The human intestinal microbiota of constipated-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients exhibits anti-inflammatory properties.
ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiota of patients with constipated-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS) displays chronic dysbiosis. Our aim was to determine whether this microbial imbalance instigates perturbation of the host intestinal mucosal immune response, using a model of human microbiota-associated rats (HMAR) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. The analysis of the microbiota composition revealed a decrease of the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Roseburia-Eubacterium rectale and Bifidobacterium and an increase of Enterobacteriaceae, Desulfovibrio sp., and mainly Akkermansia muciniphila in C-IBS patients compared to healthy individuals. The bacterial diversity of the gut microbiota of healthy individuals or C-IBS patients was maintained in corresponding HMAR. Animals harboring a C-IBS microbiota had reduced DSS colitis with a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines from innate, Th1, and Th17 responses. The pre-treatment of conventional C57BL/6 mice or HMAR with A. muciniphila, but not with Escherichia coli, prior exposure to DSS also resulted in a reduction of colitis severity, highlighting that the anti-inflammatory effect of the gut microbiota of C-IBS patients is mediated, in part, by A. muciniphila. This work highlights a novel aspect of the crosstalk between the gut microbiota of C-IBS patients and host intestinal homeostasis.
Project description:Rifaximin, with its low systemic absorption, may represent a treatment of choice for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), mainly due to its ability to act on IBS pathogenesis, through the influence on gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to assess, by biomolecular tools, the rifaximin active modulation exerted on gut microbiota of non-constipated IBS patients. Fifteen non-constipated IBS subjects were treated with 550 mg rifaximin three times a day for 14 days. Stool samples were collected before starting the treatment, at the end of it, and after a 6-week washout period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and next-generation sequencing were applied to all the samples to verify and quantify possible microbial fluctuations. Rifaximin treatment did not affect the overall composition of the microbiota of the treated subjects, inducing fluctuations in few bacterial groups, balanced by the replacement of homologs or complementary bacterial groups. Rifaximin appeared to influence mainly potentially detrimental bacteria, such as Clostridium, but increasing the presence of some species, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. A decrease in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio after 14 days of treatment and bacterial profiles with higher biodiversity were observed during the follow-up compared to baseline. Rifaximin treatment, although effective on IBS symptom relief and normalization of lactulose breath test, did not induce dramatic shifts in the microbiota composition of the subjects, stimulating microbial reorganization in some populations toward a more diverse composition. It was not possible to speculate on differences of fecal microbiota modification between responders vs nonresponders and to correlate the quali-/quantitative modification of upper gastrointestinal microbiota and clinical response.
Project description:The present study aimed to determine if metformin exerts anti-inflammatory and mucus-protective effects via the gut microbiota. Metformin has extensive benefits including anti-inflammatory effects. Previous studies showed that metformin changed the gut microbiota composition and increases the number of goblet cells. Intestinal dysbiosis and goblet cell depletion are important features of ulcerative colitis (UC). The underlying mechanism and whether metformin can improve the mucus barrier in UC remain unclear. Metformin (400 mg/kg/day) was administered to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC for 2 wk to investigate the effects of metformin on the intestinal mucus barrier. The gut microbiota was depleted, using antibiotics, to explore its role in the mucus-protecting effects of metformin. Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila), which was enriched in metformin-treated mice, was administered to mice to investigate the effects of the bacteria on UC and the mucus barrier. Metformin attenuated DSS-induced UC in mice, as evidenced by the alleviation of diarrhea, hematochezia, and the decrease in body weight. The expression of mucin2, a prominent mucus barrier protein, was increased in the metformin-treated group compared to the DSS-treated group. Furthermore, fecal 16S rRNA analysis showed that metformin treatment changed the gut microbiota composition by increasing the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Akkermansia species while decreasing Erysipelatoclostridium at the genus level. Antibiotic treatment partly abolished the anti-inflammatory and mucus-protecting effects of metformin. Administration of A. muciniphila alleviated the colonic inflammation and mucus barrier disruption. Metformin alleviated DSS-induced UC in mice and protected against cell damage via affecting the gut microbiota, thereby providing a new mechanism for the therapeutic effect of metformin in patients with UC. This study also provides evidence that A. muciniphila as a probiotic has potential benefits for UC.
