Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults.
ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests physical activity (PA) is associated with cognitive function. To overcome limitations of self-report PA measures, this study investigated the association of accelerometer-measured PA with incident cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognition among older adults.Participants were recruited from the cohort study Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke in the United States. Accelerometers provided PA measures, including the percentage of total accelerometer wearing time spent in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA%), light-intensity PA, and sedentary time for four to seven consecutive days at baseline. Cognitive impairment was defined by the Six-Item Screener. Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall) were conducted to assess executive function and memory.Participants (N = 6452, 69.7 ± 8.5 yr, 55.3% women, 30.5% Black) with usable accelerometer and cognition measures spent extremely limited time in MVPA (1.5% ± 1.9% of accelerometer wearing time). During an average of 3 yr of follow-up, 346 cases of incident cognitive impairment were observed. After adjustments, participants in higher MVPA% quartiles had a lower risk of cognitive impairment (i.e., quartile 2: odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-0.84) and better maintenance in executive function (?0.03 z-score units) and memory (?0.12 z-score units) compared with quartile 1 (P < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed the same association among White adults, but higher MVPA% was associated with better maintenance of only memory among Black adults. No significance was found for light-intensity PA or sedentary time.There was a dose-response relationship between MVPA% and cognitive function in older adults, with higher levels associated with a 36% or lower risk of cognitive impairment and better maintenance of memory and executive function over time, particularly in White adults.
Project description:Normative changes in cognitive function are expected with increasing age. Research on the relationship between normative cognitive decline and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SED) needs further investigation in Hispanic/Latinos adults. We assessed the cross-sectional association between accelerometer assessed MVPA and SED with cognitive function in 7,478 adults aged 45-74years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. At baseline, cognitive tests included two executive function tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a test of language (Word Fluency), and a test of memory (Spanish English Verbal Learning Test). Multiple regression models were used to examine associations of time spent in MVPA and SED with cognitive function by age groups, adjusted for age, education, sex, acculturation, and field center. Mean time spent in sedentary behaviors was 12.3h/day in females and 11.9 h/day in males (75% and 77% of accelerometer wear time, respectively). Higher SED, but not MVPA, was associated with lower DSST raw scores (? -0.03 with each 10-min increment in SED; P<0.05), indicating lower performance in executive function in all age groups. No associations were observed for MVPA and SED with tests of language or memory tests. Our findings suggest a distinct association of SED but not MVPA on executive functioning in middle-aged and older Latino adults. Longitudinal studies are needed to more conclusively determine causal links.
Project description:Self-report data suggests a large proportion of total physical activity (PA) occurs at work. However, adults with higher levels of occupational PA may compensate by engaging in less non-occupational PA. The study aims were to 1) estimate the intensity, volume, and duration of PA in American adults that occurs at work, and 2) determine if those more active at work are less active outside of work. A cross-sectional sample of full-time employed adults (N = 510) was recruited from Georgia city and county governments in 2013-2015. Participants wore an Actigraph GT3X + accelerometer for two weeks. In 2016, for 442 participants with complete data including work schedules and self-reported job titles, accelerometer wear minutes were classified as either occupational or non-occupational, and as sedentary, LPA (light-intensity PA), or MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA). The proportion of daily PA that occurred during work was 41.2% for total PA, 41.0% for LPA, and 39.5% for MVPA. Higher levels of occupational LPA were associated with lower levels of non-occupational LPA (r = - 0.38, P < 0.0001). However, higher levels of occupational MVPA were associated with higher levels of non-occupational MVPA (r = 0.17, P < 0.0001). These associations remained significant in a MANOVA adjusting for labor sector and other covariates. On average, employed adults get more LPA and MVPA outside of work. Adults who do more occupational MVPA do not compensate by doing less non-occupational MVPA. In contrast, adults who do more occupational LPA do compensate by doing less non-occupational LPA. Evaluations of interventions to reduce sedentary behavior should be designed to detect compensation effects.
