5-Alkyloxytryptamines are membrane-targeting, broad-spectrum antibiotics.
ABSTRACT: Antibiotic adjuvant therapy represents an exciting opportunity to enhance the activity of clinical antibiotics by co-dosing with a secondary small molecule. Successful adjuvants decrease the concentration of antibiotics used to defeat bacteria, increase activity (in some cases introducing activity against organisms that are drug resistant), and reduce the frequency at which drug-resistant bacteria emerge. We report that 5-alkyloxytryptamines are a new class of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with exciting activity as antibiotic adjuvants. We synthesized 5-alkyloxytryptamine analogs and found that an alkyl chain length of 6-12 carbons and a primary ammonium group are necessary for the antibacterial activity of the compounds, and an alkyl chain length of 6-10 carbons increased the membrane permeability of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Although several of the most potent analogs also have activity against the membranes of human embryonic kidney cells, we demonstrate that below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)-where mammalian cell toxicity is low-these compounds may be successfully used as adjuvants for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and rifampicin against clinical strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus, reducing MIC values by as much as several logs.
Project description:A chemical library comprised of nineteen synthesized pyridyl disulfides that emulate the chemical reactivity of allicin (garlic) was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria. Gram-positive species including vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA, VRSA) demonstrated the highest level of susceptibility toward analogs with S-alkyl chains of 7-9 carbons in length. Further biological studies revealed that the disulfides display synergy with vancomycin against VRSA, cause dispersal of S. aureus biofilms, exhibit low cytotoxicity, and decelerate S. aureus metabolism. In final analysis, pyridyl disulfides represent a novel class of mechanism-based antibacterial agents that have a potential application as antibiotic adjuvants in combination therapy of S. aureus infections with reduced vancomycin susceptibility.
Project description:Semisynthetic and commercial coumarins were investigated for their antibacterial and adjuvant properties with antibiotic agents against norfloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline resistant Staphylococcus aureus as based on efflux mechanisms. The coumarins and certain commercial antibiotics had their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations determined by broth microdilution assay against resistant S. aureus strains which overexpress efflux pump proteins. For evaluation of the modulatory activity, the antibiotics MICs were determined in the presence of the coumarin derivatives at subinhibitory concentration. Although the coumarins did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC ≥ 128 µg/mL), they did modulate the antibiotics activities. Various coumarins, especially the alkylated derivatives in combination with antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations, modulated antibiotic activity, reducing the MIC for tetracycline and norfloxacin by 2 to 8 times. Polar Surface Area (PSA) studies were performed and the fact that the presence of apolar groups is an important factor for the modulatory activity of coumarins was corroborated. Docking on the Penicillin-Binding Protein from MRSA identified that 18 is a potential ligand presenting low E binding. The results indicate that coumarin derivatives modulated antibiotic resistance and may be used as potential antibiotic adjuvants, acting by bacterial efflux pump inhibition in S. aureus.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a severe problem for public health. Developing new antibiotics for MDR bacteria is difficult, from inception to the clinically approved stage. Here, we have used a new approach, modification of an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CFX), with triphenylphosphonium (TPP, PPh3) moiety via ester- (CFX-ester-PPh3) and amide-coupling (CFX-amide-PPh3) to target bacterial membranes. In this study, we have evaluated the antibacterial activities of CFX and its derivatives against 16 species of bacteria, including MDR bacteria, using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, morphological monitoring, and expression of resistance-related genes. TPP-conjugated CFX, CFX-ester-PPh3, and CFX-amide-PPh3 showed significantly improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, including MDR S. aureus (methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) strains. The MRSA ST5 5016 strain showed high antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 11.12 µg/mL for CFX-ester-PPh3 and 2.78 µg/mL for CFX-amide-PPh3. The CFX derivatives inhibited biofilm formation in MRSA by more than 74.9% of CFX-amide-PPh3. In the sub-MIC, CFX derivatives induced significant morphological changes in MRSA, including irregular deformation and membrane disruption, accompanied by a decrease in the level of resistance-related gene expression. With these promising results, this method is very likely to combat MDR bacteria through a simple TPP moiety modification of known antibiotics, which can be readily prepared at clinical sites.