Project description:Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic constipation is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders, yet its etiology is multifactorial, and the pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear. Previous studies have shown that the gut microbiota of constipated patients differs from healthy controls; however, many discrepancies exist in the findings, and no clear link has been confirmed between chronic constipation and changes in the gut microbiota. Growing evidence indicates that age, gender, and hormone levels can affect the composition of gut microbiota. The aim of this study is to examine the overall changes in gut microbiota within a specific sub-population of patients, namely, constipated women of reproductive age.<h4>Methods</h4>We carried out a cross-sectional study comparing the fecal microbial composition of 30 healthy women and 29 constipated women using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Only women of reproductive age were recruited to reduce the effects of age, gender, and hormone levels on the microbiome, and to prevent conflating the impact of these factors with the effects of constipation.<h4>Results</h4>There were obvious differences in the gut microbiota in constipated women of reproductive age compared with the healthy controls, manifesting mainly as a significant increase in the abundance of <i>Bacteroides</i> (p < 0.05) and a significant decrease in the abundance of Proteobacteria (p < 0.01). The overall composition of the gut microbiota in each group was different, which was reflected in the ratios of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B), which was 1.52 in the constipated group vs. 2.21 in the healthy group. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in butyrate-producing bacteria, like <i>Roseburia</i> and <i>Fusicatenibacter</i> (p < 0.01).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The overall composition of the gut microbiota changed in constipated women of reproductive age, characterized by a loss in Proteobacteria and an increase in Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, the abundance of some butyrate-producing bacteria also reduced. These changes may reflect the unique interactions between host and some bacteria, or some bacterial metabolic products, which may be important targets for future studies to explore the pathogenesis of constipation.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) develop as a result of complex interactions among genes, innate immunity and environmental factors, which are related to the gut microbiota. Multiple clinical and animal data have shown that Akkermansia muciniphila is associated with a healthy mucosa. However, its precise role in colitis is currently unknown. Our study aimed to determine its protective effects and underlying mechanisms in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Twenty-four C57BL/6 male mice were administered A. muciniphila MucT or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) once daily by oral gavage for 14 days. Colitis was induced by drinking 2% DSS from days 0 to 6, followed by 2 days of drinking normal water. Mice were weighed daily and then sacrificed on day 8. We found that A. muciniphila improved DSS-induced colitis, which was evidenced by reduced weight loss, colon length shortening and histopathology scores and enhanced barrier function. Serum and tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-?, IL1?, IL6, IL12A, MIP-1A, G-CSF, and KC) decreased as a result of A. muciniphila administration. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences showed that A. muciniphila induced significant gut microbiota alterations. Furthermore, correlation analysis indicated that pro-inflammatory cytokines and other injury factors were negatively associated with Verrucomicrobia, Akkermansia, Ruminococcaceae, and Rikenellaceae, which were prominently abundant in A. muciniphila-treated mice. We confirmed that A. muciniphila treatment could ameliorate mucosal inflammation either via microbe-host interactions, which protect the gut barrier function and reduce the levels of inflammatory cytokines, or by improving the microbial community. Our findings suggest that A. muciniphila may be a potential probiotic agent for ameliorating colitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Severity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated to impaired quality of life and fatigue. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) induces significant relief in gastro-intestinal related complaints. The objective was to evaluate the effect of FMT on the secondary endpoints: IBS-related quality of life and fatigue in patients with non-constipated IBS. METHOD:In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center study, we enrolled patients with non-constipated IBS, defined by the ROME 3 criteria. We randomly assigned participants (2:1) in blocks of six to active or placebo FMT. Responder in fatigue and quality of life were defined as a decrease of 20 points in total Fatigue Impact Scale score, and improvement of 14 points in the IBS-quality of life questionnaire, respectively. In a modified-intention-to-treat population, we excluded participants who did not undergo treatment or who were diagnosed with any other disease by pinch biopsies during the treatment procedure. FINDINGS:Between Jan1, and Oct 30, 2015, we recruited 90 participants and randomly assigned them to active treatment (n = 60) or placebo (n = 30). Three participants did not undergo FMT and four were excluded after diagnosis of microscopic colitis, leaving 83 for final modified intention-to-treat analysis (55 in the active treatment group and 28 in the placebo group). Significant improvement in QoL (Odds ratio (OR) 3,801; confidence interval (CI) = 1,309-11,042 p = 0.011) and fatigue (OR = 4,398; CI = 1,175-16,468 and p = 0,020) was found at six months. Absence of other self reported functional disorders and presence of depression at baseline is suggested to predict a lasting effect of FMT in QoL and fatigue, respectively. INTERPRETATION:FMT induced significant relief in quality of life and fatigue. Results suggest a lasting effect of FMT in subgroups that should be further investigated in future studies. Funding Helse Nord, Norway and the Norwegian Centre of Rural Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway.
