular metabolism as well.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa defies eradication by antibiotics and is responsible for acute and chronic human infections due to a wide variety of virulence factors. Currently, it is believed that MvfR (PqsR) controls the expression of many of these factors indirectly via the pqs and phnAB operons. Here we provide strong evidence that MvfR may also bind and directly regulate the expression of additional 35 loci across the P. aeruginosa genome, including major regulators and virulence factors, such as the quorum sensing (QS) regulators lasR and rhlR, and genes involved in protein secretion, translation, and response to oxidative stress. We show that these anti-oxidant systems, AhpC-F, AhpB-TrxB2 and Dps, are critical for P. aeruginosa survival to reactive oxygen species and antibiotic tolerance. Considering that MvfR regulated compounds generate reactive oxygen species, this indicates a tightly regulated QS self-defense anti-poisoning system. These findings also challenge the current hierarchical regulation model of P. aeruginosa QS systems by revealing new interconnections between them that suggest a circular model. Moreover, they uncover a novel role for MvfR in self-defense that favors antibiotic tolerance and cell survival, further demonstrating MvfR as a highly desirable anti-virulence target.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses an extensive armament of genes involved in oxidative stress defense, including katB-ankB, ahpB, and ahpC-ahpF. Transcription of these genes was regulated in response to H(2)O(2), paraquat, or organic peroxides. Expression of katB-lacZ and the observed KatB catalase levels in P. aeruginosa PAO1 were induced up to 250-fold after exposure to oxidative stress-generating compounds. Also, ahpB-lacZ and ahpC-lacZ expression was 90- and 3-fold higher, respectively, upon exposure to paraquat. The dose- and time-response curves revealed that 1 microM paraquat was sufficient for half-maximal activation of each reporter fusion within 5 min of exposure. Expression of these genes was not observed in a DeltaoxyR mutant, indicating that OxyR was essential for this response. The transcriptional start sites of katB-ankB, ahpB, and ahpC-ahpF were mapped, putative OxyR-binding sites were identified upstream of the -35 promoter elements, and direct binding of purified OxyR protein to these target promoters was demonstrated. The oxyR mutant was hypersusceptible to oxidative stress-generating agents, including H(2)O(2) and paraquat, in spite of total KatA catalase activity being comparable to that of the wild type. The oxyR phenotype was fully complemented by a plasmid containing the oxyR gene, while any of the katB, ahpB, or ahpCF genes alone resulted in only marginal complementation. Increased katB-lacZ expression and higher KatB catalase levels were detected in a DeltaahpCF background compared to wild-type bacteria, suggesting a compensatory function for KatB in the absence of AhpCF. In P. aeruginosa, oxyR is located upstream of recG, encoding a putative DNA repair enzyme. oxyR-lacZ and recG-lacZ reporter activities and oxyR-recG mRNA analysis showed that oxyR and recG are organized in an operon and expressed constitutively with regard to oxidative stress from a single promoter upstream of oxyR. Mutants affected in recG but not oxyR were dramatically impaired in DNA damage repair as measured by sensitivity to UV irradiation. In conclusion, we present evidence that the oxyR-recG locus is essential for oxidative stress defense and for DNA repair.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium in patients with cystic fibrosis and hospital acquired infections. It presents a plethora of virulence factors and antioxidant enzymes that help to subvert the immune system. In this study, we identified the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin, alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase C1 (AhpC1), as a relevant scavenger of oxidants generated during inflammatory oxidative burst and a mechanism of P. aeruginosa (PA14) escaping from killing. Deletion of AhpC1 led to a higher sensitivity to hypochlorous acid (HOCl, IC<sub>50</sub> 3.2 ± 0.3 versus 19.1 ± 0.2 μM), hydrogen peroxide (IC<sub>50</sub> 91.2 ± 0.3 versus 496.5 ± 6.4 μM) and the organic peroxide urate hydroperoxide. ΔahpC1 strain was more sensitive to the killing by isolated neutrophils and less virulent in a mice model of infection. All mice intranasally instilled with ΔahpC1 survived as long as they were monitored (15 days), whereas 