Project description:Background:International guidelines for physical activity recommend at least 150?min per week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for adults, including those with cardiac disease. There is yet to be consensus on the most appropriate way to categorise raw accelerometer data into behaviourally relevant metrics such as intensity, especially in chronic disease populations. Therefore the aim of this study was to estimate acceleration values corresponding to inactivity and MVPA during daily living activities of patients with heart failure (HF), via calibration with oxygen consumption (VO2) and to compare these values to previously published, commonly applied PA intensity thresholds which are based on healthy adults. Methods:Twenty-two adults with HF (mean age 71?±?14?years) undertook a range of daily living activities (including laying down, sitting, standing and walking) whilst measuring PA via wrist- and hip-worn accelerometers and VO2 via indirect calorimetry. Raw accelerometer output was used to compute PA in units of milligravity (mg). Energy expenditure across each of the activities was converted into measured METs (VO2/resting metabolic rate) and standard METs (VO2/3.5?ml/kg/min). PA energy costs were also compared with predicted METs in the compendium of physical activities. Location specific activity intensity thresholds were established via multilevel mixed effects linear regression and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. A leave-one-out method was used to cross-validate the thresholds. Results:Accelerometer values corresponding with intensity thresholds for inactivity (<?1.5METs) and MVPA (?3.0METs) were?>?50% lower than previously published intensity thresholds for both wrists and waist accelerometers (inactivity: 16.7 to 18.6?mg versus 45.8?mg; MVPA: 43.1 to 49.0?mg versus 93.2 to 100?mg). Measured METs were higher than both standard METs (34-35%) and predicted METs (45-105%) across all standing and walking activities. Conclusion:HF specific accelerometer intensity thresholds for inactivity and MVPA are lower than previously published thresholds based on healthy adults, due to lower resting metabolic rate and greater energy expenditure during daily living activities for HF patients. Trial registration:Clinical trials.gov NCT03659877, retrospectively registered on September 6th 2018.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Physical activity (PA) may play a role in maintenance of cognitive function in both middle and older ages and prevention of outcomes such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.<h4>Methods</h4>Cross-sectional regression analyses were performed in Framingham Heart Study Third Generation (n = 1861) and Offspring (n = 909) cohort participants assessing the association of accelerometry-measured PA with cognitive function, adjusting for age, sex, accelerometer wear time, education, occupational status/PA, and smoking status.<h4>Results</h4>In each cohort, achieving just 10-21.4 min/day moderate-to-vigorous PA related to better executive function (<i>P</i> < .02); and just 10 min/day moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with better verbal memory in middle-aged adults in the Third Generation cohort (<i>P</i> = .02). In older adults of the Offspring cohort, total PA (measured in steps/day) was associated with better executive function (<i>P</i> < .02).<h4>Discussion</h4>PA at levels lower than the current PA Guidelines (just 10 min/day moderate-to-vigorous PA and total PA including lower intensity PA) were associated with better cognitive function.
Project description:Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) may reduce arterial stiffness. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of change in PA on 1-year change in arterial stiffness in 274 overweight/obese sedentary young adults. The Slow Adverse Vascular Effects of excess weight (SAVE) trial was a study evaluating the relationships between weight loss, dietary sodium, and vascular health. PA was measured with the ActiGraph AM7164 accelerometer. Intensity of activity was determined using established cut-points. Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) using an automated device. Analysis of covariance compared changes in total accelerometer counts, minutes/day in light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time, by categories of change in baPWV. Models were adjusted for time since baseline visit, age, sex, race, homeostatis model of assessment of insulin resistance, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and weight change. Total accelerometer counts and time spent in MVPA increased from baseline to 12 months while time spent in LPA significantly decreased. Mean baPWV was similar at each time point. Those who showed decreased baPWV also showed an increase in total accelerometer counts per day and time spent in MVPA in the fully adjusted models (p<0.001). Changes in sedentary time and time spent in LPA were not associated with changes in baPWV. These results indicate that even modest increases in MVPA can reduce arterial stiffness, a risk factor for future cardiovascular events.