Project description:Akkermansia muciniphila is potential probiotic in that its type strain ATCC BAA-835 has beneficial effects upon obesity and diabetes. However, whether A. muciniphila can improve inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which is a form of chronic intestinal dysbiosis, is unknown. Hence, we used an isolated murine A. muciniphila strain (designated 139) and A. muciniphila type strain ATCC, to investigate their anti-inflammatory properties in cell models and in Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis of mice. In vitro, the two A. muciniphila strains exerted similar anti-inflammatory properties as they both reduced IL-8 production by TNF-?-stimulated HT-29 cells. However, neither of the strains showed capacity to increase the differentiation of regulatory T (Treg)-cells from CD4+ T cell populations significantly. In vivo, both A. muciniphila strains exerted anti-inflammatory effects on chronic colitis as they improved clinical parameters including spleen weight, colon inflammation index, and colon histological score. They also down-regulated the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-? and IFN-? in the colon of mice. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of strain ATCC were stronger than strain 139 in that ATCC significantly reduced spleen weight, colon inflammation index, and fecal lipocalin-2 content in mice with chronic colitis, while strain 139 was not. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota was observed in mice with chronic colitis. Both A. muciniphila strains facilitated the normalization of the gut microbiota. The specific capacity of strain ATCC to modulate the differentiation of Tregs as well as increase production of short chain fatty acids, demonstrated strain-specific characteristics for these two A. muciniphila strains. This study suggests the potential beneficial effect of A. muciniphila on IBD and the importance of the future study of the function of A. muciniphila at the strain-level.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disorders can be associated with alterations in gut microbiota (dysbiosis) and behavioral disturbances. In experimental colitis, administration of fish oil (FO) or cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), reduce inflammation. We investigated the effect of combined FO/CBD administration on inflammation and dysbiosis in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of mouse colitis, which also causes behavioral disturbances. Colitis was induced in CD1 mice by 4% w/v DSS in drinking water for five consecutive days followed by normal drinking water. FO (20-75 mg/mouse) was administered once a day starting two days after DSS, whereas CBD (0.3-30 mg/kg), alone or after FO administration, was administered once a day starting 3 days after DSS, until day 8 (d8) or day 14 (d14). Inflammation was assessed at d8 and d14 (resolution phase; RP) by measuring the Disease Activity Index (DAI) score, change in body weight, colon weight/length ratio, myeloperoxidase activity and colonic interleukin (IL)-1? (IL-1?), IL-10, and IL-6 concentrations. Intestinal permeability was measured with the fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. Behavioral tests (novel object recognition (NOR) and light/dark box test) were performed at d8. Fecal microbiota composition was determined by ribosomal 16S DNA sequencing of faecal pellets at d8 and d14. DSS-induced inflammation was stronger at d8 and accompanied by anxiety-like behavior and impaired recognition memory. FO (35, 50, 75 mg/mouse) alone reduced inflammation at d8, whereas CBD alone produced no effect at any of the doses tested; however, when CBD (3, 10 mg/kg) was co-administered with FO (75 mg/mouse) inflammation was attenuated. FO (20 mg/mouse) and CBD (1 mg/kg) were ineffective when given alone, but when co-administered reduced all inflammatory markers and the increased intestinal permeability at both d8 and d14, but not the behavioral impairments. FO, CBD, and their combination affected gut bacteria taxa that were not affected by DSS per se. Akkermansia muciniphila, a species suggested to afford anti-inflammatory action in colitis, was increased by DSS only at d14, but its levels were significantly elevated by all treatments at d8. FO and CBD co-administered at per se ineffective doses reduce colon inflammation, in a manner potentially strengthened by their independent elevation of Akkermansia muciniphila.