100% wild-type and ΔahpC1 complemented with ahpC1 gene (ΔahpC1 attB:ahpC1) died within 3 days. A significantly lower number of colonies was detected in the lung and spleen of ΔahpC1-infected mice. Total leucocytes, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase activity, pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitrite production and lipid peroxidation were much lower in lungs or bronchoalveolar liquid of mice infected with ΔahpC1. Purified AhpC neutralized the inflammatory organic peroxide, urate hydroperoxide, at a rate constant of 2.3 ± 0.1 × 10<sup>6</sup> M<sup>-1</sup>s<sup>-1</sup>, and only the ΔahpC1 strain was sensitive to this oxidant. Incubation of neutrophils with uric acid, the urate hydroperoxide precursor, impaired neutrophil killing of wild-type but improved the killing of ΔahpC1. Hyperuricemic mice presented higher levels of serum cytokines and succumbed much faster to PA14 infection when compared to normouricemic mice. In summary, ΔahpC1 PA14 presented a lower virulence, which was attributed to a poorer ability to neutralize the oxidants generated by inflammatory oxidative burst, leading to a more efficient killing by the host. The enzyme is particularly relevant in detoxifying the newly reported inflammatory organic peroxide, urate hydroperoxide.
Project description:Enolase is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme involved in the processes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae belongs to Mycoplasma, whose species are wall-less and among the smallest self-replicating bacteria, and is an important colonizing respiratory pathogen in the pig industry worldwide. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enolase (Mhp Eno) expression is significantly increased after infection and was previously found to be a virulence factor candidate. Our studies show that Mhp Eno is a cell surface-localized protein that can adhere to swine tracheal epithelial cells (STECs). Adhesion to STECs can be specifically inhibited by an Mhp Eno antibody. Mhp Eno can recognize and interact with plasminogen with high affinity. Here, the first crystal structure of the mycoplasmal enolase from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was determined. The structure showed unique features of Mhp Eno in the S3/H1, H6/S6, H7/H8, and H13 regions. All of these regions were longer than those of other enolases and were exposed on the Mhp Eno surface, making them accessible to host molecules. These results show that Mhp Eno has specific structural characteristics and acts as a multifunctional adhesin on the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae cell surface.
Project description:To colonize in the digestive tract of animals and humans, <i>Yersinia pseudotuberculosis</i> has to deal with reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by host cells and microbiota. However, an understanding of the ROS-scavenging systems and their regulation in this bacterium remains largely elusive. In this study, we identified OxyR as the master transcriptional regulator mediating cellular responses to hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) in <i>Y. pseudotuberculosis</i> through genomics and transcriptomics analyses. OxyR activates transcription of diverse genes, especially the core members of its regulon, including those encoding catalases, peroxidases, and thiol reductases. The data also suggest that sulfur species and manganese may play a particular role in the oxidative stress response of <i>Y. pseudotuberculosis</i>. Among the three H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-scavenging systems in <i>Y. pseudotuberculosis</i>, catalase/peroxidase KatE functions as the primary scavenger for high levels of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>; NADH peroxidase <i>a</i>lkyl <i>h</i>ydro<i>p</i>eroxide <i>r</i>eductase (AhpR) and catalase KatG together are responsible for removing low levels of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. The simultaneous loss of both AhpC (the peroxidatic component of AhpR) and KatG results in activation of OxyR. Moreover, we found that AhpC, unlike its well-characterized <i>Escherichia coli</i> counterpart, has little effect on protecting cells against toxicity of organic peroxides. These findings provide not only novel insights into the structural and functional diversity of bacterial H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-scavenging systems but also a basic understanding of how <i>Y. pseudotuberculosis</i> copes with oxidative stress.