Project description:Keeping in mind the concept of green chemistry, this research aims to synthesize and characterize new ionic liquids (ILs) derived from N-cinnamyl imidazole with different sizes of alkyl chains (1, 6, 8, and 10 carbon atoms), and evaluate their antibacterial activity against Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) causative bacteria. The antibacterial screening was carried out by agar well diffusion and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Half Maximum Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) of the different ILs were determined by microdilution in broth, also Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the interaction mechanism between ILs and membranes. The MIC value in Gram-positive bacteria showed that as the hydrocarbon chain increases, the MIC value decreases with a dose-dependent effect. Furthermore, Gram-negative bacteria showed high MIC values, which were also evidenced in the antibacterial screening. The molecular dynamics showed an incorporation of the ILs with the longer chain (10 C), corresponding to a passive diffusion towards the membrane surface, for its part, the ILs with the shorter chain due to its lack of hydrophobicity was not incorporated into the bilayer. Finally, the new ILs synthesized could be an alternative for the treatment of Gram-positive bacteria causative of SSTIs.
Project description:The development of a new class of antibiotics to fight bacterial resistance is a time-consuming effort associated with high-cost and commercial risks. Thus, modification, conjugation or combination of existing antibiotics to enhance their efficacy is a suitable strategy. We have previously reported that the amphiphilic cyclic peptide [R?W?] had antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.97 µg/mL against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Herein, we hypothesized that conjugation or combination of the amphiphilic cyclic peptide [R?W?] with levofloxacin or levofloxacin-Q could improve the antibacterial activity of levofloxacin and levofloxacin-Q. Fmoc/tBu solid-phase chemistry was employed to synthesize conjugates of [R?W?K]-levofloxacin-Q and [R?W?K]-levofloxacin. The carboxylic acid group of levofloxacin or levofloxacin-Q was conjugated with the amino group of ?-alanine attached to lysine in the presence of 2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexa?uorophosphate (HBTU) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) for 3 h to afford the products. Antibacterial assays were conducted to determine the potency of conjugates [R?W?K]-levofloxacin-Q and [R?W?K]-levofloxacin against MRSA and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although levofloxacin-Q was inactive even at a concentration of 128 µg/mL, [R?W?K]-levofloxacin-Q conjugate and the corresponding physical mixture showed MIC values of 8 µg/mL and 32 µg/mL against MRSA and Klebsiella pneumonia, respectively, possibly due to the activity of the peptide. On the other hand, [R?W?K]-levofloxacin conjugate (MIC = 32 µg/mL and MIC = 128 µg/mL) and the physical mixture (MIC = 8 µg/mL and 32 µg/mL) was less active than levofloxacin (MIC = 2 µg/mL and 4 = µg/mL) against MRSA and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. The data showed that the conjugation of levofloxacin with [R?W?K] significantly reduced the antibacterial activity compared to the parent analogs, while [R?W?K]-levofloxacin-Q conjugate was more significantly potent than levofloxacin-Q alone.
Project description:Interference with antibiotic activity and its inactivation by bacterial modifying enzymes is a prevailing mode of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Aminoglycoside antibiotics become inactivated by aminoglycoside-6'-N-acetyltransferase-Ib [AAC(6')-Ib] of gram-negative bacteria which transfers an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the antibiotic. The aim of the study was to disrupt the enzymatic activity of AAC(6')-Ib by adjuvants and restore aminoglycoside activity as a result. The binding affinities of several vitamins and chemical compounds with AAC(6')-Ib of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Shigella sonnei were determined by molecular docking method to screen potential adjuvants. Adjuvants having higher binding affinity with target enzymes were further analyzed in-vitro to assess their impact on bacterial growth and bacterial modifying enzyme AAC(6')-Ib activity. Four compounds-zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K-exhibited higher binding affinity to AAC(6')-Ib than the enzyme's natural substrate acetyl-CoA. Combination of each of these adjuvants with three aminoglycoside antibiotics-amikacin, gentamicin and kanamycin-were found to significantly increase the antibacterial activity against the selected bacterial species as well as hampering the activity of AAC(6')-Ib. The selection process of adjuvants and the use of those in combination with aminoglycoside antibiotics promises to be a novel area in overcoming bacterial resistance.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance of bacteria common to the ocular surface is an evolving problem. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. We investigated the antibacterial activity and safety of three commercially available topical veterinary ophthalmic products (cationic steroid antibiotics, products A and B, and a neutral superoxidized water, product C) to determine their potential use as antimicrobial alternatives. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the three products were determined against 17 antibiotic resistant bacterial clinical isolates from the ocular surface. Using a standard cytotoxicity assay, the products at varying concentrations were evaluated with a corneal fibroblast cell line and a macrophage-like cell line to determine their potential toxic effect in vitro. The commercial ophthalmic solutions, ofloxacin 0.3%, tobramycin 0.3% and gentamicin 0.3% were used as positive controls for the MIC and tobramycin 0.3% was used as positive control for the cytotoxicity assays. For the MIC, Product C showed no inhibition of growth for any organisms, while Products A and B showed inhibition of growth similar to slightly less than the positive controls. For the cytotoxicity assays, Product C exhibited minimal toxicity while Products A and B exhibited toxicity similar to the controls. In conclusion, Product C had no antibacterial activity in these assays, while Products A and B had antibacterial profiles similar to slightly less than common topical ophthalmic antibiotics and cytotoxicity profiles similar to common topical ophthalmic antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antibacterial activity and safety of the cationic steroid antibiotics and superoxidized water.