Project description:Akkermansia muciniphila has been proved to play a crucial role in the progression of colitis, but its underlying mechanism remains inconclusive. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of <i>A. muciniphila</i> on the development of acute colitis and explore the underlying mechanism. We found that the fecal level of <i>A. muciniphila</i> was decreased in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients compared to the healthy people in the GMrepo database. Oral administration of <i>A. muciniphila</i> strain BAA-835 significantly ameliorated the symptoms in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis, evidenced by decreased body weight loss, colon length shortening, and colon histological inflammatory score. In addition, the number of goblet cells and the mucin family were enhanced after <i>A. muciniphila</i> treatment. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) had a downward trend. Mechanistically, the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 p20, and IL-1β p17 were upregulated in <i>A. muciniphila</i>-treated mice. Additionally, the colon tissues from high-<i>A. muciniphila</i> UC patients had a higher NLRP3 expression than that from low-<i>A. muciniphila</i> UC patients. Moreover, the upregulation of NLRP3 was observed in mouse macrophage Raw264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cells after incubation with <i>A. muciniphila</i>. To clarify whether the protective effect of <i>A. muciniphila</i> in colitis depends on NLRP3, we performed the NLRP3-deficient assay in NLRP3<sup>-/-</sup> mice <i>in vivo</i>. The evidence showed that NLRP3 deficiency eliminated the protective effects of <i>A. muciniphila</i> in acute colitis. In conclusion, <i>A. muciniphila</i> alleviates DSS-induced acute colitis by NLRP3 activation, which enriches the mechanism and provides a new prospect for the probiotic-based treatment of colitis. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> The gut microbiota and host immune response interaction influences the progression of intestinal inflammatory disease. As a well-recognized next-generation probiotic, Akkermansia muciniphila has been proved to play a crucial role in the progression of colitis, but its underlying mechanism remains inconclusive. We found that oral administration of <i>A. muciniphila</i> strain BAA-835 significantly ameliorated the symptoms of acute colitis. Mechanistically, the expression of NLRP3 was upregulated in the <i>A. muciniphila</i> group, and the protective effect of <i>A. muciniphila</i> in colitis depends on NLRP3 activation. This enriches the mechanism and provides a new prospect for the probiotic-based treatment of colitis, which would promote a deeper understanding of the complex characteristics of <i>A. muciniphila</i> and provide guidance for the treatment of human colitis in the future.
Project description:In this study, the self-extracted constipation treatment of traditional Chinese medicine extracts was applied to constipated rats. To explore the mechanism and role of the Chinese medicine for the treatment of constipation, the 16S rRNA sequencing and qRT-PCR technology were used to analyze the intestinal flora. We found that the relative abundance of Firmicutes with constipation was significantly higher accounted for 86.7%, while the gut microbiota was significantly changed after taking a certain dose of Chinese medicine, greatly increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus accounted for 23.1%, enhanced the symbiotic relationships of Lactobacillus with other intestinal flora. The total copies of intestinal bacteria in the constipated rats decreased after taking the traditional Chinese medicine. Finally, this study results provides a theoretical basis for the treatment and understand the mechanism and effect of traditional Chinese medicine on rate constipation.