Project description:When assessing population adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendation using accelerometers, absolute intensity threshold definition is applied despite having limited validity in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), who are unable to reach them (e.g older adults). Thus, PA thresholds relative to CRF may be an alternative approach. We compared the proportion of the older adults meeting the PA recommendation when PA is assessed using absolute versus sex-and-CRF-adjusted (relative) accelerometer thresholds and determined the association between relative versus absolute moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS).Cross-sectional study of 509 men and 567 women aged 70-77. Accelerometer assessed MPA, VPA and MVPA were analyzed using absolute and relative thresholds. Meeting the PA-recommendation was defined as amounting ?150 min/week in MPA/MVPA or 75 min/week in VPA, respectively. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). MetS was defined as 3 or more of the following: elevated waist circumference, fasting glucose, hypertension, triglycerides, decreased HDL-cholesterol or diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension medication.Higher proportion of the population met the recommendation when PA was assessed with relative compared to absolute thresholds: VPA (72.4% vs. 1.7%) and MVPA (75.2% vs. 33.8%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that men and women not meeting the relative-MVPA or VPA recommendation had higher likelihood of MetS (Men: MVPA OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.08-220.127.116.11, 95%CI: 1.23-2.67 and Women: MVPA OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.36-3.31; VPA OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.29-2.95), compared to men and women meeting the relative MVPA or VPA recommendation. There was no significant association between MetS and absolute MVPA, MPA or VPA recommendations in the fully adjusted model.The association between meeting/not meeting the PA recommendation and MetS differed with method. Not meeting relative MVPA and VPA recommendation was associated with significantly higher likelihood for presence of MetS. Since relative intensity is part of the current PA recommendation, it should be considered when assessing population PA and associated health risks in the older adults.Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01931111 (Date of trial registration: July 19, 2013).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To parameterize and validate two existing algorithms for identifying out-of-bed time using 24?h hip-worn accelerometer data from older women. APPROACH:Overall, 628 women (80??±??6 years old) wore ActiGraph GT3X+??accelerometers 24?h d-1 for up to 7 d and concurrently completed sleep-logs. Trained staff used a validated visual analysis protocol to measure in-bed periods on accelerometer tracings (criterion). The Tracy and McVeigh algorithms were adapted for optimal use in older adults. A training set of 314 women was used to choose two key thresholds by maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity for each algorithm and data (vertical axis, VA, and vector magnitude [VM]) combination. Data from the remaining 314 women were then used to test agreement in waking wear time (i.e. out-of-bed time while wearing the accelerometer) by computing sensitivity, specificity, and kappa comparing the algorithm output with the criterion. Waking wear time-adjusted means of sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity (light PA) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were then estimated and compared. MAIN RESULTS:Waking wear time agreement with the criterion was high for Tracy_VA, Tracy_VM, McVeigh_VA, and highest for McVeigh_VM. Compared to the criterion, McVeigh_VM had mean sensitivity??=??0.92, specificity??=??0.87, kappa??=??0.80, and overall mean difference (±SD) of??-0.04??±??2.5?h d-1. Minutes of sedentary time, light PA, and MVPA adjusted for waking wear time using the criterion measure and McVeigh_VM were not statistically different (p???>??0.43|all). SIGNIFICANCE:The McVeigh algorithm with optimal parameters using VM performed best compared to criterion sleep-log assisted visual analysis and is suitable for automated identification of waking wear time in older women when visual analysis is not feasible.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accelerometers are widely used to assess child physical activity (PA) levels. Using the accelerometer data, several PA metrics can be estimated. Knowledge about the relationships between these different metrics can improve our understanding of children's PA behavioral patterns. It also has significant implications for comparing PA metrics across studies and fitting a statistical model to examine their health effects. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among the metrics derived from accelerometers in children. METHODS:Accelerometer data from 24,316 children aged 5 to 18 years were extracted from the International Children's Accelerometer Database (ICAD) 2.0. Correlation coefficients between wear time, sedentary behavior (SB), light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-intensity PA (MPA), vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), and total activity counts (TAC) were calculated. RESULTS:TAC was approximately 22X103 counts higher (p < 0.01) with longer wear time (13 to 18 h/day) as compared to shorter wear time (8 to < 13 h/day), while MVPA was similar across the wear time categories. MVPA was very highly correlated with TAC (r = .91; 99% CI = .91 to .91). Wear time-adjusted correlation between SB and LPA was also very high (r = -.96; 99% CI = -.96, - 95). VPA was moderately correlated with MPA (r = .58; 99% CI = .57, .59). CONCLUSIONS:TAC is mostly explained by MVPA, while it could be more dependent on wear time, compared to MVPA. MVPA appears to be comparable across different wear durations and studies when wear time is ≥8 h/day. Due to the moderate to high correlation between some PA metrics, potential collinearity should be addressed when including multiple PA metrics together in statistical modeling.