Project description:In order to contribute to the fight against infectious diseases, the in vitro antibacterial activity and the antibiotic-potentiating effects of Tristemma hirtum and five other Cameroonian edible plants have been evaluated against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The microdilution method was used to evaluate the bacterial susceptibility of the extracts and their combination to common antibiotics. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to standard methods. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, steroids, and polyphenols, including flavonoids in most of the tested extracts. The entire tested extracts showed moderate (512??g/mL ? MIC ? 2048??g/mL) to weak (MIC > 2048??g/mL) antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria. Furthermore, extracts of leaf of Tristemma hirtum and pericarps of Raphia hookeri (at their MIC/2 and MIC/4) strongly potentiated the activities of all antibiotics used in the study, especially those of chloramphenicol (CHL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), kanamycin (KAN), and tetracycline (TET) against 70% (7/10) to 100% (10/10) of the tested MDR bacteria, with the modulating factors ranging from 2 to 128. The results of this study suggest that extracts from leaves of Tristemma hirtum and pericarps of Raphia hookeri can be sources of plant-derived products with antibiotic modifying activity.
Project description:Despite continued research efforts, the threat of drug resistance from a variety of bacteria continues to plague clinical communities. Discovery and validation of novel biochemical targets will facilitate development of new drugs to combat these organisms. The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway to make isoprene units is a biosynthetic pathway essential to many bacteria. We and others have explored inhibitors of the MEP pathway as novel antibacterial agents. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, and Yersinia pestis, resulting in the plague or "black death", both rely on the MEP pathway for isoprene production. 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (Dxr) catalyzes the first committed step in the MEP pathway. We examined two series of Dxr inhibitors based on the parent structure of the retrohydroxamate natural product FR900098. The compounds contain either an extended N-acyl or O-linked alkyl/aryl group and are designed to act as bisubstrate inhibitors of the enzyme. While nearly all of the compounds inhibited both Mtb and Yp Dxr to some extent, compounds generally displayed more potent inhibition against the Yp homologue, with the best analogs displaying nanomolar IC50 values. In bacterial growth inhibition assays, the phosphonic acids generally resulted in poor antibacterial activity, likely a reflection of inadequate permeability. Accordingly, diethyl and dipivaloyloxymethyl (POM) prodrug esters of these compounds were made. While the added lipophilicity did not enhance Yersinia activity, the compounds showed significantly improved antitubercular activities. The most potent compounds have Mtb MIC values of 3-12 ?g/mL. Taken together, we have uncovered two series of analogs that potently inhibit Dxr homologues from Mtb and Yp. These inhibitors of the MEP pathway, termed MEPicides, serve as leads for future analog development.
Project description:YM155 is a clinically evaluated anticancer with a fused naphthoquinone-imidazolium scaffold. In this study, we demonstrated that based on weak or cryptic antibacterial activity of YM155 against methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) (MIC of 50 ?g/ml), some congeneric compounds with short alkyl chains (e.g., c5 with a hexyl chain) at the N3 position of the scaffold, displayed more potent antibacterial activity against MRSA (MIC of 3.13 ?g/ml), which is in a clinically achievable range. Their antibacterial activity was evident against Gram-negative bacteria, only in the presence of the outer membrane-permeabilizing agent, polymyxin B. The antibacterial efficacy of c5 was confirmed using the <i>Drosophila</i> systemic infection model. We also characterized five spontaneous c5-resistant MRSA mutants that carry mutations in the <i>ubiE</i> gene, for quinone metabolism and respiratory electron transfer, and subsequently exhibited reduced respiration activity. The antibacterial activity of c5 was compromised either by an antioxidant, <i>N</i>-acetylcysteine, or in an anaerobic condition. These suggest that the antibacterial mechanism of c5 involves the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), presumably during respiratory electron transport. This study provides an insight into "drug redirecting," through a chemical modification, based on an ROS-generating pharmacophore.