Project description:Mutations to the regulatory region of the ahpC gene, resulting in overproduction of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, were encountered frequently in a large collection of isoniazid (INH)-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not in INH-susceptible strains. Overexpression of ahpC did not seem to be important for INH resistance, however, as most of these strains were already defective for catalase-peroxidase, KatG, the enzyme required for activation of INH. Transformation of the INH-susceptible reference strain, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, with plasmids bearing the ahpC genes of M. tuberculosis or M. leprae did not result in a significant increase in the MIC. Two highly INH-resistant mutants of H37Rv, BH3 and BH8, were isolated in vitro and shown to produce no or little KatG activity and, in the case of BH3, to overproduce alkyl hydroperoxide reductase as the result of an ahpC regulatory mutation that was also found in some clinical isolates. The virulence of H37Rv, BH3, and BH8 was studied intensively in three mouse models: fully immunocompetent BALB/c and Black 6 mice, BALB/c major histocompatibility complex class II-knockout mice with abnormally low levels of CD4 T cells and athymic mice producing no cellular immune response. The results indicated that M. tuberculosis strains producing catalase-peroxidase were considerably more virulent in immunocompetent mice than the isogenic KatG-deficient mutants but that loss of catalase-peroxidase was less important when immunodeficient mice, unable to produce activated macrophages, were infected. Restoration of virulence was not seen in an INH-resistant M. tuberculosis strain that overexpressed ahpC, and this finding was confirmed by experiments performed with appropriate M. bovis strains in guinea pigs. Thus, in contrast to catalase-peroxidase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase does not appear to act as a virulence factor in rodent infections or to play a direct role in INH resistance, although it may be important in maintaining peroxide homeostasis of the organism when KatG activity is low or absent.
Project description:ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with distinct HLA-DR alleles and immune responses to many citrullinated self-antigens. Herein we investigated the T cell epitope confined within α-enolase<sub>326-340</sub> in the context of HLA-DRB1*04:01 and assessed the corresponding CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells in both the circulation and in the rheumatic joint. Comparative crystallographic analyses were performed for the native and citrullinated α-enolase<sub>326-340</sub> peptides in complex with HLA-DRB1*04:01. HLA-tetramers assembled with either the native or citrullinated peptide were used for ex vivo and in vitro assessment of α-enolase-specific T cells in peripheral blood, synovial fluid and synovial tissue by flow cytometry. The native and modified peptides take a completely conserved structural conformation within the peptide-binding cleft of HLA-DRB1*04:01. The citrulline residue-327 was located N-terminally, protruding towards TCRs. The frequencies of T cells recognizing native eno<sub>326-340</sub> were similar in synovial fluid and peripheral blood, while in contrast, the frequency of T cells recognizing cit-eno<sub>326-340</sub> was significantly elevated in synovial fluid compared to peripheral blood (3.6-fold, p = 0.0150). Additionally, citrulline-specific T cells with a memory phenotype were also significantly increased (1.6-fold, p = 0.0052) in synovial fluid compared to peripheral blood. The native T cell epitope confined within α-enolase<sub>326-340</sub> does not appear to lead to complete negative selection of cognate CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells. In RA patient samples, only T cells recognizing the citrullinated version of α-enolase<sub>326-340</sub> were found at elevated frequencies implicating that neo-antigen formation is critical for breach of tolerance.
Project description:Heme is a redox-reactive molecule with vital and complex roles in bacterial metabolism, survival, and virulence. However, few intracellular heme partners were identified to date and are not well conserved in bacteria. The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a heme auxotroph, which acquires exogenous heme to activate an aerobic respiratory chain. We identified the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase AhpC, a member of the highly conserved thiol-dependent 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, as a heme-binding protein. AhpC binds hemin with a K(d) of 0.5 microm and a 1:1 stoichiometry. Mutagenesis of cysteines revealed that hemin binding is dissociable from catalytic activity and multimerization. AhpC reductase activity was unchanged upon interaction with heme in vitro and in vivo. A group B Streptococcus ahpC mutant displayed attenuation of two heme-dependent functions, respiration and activity of a heterologous catalase, suggesting a role for AhpC in heme intracellular fate. In support of this hypothesis, AhpC-bound hemin was protected from chemical degradation in vitro. Our results reveal for the first time a role for AhpC as a heme-binding protein.