Project description:Background: Physical activity (PA) of higher intensity and longer duration mainly accumulates from older adults' out-of-home activities. Outdoor PA is influenced by environmental features; however, the day-to-day variability of PA and its associations with environmental features have not been widely studied. This study focused on the associations of environmental features with accelerometer-measured PA in older people on weekdays and weekend days. Methods: The study population comprised 167 community-dwelling older people aged 75-90 years. Accelerometers were worn on 7 consecutive days and a structured interview on physical functioning, health, and socioeconomic factors was administered. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to assess environmental features within a distance of 500 (number of land types, road network slope, intersection, and residential densities) or 1,000 m (habitat diversity within natural and green areas) from participants' homes. Accelerometer-based PA [number of PA bouts >10 min and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] was analyzed for weekdays and weekend days separately. Associations between environmental features and PA were analyzed using linear regression models. Results: Participants accumulated on average 0.60 PA bouts and 34.2 MVPA minutes on weekdays and 0.50 PA bouts and 31.5 MVPA minutes on weekend days. Especially participants with low overall PA were less active at weekends. Habitat diversity in natural and green areas, intersection density, and residential density were positively associated with numbers of PA bouts and MVPA minutes on weekdays. Moreover, more diversity in natural and green areas was associated with more MVPA minutes on weekend days. A higher road network slope was negatively associated with the number of PA bouts throughout the week and with MVPA minutes on weekend days. Conclusions: Environmental features close to home, especially PA-supportive infrastructural features and services, were more strongly associated with weekday than weekend PA. This suggests that older people's out-of-home activities, typically conducted on weekdays, are related to service use. However, greater diversity of natural areas close to home seemed to motivate older adults to engage in higher MVPA throughout the week.
Project description:This study describes baseline physical activity (PA) patterns of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) enrolled in the multicenter Look AHEAD Study using an objective measure of PA (accelerometry).A total of 2240 participants (age = 59.0 ± 6.8 yr and body mass index (BMI) = 36.5 ± 6.0 kg·m?²) with T2DM provided data for this substudy. Participants were instructed to wear an accelerometer during waking hours for 7 d. Accelerometry data were analyzed to identify periods meeting the criteria of ?3 MET·min?¹ for Q10 min(moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA)) and ?6 MET·min?¹ for ?10 min (vigorous-intensity PA (VPA)). Self-reported PA was also assessed with a questionnaire. Accelerometry and self-reported PA data were compared across categories of BMI, sex, race, age, fitness, diabetes medication usage, and history of cardiovascular disease.Self-reported PA was lower at higher levels of BMI, was higher in males, was lowest for African-American/black, and was positively associated with fitness. Multivariate analyses for accelerometer-measured MVPA and VPA showed that more PA bouts per day, minutes per bout, METs per minute, and MET-minutes were associated with higher fitness. For MVPA, bouts per day were higher in men, and METs per minute were higher in women. For VPA, bouts per day was positively associated with increasing age and differed by race/ethnicity. METs per minute were significantly lower at higher levels of BMI and in women. Diabetes medication usage and history of cardiovascular disease were not associated with patterns of PA examined.Results provide information on factors that contribute to PA patterns in adults with T2DM when PA is assessed using both objective and subjective measures. These data may inform interventions to improve PA in adults with T2DM